Akten zur Geschichte des Krimkriegs, Serie I Österreichische Akten zur Geschichte des Krimkriegs, Band 2, 30. März 1854 bis 9. September 1855. Compiled by Werner Zürrer. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich, Vienna, 1980.


Field Marshal Hess on the Austrian Deployment to the Danubian Principalities, August 1854.

Nr. 152. Hess to Emperor Francis Joseph.

Kriegsarchiv, Feldakten Oberkommando III./IV. Armee, 1854/8/84. Most respectful report. Reviewed draft. Marginal notation: "Read by Feldmarschalleutnant Kellner."

Most Gracious Sovereign!

In regard to the arrangements I have made consequent to the recent political turn of events, I make the following most respectful report:

Of the 2nd Infantry Army Corps, one division remains in Krakow, and the other will be transferred to Przmysl and the surrounding area. Each of these divisions is using 5000 men to work on the fortifications of the places mentioned.

Of the 4th Infantry Army Corps, one division will be left in Lemberg, but two divisions remain temporarily in the direction of Zolkiew, Zloczow, and Brzezan, where they have already arrived. The 10th Infantry Corps and 2nd Cavalry Corps have for the most part marched into the last named place, and it will be that the first of these corps will occupy the eastern part of Galicia in the Tarnopol and Czortkow districts up to the Dniester, while the cavalry corps will be set up in the region of the 4th and 10th Corps.

The 3rd Army headquarters will be ordered to deploy the 11th and 12th Corps and 1st Cavalry Corps--which have already crossed the Galician border--in the Kolomea, Stanislau, and Stry districts, so that the Dniester forms the boundary between the two armies. [Crossed out in the original there follows: "while if necessary the 3rd Army can also extend back towards Stry."]

The 9th Corps and the three brigades of the Serbia-Banat Corps designated for Bukovina were halted in their march, and the 3rd Army's high command was ordered to deploy the 9th Army Corps in the Siebenburgen in such a way that it serves as a reserve both for the army in Galicia and for the Serbia-Banat Corps that is marching into the Danube principalities.

Of the last named corps, I have ordered the three brigades of Marocic, Blumencron, and Augustin to be posted in Györgyö, Sz. Miklos, Asik Czenda, and Kezdy Vasarhely so that if necessary they can be marched into Moldavia, while Macchio's division was ordered to Hermannstadt and Burlo's brigade to Kronstadt so that they could move into Walachia after the way is opened by ongoing preparations by Maj. Gen. Papovic and Lieut. Col. Kalik at the Turkish headquarters. Thereupon Feldmarschalleutnant Macchio will move Jelacic's brigade to Krajova and Schwarzl's brigade to Bucharest, while Burlo's brigade will only follow into Greater Walachia once the Russians have completely evacuated the country.

As for Feldmarschalleutnant Graf Coronini, I have told him to temporarily take his headquarters to Kezdy Vasarhely, and then later when Moldavia is occupied to move to Jassy. I have picked Feldmarschalleutnant Alleman to be Commandant of Troops in Walachia and submit the most humble petition to Your Majesty that you most graciously deign to transfer him to the Serbia-Banat Corps, and Feldmarschalleutnant Wolff to the 9th Army Corps.

The organization and assignments for the Serbia-Banat Corps' forthcoming occupation of the Danube principalities will be done as follows, for which I respectfully request All-Highest sanction from Your Majesty:

Feldmarschalleutnant Coronini will have overall command of all the troops from his corps that enter the principalities. The division in Moldavia will be under Feldmarschalleutnant Graf Paar and consist of the three brigades of Marocic, Blumencron, and Augustin (Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian's Lancer Regiment will be with this last brigade). In Greater Walachia, the brigades of Burlo and Schwarzl will come under Feldmarschalleutnant Allemann, while in Lesser Walachia Jelacic's brigade will be under Feldmarschalleutnant Macchio. Archduke Carl's Lancer Regiment No. 3 will be assigned to the three brigades in Walachia. Under the orders of Feldmarschalleutnant Allemann, Feldmarschalleutnant Macchio will have command of the troops in Lesser Walachia and also be in charge of this province's military administration.

At this time I am awaiting detailed reports resulting from my orders and will not delay in bringing to Your Majesty's All-Highest attention future detailed dispositions of both the armies under me. Along with this, I permit myself to most respectfully note that after the complete occupation of the Danube principalities I contemplate stationing the army in Galicia over the whole country in the most convenient manner with some units even being to the south in Hungary.

Finally, may I respectfully notify Your Majesty that-if special circumstances do not intervene-on the evening of the 14th of this month I plan on leaving through Krakow and Lemberg to go to Czernowitz. There I will begin new arrangements in accordance with Your Majesty's All-Highest orders to me.



Notes on names:

Florian Freiherr von Macchio (1802-1895), Austrian officer.

Johann Baptist Alexius Graf Coronini-Cronberg (1794-1880), Austrian army commander, 1850 military and civilian governor of the Banat and Voivodina, 1854-56 commandant of the occupation troops in the Danube principalities.

Timotheus von Popovic (1795-1867), Austrian officer, fought in Italy 1848/49 as a colonel, then stationed in the Banat; 1854/55 town commandant of Bucharest, promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant in 1857.

Wilhelm Freiherr von Aleman (1798-1881), Austrian general, in Italy 1848/49; 1850-54 Feldmarschalleutnant and commandant of the Marie Theresa Military Academy; afterwards Regimentskommandant in Bucharest, 1856 commander of the 10th Corps, 1859-66 commandant of Venice.

Karl Joseph Freiherr Wolff von Wachau (1790-1875), Austrian officer, 1840 ennobled as a major; in November 1853 promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant, fortress commandant in Temesvár.

Alfred Graf Paar (1806-1885), Austrian officer, Feldmarschalleutnant since 1853.

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Translated by Mark Conrad, 2000.