OF THE CLOTHING AND
ARMS OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY
Compiled by Highest direction
Saint Petersburg, Military Typography Office, 1851
[TRANSLATED BY MARK CONRAD, 2011]
Irregular Troops and Temporary Forces.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
2425. Cossacks. Don Host, 1801-1809.
2426. Officer. Don Host, 1801-1804.
2427. Cossack. Don Host, 1801-1809.
2428. Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik]. Don Host, 1801-1809.
2429. Officer. Don Host, 1801-1804.
2430. Cossack and Non-Commissioned Officer. Don Ataman Cossack Regiment, 1801-1809.
2431. Officers. Don Host, 1801-1804.
2432. Officers. Don Host, 1801-1809.
2433. Officers’ coat embroidery for the Don Host, established 14 January 1804.
2434. General. Don Host, 1809-1812.
2435. Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer. Don Host, 1809-1812.
2436. Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer. Don Host, 1812-1814.
2437. Field and Company-Grade Officers. Don Host, 1814-1815.
2438. General. Don Host, 1814-1825.
2439. Cossack. Don Ataman Cossack Regiment, 1814-1819.
2440. Field-Grade Officer. Don Host, 1815-1819.
2441. Company-Grade Officer. Don Ataman Cossack Regiment, 1816-1819.
2442. Cossack, Don Ataman Cossack Regiment, and Field-Grade Officer, Don Host. 1819-1825.
2443. Non-Commissioned Officer and Cossack. Don Cossack Artillery, 1816-1817.
2444. Cossack. Don Cossack Artillery, 1817-1819.
2445. Company-Grade Officers. Don Cossack Artillery, 1817-1819.
2446. Non-Commissioned Officer. Don Cossack Artillery, 1819-1825.
2447. Cossack and Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik]. Black Sea Host, 1816-1820.
2448. Field-Grade Officer. Black Sea Host, 1816-1820.
2449. Cossack. Black Sea Host, 1822-1825.
2450. Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik] and Company-Grade Officer. Black Sea Host, 1816-1820.
2451. Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik] and Cossack. Caucasian Cossack Artillery, 1817-1825.
2452. Officer. Caucasian Cossack Artillery, 1817-1825.
2453. Cossack and Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik]. Astrakhan Cossack Host, 1817-1825.
2454. Company-Grade Officer. Astrakhan Cossack Host, 1817-1825.
2455. Private. Kalmuck Regiments, 1812-1825.
2456. Officer. Kalmuck Regiments, 1812-1814.
2457. Field-Grade Officer. Kalmuck Regiments, 1812-1825.
2458. Officer and Cossack. Chuguev Cossack Regiment, 1803-1808.
2459. Cossack and Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik]. Bug Cossack Host, 1803-1812.
2460. Officer. Bug Cossack Host, 1803-1812.
2461. Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik]. Bug Cossack Host, 1812-1817.
2462. Company-Grade Officer. Bug Cossack Regiment, 1815-1817.
2463. Cossack. 1st Ukrainian Cossack Regiment, 1812-1815.
2464. Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik].of the 1st and Company-Grade Officer of the 2nd Ukrainian Cossack Regiments, 1812-1815.
2465. Cossack of the 3rd and Company-Grade Officer of the 4th Ukrainian Cossack Regiments, 1812-1815.
2466. Company-Grade Officer of the 1st and Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik].of the 14th Ukrainian Cossack Regiments, 1815-1817.
2467. Officer and Cossack. Ural Cossack Host, 1801-1806.
2468. Officer and Cossack. Ural Cossack Host, 1806-1812.
2469. Company-Grade Officer. Ural Cossack Host, 1817-1825.
2470. Officer and Cossack. Orenburg Permanent Cossack Regiment, 1803-1808.
2471. Officer. Orenburg Permanent Cossack Regiment, 1808-1809.
2472. Company-Grade Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik]. Orenburg Cossack Artillery, 1821-1825.
2473. Private. Teptyar Regiments, 1819-1825.
2474. Cossack. Siberian Line Cossack Host, 1808-1812.
2475. Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik]. Siberian Line Cossack Host, 1808-1812.
2476. Lance pennants for cossack regiments of the Siberian Line Cossack Host, granted in 1812. 1st Regiment. 2nd Regiment. 3rd Regiment. 4th Regiment. 5th Regiment.
2477. 6th Regiment. 7th Regiment. 8th Regiment. 9th Regiment. 10th Regiment.
2478. Cossacks. Siberian Line Cossack Host, 1812-1825.
2749. Company-Grade Officer, Senior and Junior Non-Commissioned Officers [Starshii i Mladshii Uryadniki]. Siberian Line Cossack Host, 1812-1825.
2480. Reserve Cossack. Siberian Line Cossack Host, 1812-1825.
2481. Cossack and Company-Grade Officer. Siberian Line Cossack Artillery, 1816-1825
2482. Cossack. Verkhneudinsk Cossack Command, 1801-1815.
2483. Cossack. Verkhneudinsk Cossack Command, 1815-1820.
2484. Cossack. Verkhneudinsk. Cossack Command, 1820-1824.
2485. Cossacks. Irkutsk Cossack Regiment, 1813-1825.
2486. Officer and Cossack. Irkutsk Cossack Command, 1818-1824.
2487. Cossack. Town Cossack Regiments of Western Siberia: Tobolsk, Siberian Tatar, and Tomsk, 1824-1825.
2488. Senior Non-Commissioned Officer and Cossack. Town Cossack Regiments of Eastern Siberia: Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, Trans-Baikal, and Yakutsk, 1824-1825.
2489. Cossack. Station Commands under the Troitsko-Savsk Border Chancellry, 1824-1825.
2490. Flag granted to the Don Host in 1803.
2491. Don Host Flag, granted in 1803.
2492. Don Host Flag, granted in 1803.
2493. Flag of the Don Host, granted in 1803.
2494. Don Host Flag [Znachek], granted in 1803.
2495. Don Host Standards [Bunchuki], granted in 1803.
2496. Novocherkask city coat-of-arms, granted in 1803.
2497. Flag of Khanzhenkov’s Don Cossack Regiment, granted in 1807. Note: An identical flag was granted at the same time to Sysoev’s Don Regiment.
2498. Don Host Flag, granted in 1811.
2499. Flag of the Don Host Ataman’s Regiment, granted in 1814.
2500. Standard [Bunchuk] of the Don Host Ataman Regiment, granted in 1814.
2501. Flag of Dyachkin’s Don Cossack Regiment, granted in 1816.
2502. Don Host Flag, granted in 1817.
2503. Flag of Zhirov’s Don Cossack Regiment, granted in 1821. Note: The same Flags were granted at the same time to the regiments of Vlasov 3rd, Ilovaiskii 11th, and Grekov 18th.
2504. Flag of Mel’nikov 4th’s Don Cossack Regiment, granted in 1821. Note: The same exact Flag was at the same time granted to Mel’nikov 5th’s Regiment.
2505. Flags of the Black Sea Cossack Host, granted in 1803.
2506. Flag of the Astrakhan Cossack Host, granted din 1818.
2507. Flag formerly with the 2nd Kalmuck Regiment during the campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 1814.
2508. Flag of the 9th Bashkir Canton, granted in 1805.
2509. Flags of the Bug Cossack Regiments, granted in 1804.
2510. Flags of the Nogai Regiments, granted in 1802.
2511. Flag of the Siberian Line Cossack Host, granted in 1809.
2512. Commander-in-Chief. Region I of the Rural Host, or Militia, 1806-1807.
2513. Provincial Chiefs. Regions II and III of the Rural Host, 1806-1807.
2514. District Chiefs. Regions IV and V of the Rural Host, 1806-1807.
2515. Commanders of a Thousand and Five Hundred. Regions VI and VII of the Rural Host, 1806-1807.
2516. Commander of a Hundred. Region VII of the Rural Hosts, 1806-1807.
2517. Grenadiers. Imperial Militia Battalion, 1806-1808.
2518. Grenadiers. Imperial Militia Battalion, 1806-1808.
2519. Drummer and Non-Commissioned Officer. Grenadier Platoon of the Imperial Militia Battalion, 1806-1808.
2520. Non-Commissioned Officer and Private. Jäger Companies of the Imperial Militia Battalion, 1806-1808.
2521. Gunners [Kanoniry]. Artillery Half-Company of the Imperial Militia Battalion, 1806-1808.
2522. Company-Grade Officers. Grenadier and Jäger Companies of the Imperial Militia Battalion, 1806-1808.
2523. Men [Ratniki]. Rural Host Marksmen Battalions, 1807.
2524. Man [Ratnik]. Mobile or Serving Militia, Vladimir Province, 1807.
2525. Company-Grade Officer. Riga Burgher Company, 1806-1807.
2525a. Riga city coat-of-arms.
2526. Foot Cossack and Jäger. Moscow Mass Levy, 1812-1815.
2527. Horse Cossack. Moscow Mass Levy, 1812-1813
2528. Man [Voin] and Company-Grade Officer. Merchants’ and Townspeople’s Sotnias of the Moscow Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2529. Company-Grade Officer and Private. Graf Saltykov’s Moscow Hussar Regiment, 1812.
2530. Cossack and Company-Grade Officer. Graf Dmitriev-Mamonov’s Moscow Cossackk Regiment, 1812-1814.
2531. Jäger and Foot and Horse Cossacks. Tver Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2532. Company-Grade Officer and Foot Cossack. Vladimir Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2533. Foot and Horse Cossacks. Ryazan Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2534. Jäger and Field-Grade Officer. Jäger Regiment of the Tula Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2535. Company-Grade Officer, Non-Commissioned Officer, and Cossack. Foot Regiments of the Tula Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2536. Cossack. Horse Regiments of the Tula Mass Levy, 1812.
2537. Field-Grade Officer and General. Horse Regiments of the Tula Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2538. Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik] and Mounted Man [Yezdovoi]. Horse Artillery Half-Company of the Tula Mass-Levy, 1812-1814.
2539. Company-Grade Officers. Horse Artillery Half-Company of the Tula Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2540. Cossack. 1st Horse Cossack Regiment of the Tula Mass Levy, 1813-1814.
2541. Men [Voiny]. Foot Bands [Druzhiny] of the St.-Petersburg Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2542. Non-Commissioned Officer. Foot Bands of the St.-Petersburg Mass Levy, 1812.
2543. Company-Grade Officer. Foot Bands of the St.-Petersburg Mass Levy, 1812.
2544. Men. Foot Bands of the St.-Petersburg Mass Levy, 1812-1814.
2545. Field-Grade Officer. Foot Bands of the St.-Petersburg Mass Levy, 1812-1814.
2546. Company-Grade Officer of the 2nd and Private of the 3rd Horse Regiments of the St.-Petersburg Mass Levy, 1812-1814.
2547. Foot and Horse Men [Peshii i Konnyi Voiny]. Nizhnii-Novgorod Mass-Levy, 1812-1813.
2548. Foot and Horse Men. Nizhnii-Novgorod Mass-Levy, 1813-1814.
2549. Man and Company-Grade Officer. Horse Regiment of the Kostroma Mass Levy, 1813-1814.
2550. Man. Foot Regiments of the Simbirsk Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2551. Company-Grade Officer. Foot Regiments of the Simbirsk Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2552. Man and Field-Grade Officer. Horse Regiment of the Simbirsk Mass Levy, 1813-1814.
2553. Men. Foot Regiments of the Penza Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2554. Man. Horse Regiment of the Penza Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2555. Foot and Horse Men. Kazan and Vyatka Mass Levy, 1812-1813.
2556. Private and Company-Grade Officer. HER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS GRAND DUCHESS CATHERINE PAVLOVNA’S Battalion, 1812-1814.
2557. Company-Grade Officer and Rear-Rank Cossack. Kherson Landowner Skarzhinskii’s Squadron, 1812-1814.
2558. Cossack. Horse Regiments of the Chernigov Mass Levy,, 1812-1815.
2559. Cossack and Non-Commissioned Officer [Unter-Ofitser]. Horse Regiments of the Poltava Mass Levy, 1812-1815.
2560. Company-Grade Officer. Horse Regiments of the Poltava Mass Levy, 1812-1814.
2561. Field-Grade Officer and Cossack. Foot Regiments of the Poltava Mass Levy, 1812-1815.
2562. Marksmen [Strelki]. Mass Levy of Vologda and Olonets Provinces, 1812.
2563. Flag for Mobile Militia battalions, 1807.
2564 and 2565. Banners [Khorugvi] of the Moscow Mass Levy, 1812.
2566. Flag of the 3rd Foot Cossack Regiment of the Ryazan Mass Levy, 1812.
2567. Banner [Khorugv’] of the Kaluga Mass Levy, 1812.
2568. Flag of the St.-Petersburg Mass Levy, 1812.
2569. Flag of the 1st Battalion, 1st Foot Regiment of the Nizhnii-Novgorod Mass Levy, 1812.
2570. Flag [Znachek] of the 3rd Company, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Foot Cossack Regiment of the Kostroma Mass Levy, 1812.
2571. Flag of the 1st Infantry Regiment of the Simbirsk Mass Levy and small flag of Landowner Skarzhinskii’s Kherson Squadron, 1812.
2572. Flags of Penza Mass-Levy regiments, 1812. a. Foot regiments. b. Horse regiments.
2573. Flags of the 1st Regiment of the Chernigov Mass Levy, 1812.
2574. Flags of the 2nd Regiment of the Chernigov Mass Levy, 1812.
2575. Flags of the 6th Regiment of the Chernigov Mass Levy, 1812.
2576. Flags of the Novozybkov and Grodnitsk Regiments of the Chernigov Mass Levy, 1812.
2577. Flag of the 2nd Battalion, 1st Regiment of the Poltava Mass Levy, 1812.
2578. Medals instituted from 1804 through 1806: a) for lower ranks who took part in the taking by storm of the fortress of Gandzha, b) for retired lower ranks who served a further three years, c) for those same lower ranks who served a further six years, d) for Officers and e) for men of the Rural Host who took part in battles, f) for Officers of that host who did not take part in battles.
2579. Crosses and Medals instituted from 1807 through 1809: a) lower ranks’ Military Order cross for distinction, b) Cross for Officers who distinguished themselves at the Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, c) Medal for lower ranks who took part in the crossing of the Gulf of Bothnia into Sweden, d) Medal for lower ranks who took part in the invasion of Sweden through Torneo.
2580. Crosses and Medals instituted in 1810, 1812, and 1814: a) Cross for Officers and b) Medal for lower ranks who took part in the taking by storm of the fortress of Bazardzhik, c) Medal for Officers and lower ranks commemorating the 1812 war, d) Medal for Officers and lower ranks commemorating the entry into Paris in 1814.
18 August 1801 – To replace the uniform clothing used in the Don Host since the time of EMPRESS CATHERINE II, the following uniforms were ordered to be introduced:
a) FOR DOMESTIC USE [v domashnem bytu]
Lower ranks—chekmen coat, or kaftan, of very dark-blue [temnosinii] cloth, with red cloth piping on the collar and cuffs; very dark-blue sharavary pants, with red trim along the side seams, allowed to be worn tucked into boots; short boots without spurs; a cap 5 vershoks [ 8-3/4 inches] high, of black fleece, with a red cloth top (Illus. No. 2425).
Officers—chekman coat, sharavary pants, and cap the same as for lower ranks, but the last item having a plume of white feathers that were black and orange at their base, and with the addition of cords and tassels (like shako cords) of silver, gold, and black silk (Illus. 2426).
b) FOR REGIMENTAL OR SERVICE USE [v polkovoi ili stroevoi sluzhbe]
Private Cossacks—chekmen coat of very dark-blue cloth, with piping in each regiment’s own color as determined by the Host Ataman; very dark-blue sharavary pants with trim the same color as the chekmen piping; a cap the same as for domestic use, but with the addition of cords and tassels made from white thread, with a plume of white feathers that were black and orange at their base, and with a top the same color as the chekmen piping (Illus. 2427).
Non-commissioned officer [pyatidesyatnik or uryadnik]—the same as privates but the boots had spurs driven into the heels; white cords and tassels on the cap, mixed with orange and black, and white plumes with orange and black tops (Illus. 2428).
Officers—the same as for domestic use but boots with spurs driven into the heels and a cap with silver cords and tassels, without any admixture of gold and black silke (Illus. 2429).
In accordance with the long-standing custom of the Don Host, chekmens were ordered to bound at the waist with girdles [kushaki], color unspecified, but insofar as possible uniform throughout each regiment. Officers were authorized ordinary sashes [sharfy] for specified occasions, tied the same way as girdles. In all regiments sword belts, pouches [sumki or lyadunki], and crossbelts were to be of black leather (with silver badges and chains for officers so desiring). No particular pattern was specified for the saber [sabel’]. Sword knots were to be as for regular light cavalry, and lances [piki] were left as before, with red shafts. Saddlecloths [chepraki] remained in their current form, of very dark-blue cloth with trim or piping according to the color of the piping on the jacket. The Ataman’s Regiment had sky-blue or light-blue [goluboi or svetlosinii] piping and trim, while girdles were white (Illus. 2430) (1).
The chekmen described here was to be worn in the cold months of 1 September to 1 May. For the rest of the time jackets [polukaftany or kurtki] of the same colors as the chekmen were authorized, worn tucked into sharavary pants (Illus. 2430 and 2431) (2).
11 January 1804 – On the collars and cuffs of their coats and jackets, generals and field and company-grade officers of the Don Host were allowed to have embroidered silver buttonhole loops, one on each side, adorned with leaves and flowers (Illus. 2432 and 2433) (3).
17 February 1809 – For ceremonial and parade occasions, Don Host generals were ordered to have on the collar, cuffs, cuff flaps, and pocket flaps of coats and jackets the same embroidery as established in 1808 for generals of regular forces, but in silver. Along with this, these ranks received a special kind of white plume or chelenga, as prescribed for general officers’ hats in Hussar regiments under EMPEROR PAUL I and at the beginning of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s reign (Illus. 2434). About this same time the following changes were made in Don Host uniforms: 1) silver cords were added to the shoulders of coats and jackets for generals and field and company-grade officers, twisted double like a plait, while lower ranks were given shoulder straps of very dark-blue cloth piped the same color as the piping on the collar; 2) feather plumes on the hats of officers as well as lower ranks were replaced by white hair plumes with—for officers and privates—black and orange at the base, and for non-commissioned officers—with black and orange at the top, and 3) the cords on caps were replaced by the same shako cords as used at that time by regular troops (Illus. 2434 and 2435) (4).
In 1812 – The collars of chekmen coats and jackets, instead of being diagonally open in front, began to be worn closed, fastened by small hooks and eyes, and in all regiments except the Ataman’s piping and trim was established to be the same color: red. Also from this time non-commissioned officers were ordered to have silver galloon on the collar and cuffs (Illus. 2436) (5).
In 1814 – While Russian troops were in Paris, the plaited cords on the coats of Don Host generals and officers were replaced by silver epaulettes that followed the established rank distinctions for generals and field and company-grade officers (Illus. 2437 and 2438). In this same, while the Ataman’s Regiment was in Paris, it lower ranks were ordered to have, on each side of the collar and on each cuff, two worsted sky-blue or light-blue buttonhole loops. Along with this, lower ranks in the regiment wore, instead of shoulder straps, worsted sky-blue or light-blue epaulettes with fringes, and the light-blue piping on collars and cuffs was removed (Illus. 2439) (6).
20 November 1815 – For increased uniformity and to be less of a burden on Don Host officers, its field and company-grade officers were ordered to have, instead of the current embroidery, silver buttonhole loops of the same pattern as in the Cavalier Guards Regiment, one on each side of the collar and two on each cuff (Illus. 2440) (7).
11 October 1816 – Field and company-grade officers of the Ataman’s Regiment were ordered to have two silver buttonhole loops on each side of the collar instead of just one (Illus. 2441) (8).
20 November 1819 – The current white hair plumes on officers’ and lower ranks’ headdresses were replaced by the smaller elongated plumes used at that time in regular light cavalry regiments: silver for officers and of white wool for lower ranks (Illus. 2442) (9).
3 May 1822 – A HIGHEST Order directed lower ranks of the Ataman’s Regiment to try to replace silk crossbelts and sword belts with leather ones of the same patterns as sword belts and crossbelts in the L.-Gds. Cossack Regiment (10).
DON COSSACK ARTILLERY.
[Donskaya kazach’ya artilleriya.]
Before 1816 – Horse-Artillery companies in the Don Host had the same uniforms as the rest of the host, but on 11 February of this year they were ordered to have:
Cossacks – chokemen coat, of dark-green cloth in the standard cossack style, with red cloth piping all around the collar and cuffs, and red shoulder straps on which were brass buttons for fastening these straps; dark-green sharavary pants without any trim; girdle of red cotton material [bumazhnaya materiya]; cossack headdress with a red bag, or top, and red cords, and with a white hair plume with a black base; iron saber, with a hilt of two arched guards, iron scabbard with two rings without bands or small hoops around them; sword belt of red Russian leather, with three iron rings (for slings), and three likewise iron buckles and an ameter [? unknown meaning – M.C.] of black Russian leather; pouch [lyadunka] (for the pistol) of black Russian leather, lacquered, with a brass badge on the cover; pouch belt of white leather; pistol with brass mountings, on a red wool cord (Illus. 2443).
Non-Commissioned Officer [Uryadnik] – all the same as for private Cossacks, but with gold galloon on the collar and cuffs, headdress cords with tassels in three colors: white, black, and orange; and with a black top to the plume (Illus. 2443) (11).
16 August 1817 – The following changes were made in the uniforms for lower ranks in the Don Cossack Artillery; chekmen coats were withdrawn, and in their place it was ordered to have jackets (for winter and summer), with black cloth collars and cuffs instead of dark green, and shoulder straps with the company number (1, 2, 3) in yellow cloth; one row of red cloth trim or stripe was added to the sharavary pants (Illus. 2444). Officers received uniforms in the same colors as prescribed for lower ranks; gold epaulettes with a silver company number and red backing, and silver cords on the headdress, without any admixture of black or orange silk. Officers of Companies No. 1 and No. 2 who had taken part in military operations in 1812, 1813, and 1814 were granted gold buttonhole loops to be worn on the collar and cuffs, while officers of Company No. 3, which remained on the Don, were not given this distinction (Illus. 2445) (12).
20 November 1819 – In the Don Cossack Artillery hair plumes on the headdress were replaced by smaller plumes of the same pattern as introduced at this time for Don Cossack regiments, but of red wool for lower ranks instead of white (Illus. 2446) (13).
BLACK SEA HOST.
Before 1816 – Clothing and weapons for Black Sea cossacks were not subject to any kind of mandatory rules, and the former kept almost the very same appearance as it had in the 18th century, and earlier as used by the Zaporozhian cossacks from whom Black Sea Cossacks were directly descended. Their usual dress consisted of a crimson, red, or—as they expressed it—“ruby” coat [kontusha] with the sleeves thrown back; sharavary pants, red boots, and a black (lamb’s wool) cap with a red crown. With this dress each cossack shaved his head except for a long twisted lock [zavernutaya chuprina] behind the ear, and a long mustache. Weaponry consisted of: saber or shashka, dagger, pistols, musket, and lance. During the first half of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s reign, uniforms of the pattern used in the Don Host began to be introduced into the Black Sea Host, with only the addition of two sleeves at the back, and without trim on the sharavary pants. On 11 February 1816 this clothing became mandatory. Along with this, Black Sea cossacks were prescribed the same weapons and the same accouterments as used in the Don Host. Besides the double sleeves and pants without stripes, Black Sea cossacks were distinguished from Don cossacks only in having white girdles instead of red, and instead of muskets the used lancer carbines carried on white deerskin crossbelts (Illus. 2447 and 2448) (14).
In 1820 – Following the example of the Don Host, the hair plumes on officers’ and lower ranks’ headdresses in the Black Sea Host were replaced by elongated pompons: of white wool for lower ranks, and silver for officers (15).
7 February 1822 – The carbines on white belts used by Black Sea cossacks were replaced by long-barreled muskets on plain black belts (Illus. 2449) (16).
BLACK SEA COSSACK
[Chernomorskaya kazach’ya artilleriya.]
At the same time as manadatory uniform clothing was introduced in the Black Sea Cossack Host, on 11 February 1816, the Artillery of this Host, consisting of Black Sea Horse-Artillery Company No. 6, was prescribed uniforms and weaponry of the patterns used since 1817 by the 1st and 2nd Horse-Artillery Companies of the Don Host, but with two sleeves thrown behind on the back, without trim on the pants, and with the numeral 6 on shoulder straps and officers’ epaulettes (Illus. 2450) (17).
In 1820 – The hair plumes on the headdresses of the Black Sea Cossack Artillery were replaced by small plumes of the same pattern and colors as those introduced at this time in the Don Cossack Artillery (18).
CAUCASIAN LINE COSSACK
[Kavkazskoe lineinoe kazach’e voisko.]
This Host, from the very first when it was settled on the Caucasian Line through the end of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s, borrowed its style of clothing, as well as arms and horse furniture, from the Mountain peoples with whom they were in contact (19).
[Kavkazskoe kazach’ya artilleriya.]
By a HIGHEST Order of 7 May 1817, Caucasian Line Cossack Horse-Artillery Companies Nos. 4 and 5 were prescribed the following uniforms and weapons:
Private cossacks - outer caftan coat or chekmen of Circassian style, of dark-gray cloth, trimmed along the edges with black wool tape half a finger in width that had a thin red cord running down it; collar and cuffs of black cloth, with red cloth piping; on the coat’s breast black patches for 16 pistol cartridges; inner caftan coat [ispodnii kaftan]—of dark-green burmet [a coarse Persian cotton or baize – M.C.]; sharavary pants—of dark-green cloth in Circassian style, trimmed at the bottom in the same way as the chekmen with black tape and thin red cord; black girdle made from an unfinished leather strap with iron buckles and trimmed with thin silver and black silk galloon; black cloth headdress [shapka] of Circassian style, with a band of black lambskin and a red edge above the band, and thin red wool cord along the seams of the crown; saber—of Circassian style in a black leather scabbard with red edging, worn over the shoulder on a dark-blue sword belt of unfinished leather, with a brass buckle; pouch [lyadunka] (for 12 cartridges)—of black Russian leather, no lacquer or polish, worn on a black band [tes’ma], along with a powder flask [natruska]; pistol—of no definite pattern, in a black case or holster piped with thin red cord (Illus. 2451).
Non-commissioned officers [uryadniki] – the same as for private cossacks with the addition of silver and black silk galloon on the chekmen’s collar and cuffs and above the headdress’s fur trim (Illus. 2451).
Officers – all items the same as for non-commissioned officers but with the black tape on the chekmen and sharavary pants replaced by silver galloon with black silk, and with the addition to the seams of the saber scabbard and pistol case of the same thin galloon as on the girdle, over which when in formation they were ordered to wear the standard officers’ sash (Illus. 2452) (20).
[Astrakhanskoe kazach’e voisko.]
Prior to 1817 this Host had no defined uniform clothing, so that some of its cossacks were in chekmen coats, others in arkhaluks, and they were armed with sabers, shashka swords, daggers, muskets, pistols, lances, and bows and arrows, each according to his preferences and resources. Saddles and the rest of the horse furniture were Kalmuck or Kirghiz (Kazakh) patterns. On 11 October 1817, a HIGHEST Order to the Astrakhan Host confirmed the following uniforms and weapons:
For private cossacks – jacket [kurtka], the same as for the Don Host but with lemon-yellow [limonnyi] piping instead of red, and without a number on the shoulder straps; sharavary pants—also of the Don pattern but with lemon-yellow trim; girdle—black; headdress—of the Don pattern with a top the same color as the piping; saber, sword belt, cartridge pouch, pistol, and lance—also of the Don patterns, but the sword belt being of black lacquered leather, and on the cover of the pouch the IMPERIAL monogram—A; a white cord for the pistol, mixed with black and orange (Illus. 2453); green shaft for the lance; a musket on a belt over the right shoulder.
For non-commissioned officers [uryadniki] – everything the same as for private cossacks but with silver galloon on the jacket’s collar and cuffs; double stripes on the pants; sky-blue girdle; white tassels on the headdress cords, mixed with black and orange; blackand orange top to the plume (Illus. 2453).
For officers – all as for officers in the Don Host, but with red cloth changed to lemon yellow, no number on the epaulettes, and silver galloon on the sword belt’s and pouch’s straps; sky-blue girdle (Illus. 2454) (21).
[Astrakhanskoe kazach’ya artilleriya.]
On 11 October 1817, the same time as the above uniforms and arms were introduced into the Astrakhan Cossack Host, the exact same uniforms and weaponry were prescribed for the Host’s assigned Horse-Artillery Cossack Half-Company No 9, with the addition of a yellow number 9—gold on officers’ epaulettes—on lower ranks’ shoulder straps, and without muskets for privates and non-commissioned officers (22).
Formed at the close of 1811, the 1st and 2nd Kalmuck Regiments had chekmen coats, sharavary pants, and other pieces of uniform, as well as weaponry and horse furniture, all the same as that used in 1812 in the Don Host, with only the change of standard cossack headdresses to Kalmuck caps consisting of a yellow cloth crown somewhat like a lancer cap’s, four vershoks [seven inches] tall, with a black sheepskin band, without any cords or plume. They also had the IMPERIAL Initial as a (white) monogram on the covers of their cartridge pouches and pouch belts, within a wreath and beneath a crown. Also, their saddlecloths had no trim (Illus. 2455). Officers’ caps had bands of beaver fur, silver cords, and a white hair plume; saddlecloths with edges trimmed with silver galloon, and horse bridles with silver of silver-plated decoration (Illus. 2456) (25).
In 1814, following the example of the Don Host, field and company-grade officers of the 1st and 2nd Kalmuck Regiments replaced their silver shoulder cords with silver epaulettes (Illus. 2457) (24).
CHUGUEV COSSACK Host.
[Chuguevskoe kazach’e voisko.]
Until 1803 the Chuguev Cossack Regiment kept all the same uniform items it had received under EMPEROR PAUL I when it was the 2nd Chuguev Cossack Regiment, and on 19 August 1803 there was a change only in colors, namely: black outer kaftan coat, or chekmen, and the black collar and cuffs of the (red) jacket were replaced by dark green, while the officers’ yellow boots became black with thin silver cord trim around the upper edge (Illus. 2458). The regiment kept these uniforms, as well as the weaponry received under EMPEROR PAUL I, right up to its reorganization in 1808 from Cossacks to Lancers (25).
BUG COSSACK Host.
[Bugskoe kazach’e voisko.]
8 July 1803 – The newly established three Bug Cossack regiments were ordered to have the following uniforms, arms, and horse furniture:
Private cossacks – jacket of very dark-blue cloth, with white collar; white piping on cuffs and shoulder straps, and down the front opening and along the lower edge; likewise white buttons, in two rows, placed so that the distance between the two top ones was somewhat more than the two lower ones; dark-blue sharavary pants with a single strip of white trim; white girdle; headdress of black astrakhan, with a white cloth top, almost flat and not let down on one side as for Don, Black Sea, and Astrakhan cossacks; cap cords in two colors: white and dark blue, and a narrow white feather plume with black and orange feathers toward the bottom; sword belt, cartridge pouch, and pouch belt—black without any decoration; saber, carbine, and a pair of pistols—as for light cavalry; lance, with a very dark-blue shaft with the last four vershoks [7 inches] before the spearhead being white; very dark-blue saddlecloth with narrow white edging or trim; all horse furniture was black (Illus. 2459). Along with the uniform and armament described here, privates, being mounted, wore on a narrow black strap over the left shoulder a whip or lash [plet’ ili nagaika], and had their pistols in black leather holsters fastened to the sides of the cartridge carrier [patrontash] worn in front on the saber belt. To each of the pistols was attached, with the help of a small brass ring on the butt, to the end of a black cord worn around the neck, as done with pistols in the cossack hosts mentioned above.
Non-commissioned officers – all the same as for private cossacks except for lances; plumes had black and orange feathers not at the bottom but at the top; tinned brass badge on the pouch lid; a similar IMPERIAL monogram on the crossbelt, and the addition of a a white silk sword knot on the saber which privates were not authorized (Illus. 2459).
Officers – uniforms exactly the same in color and style as for privates, but silver cap cords; pouch with a silver badge on the lid; pouch belt of lancer pattern with silver galloon that had dark-blue stripes down its sides, and with a silver HIGHEST monogram; silver sword knot, sash, and galloon on the saddlecloth; pistols in holsters under the saddlecloth (Illus. 2460) (26).
In 1812 – Lower ranks and officers were ordered to have: collars closed by small hooks; headdresses with the top falling down on the right side, as in the Don and other cossack hosts; saddle pillows [podushki], previously on top of the saddlecloth, were to be under the saddlecloth; non-commissioned officers were to have lances, the same as for private cossacks (Illus. 2461) (27).
In 1815 – In place of their previous very dark-blue shoulder straps with white piping, officers received silver epaulettes (Illus. 2462), and subsequently there were no changes in the uniforms, arms, and horse furniture of the Bug Cossack Host until it became part of the settled regular cavalry in 1817 (28).
[Ukrainskie kazach’i polki.]
5 June 1812 – Upon the establishment of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Ukrainian Cossack Regiments, their personnel were prescribed the following uniforms, weapons, and horse furniture:
a) 1st Regiment:
Private cossacks – jacket of very dark-blue cloth, with raspberry collar, cuffs, and shoulder strap piping; gray sharavary pants with one raspberry stripe; lancer girdles of very dark-blue and raspberry stripes; cossack headdress of black fleece, with a raspberry top let down on the right side, and no other decoration of any kind; saber with an iron hilt, in a black leather scabbard with iron mountings; sword belt, cartridge pouch, and pouch belt of black leather, without decoration; pistol in a black leather holster, on a black strap; lance, as for lancers, with a black shaft and a pennant with a raspberry top half and a white lower half; instead of a saddlecloth, a black leather pad [potnik] and similar pillow [podushka]; gray cloth valise (Illus. 2463). In each squadron 16 men (flankers) had rifles [shtutsery], or if unavailable—muskets; each of these could be of any caliber.
Non-commissioned officers – the same as for private cossacks but excluding the lance and with the addition of silver galloon on the jacket’s collar and cuffs (Illus. 2463).
Officers – uniforms of the same colors and cut as for lower ranks, but the jacket had one row of gilt buttons down the front, and gold epaulettes; very dark-blue sharavary pants instead of gray; headdress of black bearskin, with gold cords, gilt chin scales on straps, and a black leather visor; sword belt, saber, cartridge pouch, and pouch belt of lancer patterns, the first and last items with gold galloon; gold sword knot, silver sash; saddlecloth [val’trap] of hussar pattern, very dark-blue with raspberry piping and a gold HIGHEST monogram; pair of pistols in holsters, under the saddlecloth (Illus. 2464) (29).
b) 2nd Regiment – the same as in the 1st, except with raspberry changed to red (Illus. 2564).
c) 3rd Regiment – the same as in the 1st, except with raspberry changed to sky blue, and officers’ appointments changed from gold to silver.
d) 4th Regiment – the same as in the 3rd, with sky blue changed to white (Illus. 2465) (30).
In 1815 – White cords and short white woolen plumes were added to the headdresses of lower ranks and non-commissioned officers. For lower ranks the plumes was black at the bottom or base, with a red pompon, while for non-commissioned officers they were black at the top with a non-commissioned pompon. Jackets had one row of buttons in front and two fringed epaulettes, both of the same color as the buttons on officers’ uniforms. Along with this, privates as well as non-commissioned officers were ordered to have sabers in iron scabbards and a pair of pistols in holsters fastened to each side of the girdle. Officers were directed to have: headdresses with the same plumes as privates, with a pompon the same color as the cords, and with a metallic edge to the visor, the same color as the buttons; sharavary pants with two wide stripes [lampasy] with a row of piping between them, the same color as the collar; lancer saddlecloth, with trim and piping the same color as the collar (Illus. 2466). All these uniforms, arms, and horse furniture were used by the Ukrainian Cossack Regiments until their reorganizationin 1817 as Lancers (31).
URAL COSSACK HOST.
[Ural’skoe kazach’e voisko.]
From 1801 through 1806 – Lower ranks of this host wore raspberry cloth zipun coat trimmed with white tape around the collar and at the bottom of the sleeves; sky-blue cloth sharavary pants with white trim on the side seams; leather waist belt carrying a leather powder pouch [porokhovnitsa], bullet pouch [pulechnitsa], powder flask [natruska] for the musket pan [ruzheinaya polka], and a small brass oil can [smaznitsa]; over the belt was a sky-blue cotton girdle; cap [shapka], of raspberry cloth, tall, with a black fur band; an iron saber on a black leather sword belt, and over the shoulder, on a black leather strap—a rifle [vintovka]. With these weapons the normal cossack lance was also used, with a black shaft decorated in three places with brass plates. The saddlecloth and pillow were of raspberry cloth trimmed with white tape, while the bridle, breast strap, and crupper were of black leather with white metal fittings (Illus. 2467). Officers had an outer caftan [verkhnii kaftan] of raspberry cloth with raspberry silk lining, trimmed around the collar, bottom of the sleeves, along the back seams, down the front opening, and along the lower edge with gold galloon 3/4 vershok [1-5/16 inch ] wide; inner kaftan [nizhnii kaftan] or beshmet (also called an arkhaluk) of sky-blue cloth with five silver buttons [pugovki] on the left side, and with narrow silver galloon along the upper and side edges of the collar, down the front opening, and along the lower edge; sharavary pants of sky-blue cloth, with silver galloon along the side seams and lower edge; silk girdle, raspberry in color; cloth cap, also raspberry, with a band of black fleece; red Russian leather sword belt, with silver embroidery and fittings; saber with a curved blade, silver mountings on the scabbard, and a silver sword knot (Illus. 2467); the same horse furniture as for lower ranks, but with silver (32).
In 1806 – In accordance with its wish, the Ural Host was allowed to have uniforms of standard cossack pattern, dark blue in color, with raspberry for the piping on the jacket, stripes on the sharavary pants, and pompon on top of the headdress. Along with this change lower ranks began to wear dark-blue [svetlosinii] girdles; sabers of the pattern used at that time in the regular light cavalry, without sword knots, on a black sword belt; carbines on a black leather strap over the left shoulder; black leather pouches [podsumki] on a likewise black leather strap over the right shoulder (Illus. 2468); dark-blue saddlecloths and pillows with white trim; bridles, breast straps, and cruppers with brass fittings; lances as before. Officers, along with uniforms that were of the same color and pattern as established for lower ranks, wore silver twisted cords on both shoulders of the jacket; raspberry girdles, sword belts of red morocco with silver fittings; saber and sword knot like those prescribed for officers of regular light cavalry; pouch straps trimmed with galloon, silver with black edges, and with silver plates and small chains (Illus. 2468) (33).
In 1817 – Officers of the Ural Host were allowed to wear: silver epaulettes, silver buttonhole loops on the collar (one on each side) and the chekmen and jacket cuffs (two on each), and silver sashes. They were also allowed to have silver chin scales on their headdresses and a black leather visor with a silver edge (Illus. 2469) (34).
[Orenburgskoe kazach’e voisko.]
8 June 1803 – The Orenburg Permanent Cossack Regiment [Orenburgskii Nepremennyi Kazachii polk], while otherwise having the same uniforms and weapons as Don Cossack regiments, was ordered to have: coat collars, cuffs, trim on the sharavary pants, and tops to the headdresses—all raspberry; white girdles; lances with a pennant [khorunzhevka, or flyuger] in two colors: raspberry above, and white below; dark-blue saddlecloths and pillows with raspberry trim (Illus. 2470) (35).
9 January 1808 – The Orenburg Cossack Host, along with the Orenburg Permanent Cossack Regiment, was allowed to have uniforms and horse furniture as prescribed for the Don Host. In this regard, it was left to the Host Ataman to distinguish regiments by choosing colors for piping on the collar and cuffs and for trim on the pants (36).
13 March 1808 – It was confirmed that the Orenburg Permanent Cossack Regiment would have the raspberry collar and trim established in 1803, and all officers of this host were permitted to have collars and cuffs with the same silver embroidery as prescribed for the Don Host (Illus. 2471) (37).
14 February 1816 – The Orenburg Cossack Host, with its uniforms identical to those of the Don Host, was ordered to have silver buttonhole loops, one on each side of the collar. This applied to all officers in the Permanent Regiment and for others—only those holding actual army ranks (38).
ORENBURG COSSACK ARTILLERY.
[Orenburgskaya kazach’ya artilleriya.]
28 February 1821 – Lower ranks of the Orenburg Cossack Artillery, consisting of Horse-Artillery Cossack Companies Nos. 10 and 11, were prescribed the same uniforms as Don Horse-Artillery Company No 3 had at this time, but with lancer pattern girdles, dark green with red stripes, and sharavary pants with two red stripes and piping. For officers, saddlecloths were dark green with red cloth trim and a gold IMPERIAL monogram under a crown (Illus. 2472) (39).
Until 1819 the 1st and 2nd Teptyar Regiments modeled their uniforms, as well as accouterments and weaponry, on those of Orenburg cossacks, but on 4 July of this year they were prescribed uniforms and arms as for Don cossacks, except shoulder straps were red; girdles were of two red stripes and one yellow; headdresses had a dark-blue top, and lance pennants had a white upper half and a lower half in a different color for each sotnia as determined by higher command (Illus. 2473) (40).
SIBERIAN LINE COSSACK
[Sibirskoe lineinoe kazach’e voisko.]
In 1802 – By direction of Major General Lavrov, inspector of the Siberia Inspectorate, the Siberian Line Cossack Host, which up to that time had no established uniform or weaponry, was prescribed to be guided by the rules drawn up in 1801 for the Don Host regarding these subjects (41).
18 August 1808 – The uniforms, weapons, and horse furniture of Siberian Line cossacks was confirmed by HIGHEST Authority. In all ten regiments they were prescribed the same clothing as Don cossacks, with red piping on chekmen coats and jackets, a red top to the headdress, red trim on sharavary pants that had black leather sewn on the bottom of the legs. Buttons and shoulder straps were yellow, and girdles sky blue. Sword belts, crossbelts, and pouch belts, as well as the cartridge pouch itself, were of blackened leather; the saber was iron with a sword knot of red Russian leather; musket (for many still with a matchlock [fitil’nyi zamok], and pike with a black shaft. (Note: All Siberian cossacks (Line, Town, and Border in Eastern Siberia) wore pouches on the right side while the crossbelt, or bandoleer, was on the left so that the musket or carbine, carried from a hook on the belt attached to a ring and slide, hung butt downward on the left. In 1823 and 1824, when drawings of uniforms and arms for Siberian Town and Border cossacks, depicting a carbine on the left side and cartridge pouches on the right, were submitted for HIGHEST approval by EMPEROR ALEXANDER I, it was noted that if the example of regular light cavalry was followed, these items should have been reversed, with the pouch on the left and the carbine on the right. However, in this instance Siberian cossacks were permitted to carry them in the manner to which they had become accustomed.) Mongolian saddles were prescribed, of black, red, and yellow leather, with brass decorations on the front and rear arches, and all horse furniture straps were black, with likewise black strap tassels on the bridle, breast strap, and crupper (Illus. 2474). Non-commissioned officers, besides not having lances, were further distinguished by standard non-commissioned officer cap cords, pompons, and plumes. They had gold galloon on the collar and cuffs, gloves with cuffs, a cane, iron spurs driven into the boot, and a brass saber hilt and scabbard. In place of a musket they wore a pistol on the left side, in a black leather holster. Officers had the same distinctions from lower ranks as in the Don Host except for silver embroidery and sashes, which were not prescribed for the Siberian Cossack Host (Illus. 2475) (42).
8 April 1809 – Officers were allowed to wear sashes (43).
In 1812 – “To mark their zeal and good order when in HIGHEST service,” the Siberian Line Cossack Host was granted lance pennant colors as follows: white top half and lower lengthwise stripe; lower half by regiment: 1st Regiment—light green, 2nd—sky blue, 3rd—yellow, 4th (Ataman’s)—dark blue, 5th—light raspberry, 6th—brown, 7th—gray [dikii], 8th—red, 9th—violet, and 10th—green (Illus. 2476 and 2477) (44). In this same year completely new patterns of uniforms and weaponry were confirmed for the Siberian Line Cossack Host, consisted of the following:
For private cossacks, to be worn when in unit formation – jacket in lancer style, of very dark-blue cloth, with red piping on the collar, red shoulder straps, cuffs, and skirt turnbacks, and brass buttons: one on each shoulder strap and four on each of the turnbacks; chakchiry pants of lancer pattern, of very dark-blue cloth with red stripes and piping, and with leather cuffs up to the knees; lancer girdle, of very dark-blue cloth with red trim along the edges; shako [kiver] of the same style as used by infantry up to 1812, but entirely of lacquered leather, with white cords, white pompon with a red center, brass scales on the chinstrap; boots with iron spurs; saber with iron hilt, similar scabbard, and sword knot of red Russian leather, with a white thread tassel; sword belt of black lacquered leather; bandoleer or crossbelt of the same leather, with brass buckle, slide, and end piece, and an iron hook; pouch (for 24 cartridges), also of black lacquered leather, with a round brass plate in the center of which was a two-headed Russian eagle, and with a iron ramrod for the pistol, on a black leather strap attached to the top part of the pouch; pouch belt of black lacquered leather attached by a small strap to the girdle, over the turnbacks; carbine of lancer pattern; lance of normal cossack pattern, with a black shaft and a pennant in regimental color; light cavalry saddle, with two holsters for pistols; saddlecloth and all straps of lancer pattern, the first of very dark-blue cloth with trim and monogram of red cloth; greatcoat of gray cloth, rolled and attached to the rear arch of the saddle (Illus. 2478).
For private cossacks in campaign uniform – all as for when in formation, but instead of dark-blue chakchiry pants with stripes and piping—gray riding trousers with only piping and no stripes, and with black leather trim at the feet; shako in an oilcloth cover, without cords or pompon, and instead of the leather lead [chumbur], a hair lead rope (Illus. 2478).
For senior non-commissioned officers [pyatidesyatniki ili starshie uryadniki] – the same as for private cossacks except for the carbine and lance, with the standard distinctions for non-commissioned officers in cap cords, pompon, and sword knot; gold galloon sewn onto all four sides of the collar and along the upper and side seams of the cuffs, and on the pouch belt—in brass, the IMPERIAL monogram within a laurel wreath (Illus. 2479).
For junior non-commissioned officers [mladshie uryadniki] - the same as for senior non-commissioned officers, but no galloon along the lower edge of the collar (Illus. 2479).
For officers – uniform items of the same patterns as those established for lower ranks, with gold epaulettes on red cloth backing; silver cords, pompon, stitching [proshvy] and tassel on the sword knot; chakchiry pants without cuffs; lancer saber on a black sword belt lined on its outer surface with gold galloon; cartridge pouch (for six cartridges) of black leather with a silver edge and HIGHEST monogram; pouch belt of the same black leather, with gold galloon and silver fittings as for lancers (Illus. 2479); saddlecloth as for lower ranks but with gold monograms.
Reserve cossacks (privates and senior and junior non-commissioned officers), along with the same weapons and horse furniture except for lance pennants and saddlecloths, which were not authorized for them, received chekmen coats of gray cloth, with a dark-blue collar and red shoulder straps; sharavary pants of gray cloth, with red piping and black leather reinforcement; girdles of gray with dark-blue; gray cloth forage caps cloth with a dark-blue cloth band, and with a black leather visor (Illus. 2480). The cap was prescribed to have sewn to it gray cloth ear flaps [naushniki] that if required could be folded up inside it, and a black leather rear flap [zatylnik] (45).
(Note: In a HIGHEST confirmed report from the Government Military Collegium dated 13 August 1808, regarding a new organization for the Siberian Line Cossack Host, reserve cossacks in this host were identified as those personnel beyond the authorized 500 men in each regiment (5000 for the entire host), intended as replacements for losses.)
SIBERIAN LINE COSSACK
[Sibirskaya lineinaya kazach’ya artilleriya.]
Until 1816 the Siberian Line Cossack Host’s Artillery, consisting of two companies (from 4 August 1818 called Cossack Horse-Artillery Companies Nos. 7 and 8), adhered to the patterns used in this host’s regiments in regard to clothing, accouterments, and arms, but on 25 August 1816 its personnel were ordered to have: dark-green jacket and pants (sharavary), the first having brass buttons down the front; black cloth collar, cuffs, and skirt turnbacks, with red cloth piping; shako as for cossacks but with red cords and pompon, with a brass plate of two crossed cannons and a grenade, as for Field Artillery, and with a black hair plume; chamois gloves with gauntlet cuffs; saber, sword belt, pistol, cartridge pouch, and pouch belt—all as for Cossack Artillery in the Don, Black Sear, and Orenburg Hosts, but all leather items being black; dark-gree saddlecloths with red trim (1-1/2 vershoks) [2-5/8 inches], monograms, and crowns (Illus. 2481). For officers, the monograms and crowns were gold. Up to 1818 the numbers on the shoulder straps were 1 for the first company and 2 for the second, but from that time they were replaced by the numbers 7 and 8 (46).
SIBERIAN TOWN COSSACK REGIMENTS and
COMMANDS and COSSACK SETTLEMENTS.
[Sibirskie gorodovye kazch’i polki i komandy i kazach’i stanitsy.]
Before 1822, when the small Cossack and Tatar commands in various Siberian locations (the Tobolsk, Siberian Tatar and Tomsk, Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, and Yakutsk commands) were reorganized as Town Cossack regiments, these commands had no uniformity in clothing or weapons, and each man was allowed to dress and arm himself according to his own means. Therefor some were armed with sabers and others with pistols. The same variety prevailed in regard to saddlery, which for the most part was of Kirghiz (Kazakh) style (47).
More regulated and uniform than the rest were the clothing and weapons of: the Verkhneudinsk Cossack Command, which joined the Trans-Baikal Town Cossack Regiment in 1822; the Irkutsk Cossack Regiment, in existence for the whole of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s reign; and the Yakutsk Cossack Command, in 1822 detached to join the Yakutsk Town Cossack Regiment. The following information has been preserved reagarding these forces:
a) Verkhneudinsk Command.
From 1801 to 1815 – the cossacks and non-commissioned officers of this command had entirely dark-green cossack jackets; black sharavary pants with red trim (one row of stripes); yellow girdles; a yellow four-cornered hat like the Kalmuck caps described above, with a black cloth band (Illus. 2482), and a simple Mongolian saddle.
From 1815 to 1820 – very dark-blue jackets were used, with small skirttails and red collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps, similar to the jackets introduced in 1824 for Town cossacks in Eastern Siberia; gray pants with a single row of red stripes and sewn-on leather cuffs, without buttons; red girdles; boots with iron spurs; standard cossack headdresses with a red top and white (for non-commissioned officers with a mix of black and orange) cap cords, pompon, and hair plume; iron sabers with a lacquered black leather sword belt; the same leather was used for cross belts, cartridge pouches, and pouch belts; carbines; lances with black shafts and pennants that were white above and dark-blue below; saddles modeled after those for light cavalry, but with high arches with brass [mednaya bronza] along their edges; very dark-blue saddlecloths with red monograms and crowns (Illus. 2483).
From 1820 to 1824 – the uniform described above was replaced by very dark-blue chekmen coats with sky-blue collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps; gray sharavary pants trimmed with two rows of sky-blue stripes; headdresses with a sky-blue top (Illus. 2484). Sky-blue trim or edging was added to the dark-blue saddlecloths already in use (48).
b) Irkutsk Cossack Regiment.
In 1813 – The Irkutsk Civil Governor at that time, Treskin, directed that the Irkutsk Cossack Regiment have very dark-blue jackets, should straps of the same color, and red piping on the collar, cuffs, and down the front; very dark-blue pants to which were sewn black leather cuffs without buttons; dark-green cotton [kitaichatie] girdles tied as for lancers; cossack pattern headdresses of black cloth with a red top and white cords, pompon, and hair plume (Illus. 2485). Poorer cossacks were allowed to have just gray cloth greatcoats with two likewise gray collars, one standing and the other falling, and standard forage caps of very dark-blue cloth with a red band (Illus. 2485). The same greatcoats and caps were prescribed for other cossacks for wear when not on duty and in inclement or cold weather. Along with this uniform clothing, the regiment had to try to achieve uniformity in sabers, lances, pistols, accouterments (of black lacquered leather), and horse furniture, including dark-blue saddlecloths trimmed with white cloth monograms and crowns (49).
c) Yakutsk Cossack Command.
From 1818 – Lower ranks of this command began to take their uniforms partly from those of the Irkutsk Cossack Regiment and partly from the Siberian Line Cossack Host. As in the host, they had very dark-blue jackets with skirttails and red cloth collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps; very dark-blue lancer chakchiry pants with red double stripes [lampasy] and piping; lacquered black leather girdles; cossack headdresses of black cloth with are red top and white cords, pompon, and hair plume; boots with iron spurs; iron sabers; accouterments of lacquered black leather, including a cartridge pouch with a HIGHEST monogram of yellow brass. On the shoulder straps were fastened the tin Cyrillic letters YA. K. K. (Yakutskaya Kazach’ya komanda) (Illus. 2486). Officers had the silver should cords instead of shoulder straps; dark-blue silk girdles; black plissé headdresses with silver appointments; chamois gloves, cartridge pouches, and pouch belts, with silver fittings and galloon; the same sword knots as in the regular cavalry (Illus. 2486) (50).
22 July 1822 – The HIGHEST Confirmed Regulation for Siberian Town Cossacks established, among other rules, the following:
a) Cossacks were obliged to have their own clothing.
b) When in service, they were required to wear standard cossack dress, of special patterns determined by the provinces and regions [po guberniyam i oblastyam].
c) Yakutsk, Turukhansk, and Berzovsk cossacks were allowed to serve in clothing appropriate for their climate, and wear that to which they have long been accustomed, i.e. parkas [parki], etc.
d) In winter, all cossacks were allowed to wear warm clothing.
e) Cossacks were to have sabers and had to be armed with pistols and lances. These last had no pennants.
f) Junior non-commissioned officers [mladshie uryadniki] were to wear silver galloon only on the sleeves [i.e. cuffs – M.C.], while more senior non-commissioned officers [pyatidesyatniki, literally “leaders of fifty” – M.C.] had galloon on the collar and sleeves; officers were to have silver epaulettes and sword knots.
g) Headdress was to be the normal cossack pattern, with black all around and a dark-blue top.
h) Cossacks were required to have their own horses, with normal cossack saddles (51).
These regulations specifically applied to Town Cossack Regiments, of which there were the following:
1) Tobolsk Regiment – of Town Cossack commands in Tobolsk Province: Tobolsk, Tomsk, Turinsk, Berezov, Tara, and Surgut.
2) Siberian Tatar Regiment – of the Tobolsk, Tyumen, and Tomsk Town Tatar Cossack Commands.
3) Tomsk Regiment – of the Tomsk, Kuznetsk, and Narym. Town Cossack Commands.
4) Yeniseisk Regiment - of the Krasnoyarsk, Yeniseisk, and Turukhansk Town Cossack Commands.
5) Irkutsk Regiment – of the already existing regiment of that name.
6) Trans-Baikal Regiment – of the Nerchinsk and Verkhneudinsk Town Cossack Commands.
7) Yakutsk Regiment - of the Yakutsk, Okhotsk, and Izhiginsk Town Cossack Commands (52).
Apart from these regiments which received government support, there were established on their own resources small cossack settlements [kazach’i stanitsy] of Abakan and Pelym cossacks. Regarding these, the above-cited reorganization of Siberia in 1822 stated: “Settlement cossacks will not be required to maintain uniformity in clothing, but they are allowed to were standard cossack dress except without shoulder straps, with dark-blue collars. However, those men going out on patrols and guard duties must be armed with sabers, lances, and such firearms as may be conveniently borne.” (52).
Regarding the uniform clothing and arms of the Town Cossack regiments ennumerated here, the following additional information has been preserved:
A) Town Cossack regiments in Western Siberia: Tobolsk, Siberian, Tatar, and Tomsk.
Subsequent to the above-mentioned Regulation for Siberian Town Cossacks, in 1824 and 1825 Town Cossack regiments in Western Siberia had dark-green jackets and sharavary pants, the first with raspberry piping and the second with raspberry stripes; black girdles, dark-blue tops to the headdress; black accouterments (Illus. 2487) (54).
B) Town Cossack regiments in Eastern Siberia: Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, Trans-Baikal, and Yakutsk.
In 1824, based on a HIGHEST confirmed proposal by the governor-general of Eastern Siberia, Lavinskii, the Yeniseisk Cossack Regiment was prescribed very dark-blue jackets with small skirttails, light-green piping (for senior non-commissioned officers [starshie uryadniki] with the addition of silver galloon on the collar and cuffs, and for junior only on the collar); very dark-blue pants in chakchiry style, with leather cuffs sewn on up to the knees and light-green piping; shako of black astrakhan with a dark-blue top, in lancer style, with light-green piping (Illus. 2488); sword belts, sword knots, crossbelts, cartridge pouches (with a pistol ramrod), and pouch belt, all of black leather, the last with a monogram badge representing HIS MAJESTY’S name (in yellow brass), within an oval frame; lancer pattern sabers, carbines, and pistols; lances with black shafts, without pennants, saddles and other horse furniture of standard cossack patterns, except for saddlecloths, which were somewhat similar to those for light cavalry, of very dark-blue cloth with two rows of piping, monograms, and crowns, all in light green. In each sotnia 30 men were prescribed to have muskets instead of carbines. Officers and reserve officers [za-urad-ofitsery] were prescribed silver officers’ sword knots. Along with the general distinctions for officer rank, they had silver epaulettes on light-green backing, with the Cyrillic letters Ye. K. P. (Yeniseisk Kazachii polk). Lower ranks had these letters on their shoulder straps, in light green (55).
In the same year of 1824, in accordance with a HIGHEST confirmed proposal by the Irkutsk civil governor, Zeidler, the Irkutsk, Trans-Baikal, and Yakutsk Town Cossack Regiments were given the same uniform clothing and weapons as the Yeniseisk Regiment, with different letters on officers’ epaulettes and sewn on shoulder straps, which in the Irkutsk Regiment were ordered to be I. K. P., in the Trans-Baikal—Z. K. P., and in the Yakutsk—Ya. K. P. (56).
STATION COMMANDS UNDER THE
TROITSKO-SAVSK BORDER CHANCELLRY.
[Distantsionnyya komandy vedomstva Troitsko-Savskoi pogranichnoi kantselyarii.]
These commands were the Troisko-Savsk, Kudarinsk, Akshinsk, Chindan-Tarukuevsk, Tsurukhaituevsk, Gorbichensk, Kharatsaisk, Tunkinsk, and Nizhneudinsk Cossack Commands, and before 1824 they did not have defined uniforms or weapons, although from 1816 to 1819 the Irkutsk civil governor of the time, Treskin, began to introduce uniformity in this regard. He directed that each cossack have: a very dark-blue chekmen coat, pants, and forage cap, with crimson cloth collar, coat piping, pants trim, and band around the cap; black accouterments, saber and carbine. In 1824, in accordance with a HIGHEST confirmed proposal by the Irkutsk civil governor, Zeidler, all these commands received the same uniforms and weapons as the Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, Trans-Baikal, and Yakutsk Town Cossack Regiments, but with blue [svetlosinnii] collar, shoulder straps, and girdle, with the Cyrillic letters P. K. V. (Pogranichnoe Kazach’e Voisko – Border Cossack Host) on the should straps (Illus. 2489) (57), and without a monogram on the cartridge pouch belt. During the whole of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s reign the Tunguzsk and Bratsk, or Buryat, commands had no prescribed uniform clothing or weaponry, but remained in their national dress, being armed with sabers, lances, and a saadak (quiver and bow case) with bow and arrows, of which every Tunguz carried 50, and every Buryat 40 (58).
In regard to uniforms and weapons of other irregular forces during EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s reign (1st and 2nd Nogai Regiments, Odessa Greek Infantry Battalion, Stavropol Kalmuck Regiment, Danube Cossack Host, the Simferopol, Perekop, Yevpatoria, and Theodosia Crimean Tatar Regiments, and the 1st and 2nd Bashkir Regiments), no satisfactory information has been preserved. (Note: A detailed listing of irregular forces from 1801 to 1825 is in Chapter XXIII of Volume 10 of this work.) The Balaklava Greek Infantry Battalion continuously kept the uniform given them during the preceding reign (59).
FLAGS OF IRREGULAR FORCES.
[Znamena irregulyarnykh voisk.]
a) Don Host.
In 1803 this host was granted a flag with a light sky-blue center and dark sky-blue edges, surrounded in gold. In the middle, from each side, was a gold cross with a spear and shaft, and silver eight-pointed stars. On the edges was the inscription in gold: “By the Grace of God We Alexander I Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, and Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of the Tauric Chersonese, Lord of Pskov and Grand Prince of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, and Podolia, Duke of Estland, Livland, Courland, and Semigalia, Samogitia, Karelia, and Tver, Yugor, Perm, Vyatka, Bolgaria, and others, Lord and Grand Prince of Novgorod of the Lower Land, Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslav, Belozersk, Udorsk, Obdorsk, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all the northern lands Ruler and Sovereign of the Iveria, Kartalia, Georgia, and Kabarda lands, of the Circassian and Mountain Princes and others the Hereditary Sovereign and Lord, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarsen, and Oldenburg, Sovereign of Ever, etc., etc., etc., grant this flag in place of that given in 1706 and renewed in 1746.” On the reverse side: “To the Ataman and cossacks of Our Host, for their many and loyal services, especially that undertaken in 1705 during the Astrakhan troubles, in eternal and immortal memory, in the year of our Lord 1803, and of Our Reign the 4th year.” The fringe, cords, and tassels of this flag were silver; the spearhead with EMPEROR ALEXANDER’S monogram in the center was gold; the pole was green, and the flag cloth was sewn to a crimson cloth wound around the pole (Illus. 2490).
In the same year of 1803 there was granted an all-white flag with the State coat of arms surrounded by the arms of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, and Astrakhan, and by silver and gold wreaths and flowers. Around the flag, between panels outlined in gold, was the same inscription and above, but after the words “etc., etc., etc.” was “granted this flag in place of that given in 1722 to the loyally subject Don Host for their service rendered during the war with the Swedes and for the permanent peace concluded with the Swedish crown. The year of our Lord 1803, and of Our Reign the third.” The fringe, spearhead, and all other adjuncts to this flag were exactly the same as for the above flag (Illus. 2491).
In the same year of 1803 there was a white flag similar to the preceding except for very insignificant differences in the images and the addition of four silver crosses on a blue field, surrounded in gold, In the inscription, after the words “to the loyally subject Don Host,” there followed: “for their service shown in creating a permanent peace with His Majesty the Shah of Persia. In the year of our Lord 1803, and of Our reign the third.” Around the silver crosses on a blue field were the words in gold: “Christ we glory in Your cross and sing Your Resurrection and glory that You are our God in the Holy Glorious Trinity.” (Illus. 2492). This flag was granted to replace that received by the Don Host from Empress Anna Ioannovna in 1733.
In the same year of 1803 there was a white flag with, in the center, a two-headed eagle on whose breast was a dark-blue shield edged in gold, with the gold monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I. Above the wings alongside the crown in double gold circles were gold crosses, and between the outer and inner circles were words in gold, written in Church Slavonic characters: “Christ we glory in Your cross and sing Your Resurrection and glory that You are our God in the Holy Glorious Trinity.” Around the flag, between gold stripes, was the gold inscription: “This flag is granted in place of that given in 1764 to the loyally subject Don Host for their service rendered during the late Prussian war, 1803, of the reign of His Imperial Majesty, the All-Merciful Sovereign Emperor Alexander Pavlovich, All-Russian Autocrat, the 3rd year.” The fringe, spearhead, and other appurtenances to this flag were the same as for the above (Illus. 2493).
In the same year of 1803 the Don Host was given a white standard [znachek] with a two-headed Russian eagle, the gold script monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER, and various decorations. This guidon’s fringe was silver, and all other appurtenances were the same as for the above flags (Illus. 2494).
In the same year of 1803 the Don Host was given two standards [bunchuki] of a pale straw color with raspberry edges. On it, between gold stripes, were gold and silver stars. On one standard was the archangel Michael in a rectangle, defeating the devil, and on the other, in the same kind of rectangle, was a silver cross surrounded by silver stars, and in the upper corner nearest to the pole, a hand coming out of the clouds. The fringe and other appurtenances were the same as for the above flags (Illus. 2495).
In the same year of 1803 the town of Novocherkassk [capital of the Don Host lands-M.C.] was granted a coat of arms [gerb] that was made up in gold and silver and with paints, on a rectangular dark-blue cloth surrounded by gold edging. It was fastened to a crossbar that hung by a cord below the spearhead of a normal flag pole. In the upper part of the cloth, above the coat of arms, was the gold inscription: “Coat of arms of the Don Host town of Cherkassk, in Graciously granted by the Sovereign Emperor Alexander the First, on the 3rd day of October of the year 1803.” Below, under the coat of arms, was a description of the arms in gold letters: “A shield, divided cross fashion into four parts, with a gold top in which is visible half of a black, two-headed, crowned eagle as it flies away; under this eagle on a red field in cross fashion: a gold mace [pernach] and two kinds of cossack scepter-like symbols of authority—a naseka and a bobylev khvost, and below, in a sky-blue field – another kind of mace [bulava], and two cossack symbols of authority—a bunchuk and another naseka; in the side parts, on a silver field, on the right side, are laid four flags crosswise: two white, one sky blue, and one red, with black eagles depicted on them, the flags being tied together in the middle with a laurel wreath, and on the left side above a river is a red fortress.” The cloth on the crossbar, the fringe, cords, tassels, and vertical pole were the same as for the above flags, while the spearhead was gilt with an IMPERIAL crown on top and the HIGHEST monogram in the center (Illus. 2496).
In 1807 Khanzhenkov’s and Sysoev’s Don Cossack regiments were each granted a white flag. On one side was a two-headed Russian eagle in an orange circle surrounded by gold wreaths, with a gold crown on top. On the other side in gold was the monogram of Emperor Alexander I in the middle of a gold sunburst. On each side of the flags was the gold inscription: “For the feat at Schöngraben 4 November 1805, in a battle of a 5-thousand strong corps against 30 thousand of the enemy.” This flag had a gold fringe; silver tassels with an admixture of black and gold silk, hanging from St.-George ribbons; gild spearhead, with the cross of the order of St. George in the middle; green pole (of the pattern for standard poles in the Regular Cavalry, with gold longitudinal stripes (Illus. 2497).
In 1811 the Don Host was given a white flag with gold monograms, wreaths, and crowns in the corners, and with semicircles of St.-George ribbon on which in silver was the inscription: “To the loyally subject Don Host for service rendered during the campaign against the French in 1807.” In the center of the flag, on one side, was a gold cross on a silver field surrounded by gold wreaths and flowers, and on the other—a two-headed Russian eagle on a gold field surrounded by gold wreaths and flowers. Gold fringe, silver cords and tassels; gold spearhead with an IMPERIAL monogram of the same in the center; pole as for the preceding flags (Illus. 2498).
In 1814 the Ataman Regiment was given a dark-blue flag with a painted image of the Savior surrounded by the gold inscription: “God is with us, loosen your tongues and abase yourselves, for God is with us.” Around the flag is another gold inscription: “Awaken, Lord, Your mercy toward us, for we worship Thee, yea without fail for eternity” and “To the Don Host Ataman Regiment for bravery.” This flag’s fringe was gold; the spearhead and tassels were as for the 1807 flag described above; green pole with gold longitudinal stripes (Illus. 2499).
In the same year the same regiment received a white standard [bunchuk] with an image of St. George slaying a dragon and surrounded by the gold inscription: “To the Don Host Ataman Regiment for distinguished courage.” This standard’s fringe was gold, while the spearhead and tassels were as for the abov flags (Illus. 2500).
In 1816 Dyachkin’s regiment was given a green flag with gold monograms in the corners, on a white field with gold crowns and wreaths. On one side of the flag, in an orange cirlce surrounded by gold wreaths, under a likewise gold crown, was a Russian two-headed eagle, and on the other side, in the same circle, was a crimson cross with gold edges and in a gold sunburst. On each side was the gold inscription: “To Dyachkin’s brave Don regiment.” The flag’s fringe was gold; silver cords and tassels; gold spearhead, with a St.-George cross (Illus. 2501).
In 1817 the Don Host was given a flag similar to that granted in 1811 and described above, with the inscription: “To the loyally subject Don Host in recognition of deeds performed in the recent French war, in 1812, 1813, and 1814.” The fringe and other appurtenances were the same as for the 1807 flag described previously (Illus. 2502).
In 1821 the regiments of Zhirov, Vlasov 3, Ilovaiskii 11, and Grekov 18 each received a white flag with straw-colored corners, with gold eagles, monograms, wreaths, crowns, and stripes, and the gold inscription: “For distinguished courage in defeating the enemy.” The fringes on these flags were gold while the tassels, spearheads, and poles were as for the 1807 flags (Illus. 2503).
In the same year of 1821 the regiments of Melnikov 4 and Melnikov 5 each received a flag similar to the preceding but with the inscription: “In recognition of outstanding deeds performed in the battles at Craone and Laon during the recent war against the French.” The fringes on these flags were gold, the cords and tassels silver; gold spearhead with a two-headed eagle in the center; green pole with gold longitudinal stripes (Illus. 2504).
b) Black Sea Host.
In 1803 this host was granted 12 regimental flags in the form of standards [znachki] in the following colors: 6 with orange above, dark-blue below, and 6 just the opposite—dark-blue above and orange below. In the center of each flag was a red cross within gold rays. The fringe around the flag was gold; cords and tassels were silver; a gilt spearhead had the monogram initials of EMPEROR ALEXANDER; white poles (Illus. 2505).
c) Astrakhan Cossack Host.
In 1818 this host was granted a white flag with straw-colored corners and a gold image of a two-headed Russian eagle in the center. Monograms in the corners, wreaths, crowns, and edging around the field were all gold. Silver cords and tassels; gold spearhead; white pole (Illus. 2506).
d) Kalmuck Regiments.
During military operations in 1812, 1813, and 1814, the 2nd Kalmuck Regiment had an old straw-colored flag with painted inscriptions and gold images of an armed horseman, beasts, and birds. This flag was fastened to a red pole in three places, and had a red border and three hanging ribbons, likewise red. The pole’s gilded spearhead was decorated with a kind of long tassel composed of four elongated rectangles colored green, pink, crimson, yellow, and sky blue. Below the spearhead along the pole was affixed another decoration in sky blue, white, crimson, yellow, and green (Illus. 2507). The figures on the flag had the following significance: man on a white horse – the Kalmuck deity called Daiachi Tengry, the patron of war and warriors, giving aide in battle and enabling victories; beasts and birds – this deity’s attributes, the first having the meanings of power, strength, speed, and overlordship of the earth, and the second—the same qualities plus sway over the heavens; flag in the horseman’s hand – the banner of victory; whip in the horseman’s hand – shows the path ahead for the horse; red branches at the horse’s head and hooves – it’s fiery gallop; beasts behind the horseman’s shoulders – the terrifying invasion by the deity and, at the same time, his accompanying bodyguards. This flag’s pole was 2-1/2 (17-1/2 feet) sazhens long. (Note: At the 2nd Kalmuck Regiment’s departure on campaign in 1812, as well as upon its return to its home ulus in 1814, special religious rites were performed. Sacrifices were offered in the form of smoking various fragrant grasses and lighting many candles. After this ceremony in 1814, the flag was placed in the main khurul or syum, i.e. the Kalmucks’ national temple, where it remains to this day.)
e) Bashkir Host.
In 1805 the 9th Bashkir Canton was granted a dark-blue flag in the center of which was a gold HIGHEST monogram surrounded by a likewise gold, star-shaped burst of rays. In the corners were silver stars. This flag had gold fringe, silver cords and tassels, a gold spearhead with a HIGHEST monogram, and a white pole (Illus. 2508).
f) Bug Cossack Host.
In 1804 the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Bug Cossack Regiments were granted flags exactly like those received in 1803 by the Black Sea Cossack Regiment, but colored as 1 white and 4 black for each of these regiments (Illus. 2509).
g) Nogai Regiments.
In 1802 flags were prepared for the 1st and 2nd Nogai Regiments, similar to the preceding but completely plain, without cross or star burst. Each regiment had 1 white and 4 black flags (Illus. 2510).
h) Siberian Line Cossack Host.
In 1809 this host was granted (one for each regiment) 10 flags of the pattern received in 1803 and 1804 by Black Sea and Bug cossack regiments, but with a green upper part and raspberry below (Illus. 2511) (60).
UNIFORMS AND WEAPONS
OF TEMPORARY FORCES FORMED IN 1806, 1807, 1812, AND 1813, THEIR FLAGS AND INSIGNIA, AND MEDALS FOR SERVICE, INDIVIDUAL DEEDS, AND CAMPAIGNS, AS ESTABLISHED DURING THE REIGN OF EMPEROR ALEXANDER I.
A) Land Host or Militia, 1806 and 1807.
6 December 1806 – Peasants and other tenant persons designated by a HIGHEST Manifesto of 30 November of this year to be part of a temporary mass levy [opolchenie] or Militia [Militsiya], also called the Land Host [Zemskoe Voisko], were ordered to be supplied by their landowners with normal peasant clothing of whatever folk style was used in the region. Neither hair nor beards would be cut (61). Generals and field and company-grade officers of this militia were prescribed: standard army infantry dress coat of that time, but single breasted, with piping down the front opening, from the opening to the skirts, and on the turnbacks and cuff flaps; dark-green pants, the same color as the coat, with piping down the side seams; white vest and a hat with a green plume. The following distinctions were established:
a) For commanders-in-chief of regional militias [U glavnokomanduyushchikh oblastnymi militsiyami] – two gold field-grade officers’ epaulettes (Illus. 2512).
b) For commanders of provincial militias [U komanduyushchikh gubernskimi militsiyami] – a gold epaulette on the left shoulder and a gold shoulder strap on the right (Illus. 2513).
c) For commanders of district militias [U komanduyushchikh uezdnymi militsiyami] – two gold shoulder straps (Illus. 2514).
d) For chiliarchs [U tysyachnykh nachal’nikov – i.e commanders of 1000] – a gold epaulette on the left shoulder (Illus. 2515).
e) For pentakostarchs [U pyatisotennykh nachal’nikov – i.e. commanders of 500] – a gold shoulder strap on the left shoulder (Illus. 2515).
f) For hekatonarchs and other junior officers [U sotennykh nachal’nikov (i.e. commanders of 100) i prochikh mladshikh chinovnikov] - a coat without epaulettes or shoulder straps (Illus. 2516).
Regional, provincial, and district commanders were directed to wear, as they wished, either swords or sabers, but chiliarchs and lesser officers were obligated to have sabers, which throughout the militia had yellow brass hilts and scabbard mountings, or gilt if so desired by the individual. Commanders-in-chief also had the right to wear military uniforms from previous service instead of the militia pattern (62).
In addition to the distinctions set forth above, the following mandatory colors were established for coat collars, cuffs, and piping:
a) In Region I [Oblast’ I-i] – (St. Petersburg, Novgorod, Tver, Olonets, and Yaroslav provinces) – red (Illus. 2512).
b) In Region II – Estonia, Lifland, Courland, and Pskov provinces) – sky blue [goluboi] (Illus. 2513).
c) In Region III – Vitebsk, Mogilev, Smolensk, and Chernigov provinces) – white (Illus. 2513).
d) In Region IV – Moscow, Tula, Kaluga, and Ryazan provinces) – orange (Illus. 2514).
e) In Region V – Orel, Kursk, Voronezh, and Kharkov provinces) – pink [rozovyi] (Illus. 2514).
f) In Region IV – Kiev, Poltava, Kherson, and Yekaterinoslav provinces) – lilac [lilovyi] (Illus. 2515).
g) In Region VII – Kostroma, Vologda, Nizhnii-Novgorod, and Vyatka provinces) – raspberry [malinovyi] (Illus. 2515) (63).
The weapons for lower ranks or ratniki [“fighters” – M.C.] were not subject to any kind of rules, but rather they were allowed to be armed according to local resources: their own, old items from arsenals, or old patterns obtaining through voluntary donations. Thus, in neither clothing nor weapons was there uniformity among the ratniki. Only the Imperial Militia Battalion (included in the the Life-Guards on 22 January 1808) was dressed and armed alike. Its personnel had the following uniforms and weapons:
Private grenadiers – coat [mundir] of dark-green cloth, and in the same color: collar, cuffs, cuff flaps, lapels, and skirttail lining and turnbacks; with red cloth piping along the upper edge and sides of the collar, on the cuffs, cuff flaps, and lapels, along the coat’s lower edge and on the turnbacks; with red cloth shoulder straps and flat brass buttons. Pants – of dark-green cloth, with red cloth piping in the side seams, and sewn-on leather cuffs, each with seven brass buttons. Shako – with a small brass single-flame grenade, white cords, red pompon, and a thick black hair plume (Illus. 2517). Greatcoat - single-breasted, reaching a little below the knees, of dark-green cloth with a red cloth piping on the upper and side edges of the collar; shoulder straps; brass buttons, nine down the front, two on the shoulder straps, and one in back at the waist (Illus. 2518). When the greatcoat was not being worn, it was rolled and with two leather straps buckled and fastened behind the back, so that it lay on the backpack’s upper edge. Short sword – somewhat longer than that used in the army, and with a slightly different hilt; blackened scabbard. Sword knot – of standard infantry pattern at that time, white, with red slide, acorn, and (above the tassel). Sword belt – black, polished, over the shoulder. Musket – infantry pattern with a black sling and lock cover. Bayonet scabbard in a frog on the sword belt, of black leather with a brass hook and endpiece. Cartridge pouch – of the same black leather, without a badge, on a black crossbelt worn crosswise with the sword belt. Backpack – rectangular, of black leather, worn using two black leather straps over the shoulder and one horizontally across the chest, fitted so that the lower edge almost touched the pouch. Water flask – of the same pattern as throughout the infantry; by means of black leather straps it was hung around the collar so that most of it lay against the rolled greatcoat, and a small part of it against the backpack (Illus. 2517). In those cases when a grenadier, in addition to his water flask, also had his mess section’s kettle [artel’nyi kotel] (of red brass, i.e. copper), the latter was fastend by black leather straps on the right side, and the former on the left (Illus. 2518).
Non-commissioned officers in the Grenadier platoon had the same uniforms and arms as private grenadiers and were distinguished by white, black, and orange tassels and bows on their shako cords, woolen pompons with the upper and lower quarters colored black and orange and the side quarters white, and plumes with white tops with an orange stripe. They also carried canes, but did not have the galloon on collar and cuffs as was the practice in the permanent forces (Illus. 2519).
Drummers in the Grenadier platoon had, instead of red shoulder straps, dark-green with red piping; red wings on the shoulders; red plume; black hoops and tabs on the drum, and black drumsticks (Illus. 2519).
Privates, non-commissioned and drummers of the Marksmen Platoon were distinguished from these same ranks in the Grenadier platoon in not having plumes, and privates and drummers had yellow pompons.
Privates, non-commissioned officers, and drummers of the three Jäger companies had shakos without plumes. Privates had green pompons and were not authorized short swords, instead carrying only bayonet scabbards in the swordbelt frog (Illus. 2520).
Lower ranks of the Artillery half-company in the IMPERIAL Militia Battalion, in addition to the same uniform as lower ranks in the Jäger companies, were all armed with short swords and had red pompons on their shakos. They were given artillery pouches but without a badge and on a black crossbelt, on which were two prickers on small chains, one brass and one iron (Illus. 2521). Many of these men joined from the peasantry, just as in the grenadier and jäger companies, and wore beards from the time the battalion was formed up to February of 1807 when it left Russia to take part in the campaign against the French.
Officers, along with the same colors and cut of uniform as for lower ranks, wore half-sabers [polusabli] on a sword belt of black lacquered leather over the right shoulder. Besides the usual officers’ distinctions in shako decorations, silver sword knots, and sashes, they wore two gold epaulettes red red cloth backing (Illus. 2522). Before the time the battalion was included in the Guards, officers were not authorized gorgets.
All the uniforms described here were specifically for winter use. For summer, officers as well as lower ranks were to have the linen pants with integral spats used throughout the infantry until 1833 (Illus. 2521).
It is noteworthy that the Imperial Militia Battalion, formed under the direct supervision and control of GRAND DUKE AND TSESAREVICH CONSTANTINE PAVLOVICH, was in advance of the permanent troops of the Guards, Army, and Garrison in many details of their uniforms and weapons. Thus, while those troops were all wearing short boots, shakos without leather trim or cords, sword belts around the waist, and round backpacks, the Imperial Militia Battalion already had leather pants cuffs, summer pants with integral spats, shakos with leather reinforcement and cords, sword belts over the shoulder, and rectangular backpacks (64).
7 March 1807 – The Marksmen Battalions [Bataliony Strelkov] established on this date from ratniki of the III, IV, V, and VII Militia regions, were ordered to have the same clothing as the rest of the Militia, but caftan coats (with a standing collar in the region color); pants, and greatcoats of dark or light green peasant cloth, or in case of shortages—dark gray, provided only that battalions have the same color; black cloth neckcloths and black shakos made from first year wool, with a visor of black lacquered leather, black chinstrap, cockade of black ribbon with orange edges fastened behind a brass button by means of black woolen tape, and a worsted pompon and small tassel in the same color as the caftan collar (Illus. 2523). In regard to weapons it was allowed to have old but serviceable muskets from those returned to arsenals by regiments, with black slings. Thus they could be musketeer, jäger, or dragoon muskets, as well as shtutser rifles or carbines, provided only that in each battalion they were the same. Short swords and rifle swords [shtusernye kortiki] were permitted, and in case of shortages of one or the other—standard musket bayonets. With all these types of firearms leather black front pouches were worn, as used at that time in jäger regiments, on likewise black leather sword belts worn around the waist (65). Backpacks and water flasks were prescribed to be of jäger patterns, i.e. with black straps, while mess section kettles were like those introduced in the Imperial Militia Battalion. Officers kept the uniforms used throughout the Militia and already described above (66).
14 and 15 March 1807 – With the discharge of two-thirds of the Rural Host and the formation of a Mobile or Serving Militia from the remaining third, divided into battalions designated by number and province: 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Moscow, 1st and 2nd Kiev, etc.—these battalions kept the same uniforms and weapons as the Militia as a whole, but with greater uniformity (67). Thus, for example, in the Vladimir Militia all ratniki had caftans, sharovary pants, and caps of dark-gray cloth. The last item had a black leather visor and a yellow brass cross on the front, under which was the HIGHEST monogram surrounded by a wreath. All ratniki had black leather rectangular backpacks with black straps. Pikes [piki] were painted black, and their lower end was shaped like a musket butt. At the top was affixed a long and sharp piece of iron, almost an arshin [28 inches] in length and similar to a musket bayonet (Illus. 2524) (68).
The uniforms described here for Marksmen Battalions and Mobile Militia Battalions remained unchanged up to their disbandment on 27 September 1807.
B) Riga Burgher Company, 1806-1807.
With the issue of the HIGHEST Manifesto of 30 November 1806 establishing the Militia, the city of Riga, apart from its already long established two mounted Burgher companies (Bürger-Wache zu Pferde), formed for internal city guard duties a temporary foot Burgher company, also called the Foot Burgher-Guard (Bürger-Garde zu Fuss) which was in existence throughout the time of military operations from 1806 to 1807. No special uniforms or weapons were prescribed for it, and its members were only required to be respectably dressed and have sabers at all musters, as well as muskets when on guard duty. Both weapons were issued from the Riga town arsenal. Only the officers had the standard army uniform of that time, and wore epaulettes, gorgets, and shakos—all with the Riga municipal coat-of-arms, along with swords [shpagi] on a waist belt trimmed with silver galloon (Illus. 2525) (69). The Riga coat-of-arms referenced here was as follows: “a stone wall on a sky-blue field, with open gates and a raised iron portcullis; inside the gates is a golden crowned lion’s head; on the wall are two towers with gold pennants, in between which are two crossed iron keys, and above them a gold cross and crown; along the sides of the wall can be seen the Russian state coat-of-arms (Illus. 25252a) (70).
C) Courland Volunteer Marksmen Battalion, 1807-1809.
At first no particular uniform or arms were prescribed for the Courland Volunteer Marksmen Battalion [Kurlyandskii batalion Vol’nykh Strelkov] established on 9 February 1807, and these were obtained as local circumstances allowed, quickly and without uniformity. However, on 20 July 1808, when the battalion was titled the Courland Jägers, it was ordered to be uniformed and armed after the example of army jäger regiments, and with such an appearance it continued its existence until 22 October 1809, when it became part of the 1st Finland Regiment (71).
D) Volunteer regiments, 1806-1808.
From 24 December 1806 to 16 May 1808 the Army of the Dniester included Volunteer regiments [Volonterskie polki] of free or unregistered Moldavian and Russian subjects, but these were never completely formed. They numbered three foot and three mounted regiments, and had no prescribed clothing or weapons, but rather wore their own (72).
E) Temporary forces formed in 1812 and included in the Temporary Internal Mass levy Regions.
I) MASS LEVY OF REGION I.
a) Moscow Mass Levy.
A Directive for the formation of Moscow military forces confirmed by HIGHEST Authority on 15 July 1812 (concerning 3 jäger regiments, 8 cossack foot regiments, and 1 cossack horse regiment) set forth the following in regard to uniforms, weapons, and horse furniture:
Field and company-grade officers have standard army uniforms; those who have the right to wear the uniform in retirement may also wear these. Mounted and foot cossacks and jägers are dressed in gray Russian caftans of peasant cloth. Long sharavary pants are made from the same cloth. Russian shirts opening on the side; neckerchief. Cloth forage caps on the head, and Russian boots, good and greased to be proof against moisture, worn over the pants. Caftans must be wide and ample enough for each man to be able to wear a sheepskin coat [polushubok] under it. Boots must be roomy enough so that in winter each man can wrap his feet in pieces of cloth [onuchi]. Caftans reach to the knees. Anyone who can will have a sash or girdle. The forage cap must be such that in cold weather it can be tied down over the ears and under the beard. Its pattern in each regiment is left to the choice of the commander, but on each of them is to be a cross stamped from brass, beneath which is a monogram of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’S NAME, within an inscription “Za Veru i Tsarya” [“For Faith and Tsar”].
Each man on foot must have a leather or calfskin backpack. Mounted cossacks have, in place of backpacks, valises and sacks for oats. Regimental commanders are to have straps attached to backpacks so they may be worn as in regular forces. In his backpack each man is to have a shirt and two linen underpants [porty], so that when not on duty he can walk about without sharovary pants; mittens with warm inserts [varezhki]; two foot wraps [portyanki], and wearing a third; cloth foot wraps [onuchi] and spare boots. In addition, there must be enough room left over in the backpack for a three day supply of rusk. Similarly, mounted cossacks are to store items in their valises. Sheepskin coats are to be rolled above the backpack, as greatcoats were previously carried.
Because of the rapid approach of the enemy and the need to take the fastest measures to obtain uniforms and weapons for the mass levy, these orders could not be carried out in their entirety. Therefore, regiments were variously dressed and armed according to local resources. Some of the men [voiny] were in gray peasant caftans, others in camelhair armyak coats, and still others in sheepskin coats [tulupy]. Some had round hats made from first-year wool, others had four-cornered caps, but most wore round gray cloth hats. Most of the jägers had muskets, but many of them, as well as all the foot cossacks, only had pikes. Some were issued infantry short swords while others, probably the majority, had a common everyday ax (Illus. 2526). Horse cossacks were all armed with lances and sabers, and many also had muskets or carbines (Illus. 2527). The clothing of mass levy voiny from the merchant and townspeople class was all dark green. They had tall round hats trimmed with black fleece. (Illus. 2528). Officers with these forces, in order to achieve a certain uniformity of appearance with the men, wore dark-green uniform frock coats [syurtuki] with a likewise dark-green collar, and the same hats as the voiny (Illus. 2528) (73).
Graf Saltykov’s Hussars and Graf Dmitriev-Mamonov’s Cossacks were regiments raised on the initiative of those individuals to reinforce the Moscow forces, and had the clothing and weapons appropriate to those types of cavalry:
Graf Saltykov’s Regiment – shakos with yellow cords and pompon and brass fittings; black pelisses, dolmans, and sabertaches, with yellow braid and lace and brass buttons; raspberry collars and cuffs on the dolmans, raspberry chakchiry pants with yellow trim and tracery; yellow girdles with likewise yellow tassels and black slides; black saddlecloths with a raspberry toothed edge and yellow cord and monograms (Illus. 2529). Officers were distinguished by gold braid, galloon, buttons, and other metal appointments, with silver shako cords and girdles of mixed with black and orange silk (Illus. 2529).
Graf Dmitriev-Mamonov’s Regiment – all uniform clothing was dark green with turquoise distinctions and gold appointments; the fur on lower ranks’ hats was black sheepskin, but on officers’—bearskin (Illus. 2530).
Shakos in Graf Saltykov’s Regiment and the headdresses in Graf Dmitriev-Mamonov’s had the same crosses and monograms as related above for the Moscow mass levy’s jäger and cossack regiments (74).
b) TVER Mass Levy.
In regard to clothing and weapons for the Tver Mass levy (5 foot cossack regiments and 1 horse) the same directive was followed as for Moscow, but for the same reasons its initial objectives could not be fully met. The Tver Mass levy was distinguished from Moscow’s only in replacing tall caps and hats with military-style forage caps with a visor and, as in Moscow, cross and monogram made from sheet brass (Illus. 2531) (75).
c) YAROSLAV Mass Levy.
This opolchenie (4 foot cossack regiments and 1 horse), like that of Tver, was guided in matters of dress and arms by the directive for the Moscow military forces, but as to whether it complied in all details or with certain deviations—no information has been preserved (76).
d) VLADIMIR Mass Levy.
Private cossacks of the Vladimir Mass levy (6 foot cossack regiments) had dark-gray cloth caftans tied with girdles of the same material; dark-gray cloth netherwear [nizhnee plat’e]; dark-gray cloth hats 5 vershoks [8-3/4 inches] tall, with the same decoration and the mass-levies above; dark-gray cloth backpacks with likewise gray cloth straps instead of leather; pikes, for the most part from the Vladimir Militia of 1807, i.e. with a musket-like butt at one end and a long iron point at the other (Illus. 2532). Uryadniki (non-commissioned officers) were distinguished by silver lace sewn onto the caftan collar as well as by being armed with sabers in addition to a pike. Field and company-grade officers at first wore the uniforms of those regiments and corps in which they previousl served, but because of the great diversity in appearance that ensued, they later all received a common uniform of cossack-like style, of very dark-blue cloth with gold epaulettes, red piping along the edge of the right side of the front, as well as along the upper and side edges of the collar, which was further trimmed along all four sides with flat black silk cord, like the embroidery on hussar collars. Pants, also dark green, had red cloth trim (lampasy stripes) and piping; Very dark-blue forage caps, of standard officers’ pattern, with red piping and the same cross and monogram as in the mass-levies above. With this uniform, officers had sabers in scabbards with iron mountings (brass only in the 3rd Regiment), with a brass or gilded hilt, on a sword belt trimmed with gold galloon. They had cavalry officers’ sword knots and silver officers’ sashes (Illus. 2532) (77).
e) RYAZAN Mass levy.
The foot opolchenie of Ryazan Province (2 jäger regiments and 4 foot cossack regiments) was like that of Vladimir in regard to colors and patterns, and the regiments were distinguished among themselves by the colors of the collar, hat band, and sharavary pants stripes and piping: 1st Foot Cossack Regiment—raspberry, 3rd—sky blue (Illus. 2533). The colors for the other foot regiments are unknown. The edges of the collar, cuffs, and caftan skirts were trimmed with cloth piping of the same color, i.e. dark gray, and along with this the caftan coat was tied at the waist with a black leather belt. Like the jägers, the foot cossacks were armed only with pikes, and the former received muskets only in 1813 when they were already outside Russia. The Horse Cossack Regiment had jackets instead of caftan coats, with red collars. The band on the forage cap was also red, as well as the stripes and piping on the sharavary pants. This regiment wore caps without visors, and was armed only with lances and sabers (Illus. 2533). There was the same variety in horse furniture as in other provinces’ mass levies. The Ryazan mass levy’s infantry had backpacks of leather, calfskin, or—in case neither of these were available—linen canvas, while cavalry had gray cloth valises. In regard to uniforms and weapons for officers the only information that has been preserved is that they carried sabers on a black leather sword belt, with a silver sword knot. In June and July of 1813, when the Ryazan mass levy was outside Russia, near Dresden, it received new uniforms similar to those for Army regiments, but no details are known (78).
f) TULA Mass levy.
Of all the temporary forces formed in 1812, the Tula opolchenie (1 jäger regiment, 4 foot cossack regiments, 2 horse cossack regiments, and 2 half-companies of horse artillery) had the most information preserved. Uniforms for jägers of this mass levy were similar to that described above for Ryazan province, but with collar, cuffs, and pants trim all of black cloth, without piping. They had green wool girdles. Forage caps were gray with a black band and a black lacquered visor, and on the front were a cross and the HIGHEST monogram. The first rank of the regiment had muskets with black slings, black leather pouches on black crossbelts, and bayonet scabbards on a black leather sword belt (Illus. 2534). In addition to a musket, many men also had a saber, others broad swords, and still others short swords. Some had plain axes. Some of the jägers were issued cartridge pouches on black belts, and the rest put their cartridges in pockets cut in the backpack. For all personnel the backpacks themselves were of gray cloth with black straps crossing over the chest. Officers’ uniforms were of the same style as for lower ranks, but the caftan coats were very dark gray, almost black, with gold epaulettes and a green silk girdle. Light-gray sharavary pants with wide black stripes and piping; dark-gray forage caps with a black visor, on which was embroidered in gold the words ”Za veru i Tsarya” [”For the faith and the Tsar]. Sabers were on black leather sword belts trimmed with gold galloon; silver infantry sword knots and silver sashes (Illus. 2534). Generals’ uniforms were distinguished by having standard gold general officers’ embroidery on the coat’s collar and cuffs. Foot cossack regiments were distinguished from jägers by their headdress, which for them was of standard cossack style but without a bag, of the same cloth as the caftan coat, and with a black chinstrap. These cossacks had the same accouterments as jägers and were armed with muskets in the first rank and with pikes in the others (Illus. 2535). The regiments were distinguished by their shoulder straps: red in the 1st Regiment, white in the 2nd, sky blue in the 3rd, and dark blue in the 4th. Non-commissioned officers [uryadniki] were distinguished by gold galloon on the collar and brass chinscales on the headdress, and had sabers (Illus. 2535).
Officers were distinguished from their counterparts in the Jäger regiment by their headdress, which for them was of the pattern prescribed for private cossacks but with a black cloth bag. It had a gilded cross and monogram, likewise gilded chinscales, and silver cords (Illus. 2535). They also wore forage caps as in the Jäger regiment. Cords (whitened) were also prescribed for lower ranks but because of the circumstance of that time were not able to be made before the regiments marched off. Horse cossacks were clothed in the same style as those on foot (with red shoulder straps in the 1st Regiment and white in the 2nd). They had pouches of black leather with an iron ramrod attached to the cover. The pouch crossbelt was of the same leather. They were armed with sabers with a leather sword knot; pistols at the waist, and lances. For the most part horse furniture was non-uniform, but many had cossack saddles with deep pillows and, over them, black leather , with cruppers and chestbands [pakhvyami i popers’yami]; reins had a lead [chumbur]; round leather valises fastened behind the saddle (Illus. 2536). Officers had caftan coats with white lining, boots with spurs, sabers with a cavalry officer’s sword knot, silver sashes, and black lacquered pouches on a similar crossbelt that had gilt badges on the front with similarly gilt chains: two for prickers and one for a ramrod (Illus. 2537). The pouch lid had a gilt representation of the HIGHEST monogram. The uniform for Generals was distinguished by epaulettes and the gold embroidery prescribed for general officer rank. All officers had black cossack saddlecloths with trim either of gold galloon or yellow woolen tape (Illus. 2537).
The uniforms, accouterments, weapons, and horse furniture for Horse-Artillery half-companies was almost the same as for horse cossacks, but without lances and with the addition of two crossed cannons and a single-flame grenade on the headdress below the monogram, and with red piping on the collar, cuffs, and between the pants stripes. Combatant lower ranks had two prickers with chains on the pouch crossbelt, following the example throughout the artillery. One pricker was brass, the other iron. The men riding with the guns and caissons had short swords of the pattern for pioneers at that time, while the rest had sabers with leather sword knots like those in the horse cossack regiments. Uryadniki did not have prickers on their pouch belts (Illus. 2538), while officers and supernumery officers [za-uryad-ofitsery] (from students from the Tula Alexander Nobles School) [Tul’skoe Aleksandrovskoe Dvoryanskoe uchilishche] had the same distinctions from lower ranks as were in the horse cossack regiments (Illus. 2539). When not in formation they wore the same forage caps as jäger officers in the Tula Mass Levy, but with the addition of a red edge to the top of the cap band (Illus. 2539) (79).
In 1813, when passing through Kovno, the second and third ranks in all the Tula Mass Levy’s foot regiments, both jägers and cossacks, had their pikes replaced by muskets. In the same year, in the months of June and July, the 1st Horse Cossack Regiment had black uniform clothing made up in place of the gray, and in regard to this it received jackets instead of caftans (Illus. 2540). Officers also wore jackets during parades and reviews, and at other times were in caftan coats (80).
g) KALUGA MASS LEVY.
Uniforms and weapons for this opolchenie (1 jäger battalion, 5 foot cossack regiments, and 1 horse cossack regiment) were based on the instructions for Moscow military forces, but details are not known (81).
h) SMOLENSK MASS LEVY.
Ratniki of this opolchenie did not form individual regiments, and while most were on foot, some were mounted. They were clothed and armed exactly following the example of the Moscow mass levy’s foot and horse cossacks. As for officers, some wore standard army coats while others kept the uniforms they had when they retired from service (82).
II) MASS LEVY OF REGION II.
a) ST.-PETERSBURG MASS LEVY.
This opolchenie consisted of 15 foot druzhinas and 2 horse cossack regiments. In regard to uniforms and weapons of the druzhinas the HIGHEST confirmed Regulation on the composition of St.-Petersburg military forces, 27 August 1812, set fort the following directives.
the infantry all field and company-grade officers serving in the mass
levy are to have standard army uniforms. Those who have uniforms from
the time they entered retirement may also wear those. Foot soldiers
keep their peasant dress, but caftans may not be longer than one
vershok [1-3/4 inches] below the knees. Other parts of their dress
are according to their means. Cloth forage cap as headgear. Black
boots with similar shanks that in fall and during cold weather may be
worn over the sharavary
pants. The boots must be made so that in winter the man can wrap his
feet in cloth wrappings. Caftans must be of a width so that a man may
wear a sheepskin coat under it. Anyone who is able may wear a cloth
belt, or girdle. The forage cap must be such that during cold weather
a man can tie it down over his ears and under the chin. The pattern
for the cap is laid down to be the same for everyone, and each one is
to have a cross pressed out of brass [mednaya
latun’]. On the cross is the monogram
name of HIS
and the inscription “Za
veru i Tsarya” (“For Faith
and Tsar” – this inscription was placed in the following manner:
on the right arm of the cross were the word “Za Veru”
pressed in relief, and on the left--“i Tsarya”). Each foot
soldier is to have a backpack containing one shirt, linen long johns,
mittens with warm inserts, two socks, cloth foot wraps, and spare
boots. In addition, there must be enough space left in the backpack
for three-day supply of rusk. Men in the druzhinas are to make
carrying straps for the backpacks following the example of regular
troops. For arms they are prescribed muskets. A leather pouch for
cartridges is to be worn over the shoulder, of whatever pattern that
can be obtained. For each man cartridges with bullets: 40 in the
pouch and 35 in a box. Foot soldiers do not have sabers or short
swords. It is not permitted to add special collars or alter the
pattern or style of peasants’ and townspeople’s caftans. Druzhina
commanders are allowed to have the druzhina number on their
personnel, sewn in cloth or made from tape, on the right breast of
In actuality, all foot druzhinas of the St.-Petersburg mass levy had clothing and forage caps made of gray cloth (Illus. 2541) without any numbers sewn onto the coats, except for the 1st Druzhina which was made up of merchants and townsmen and had green uniforms (Illus. 2541). All fifteen druzhinas were armed with muskets (imported from England) and common everyday axes, which in the 1st Druzhina were carried in a frog on a black leather belt worn crosswise over a similar pouch belt, but in other druzhinas were simply thrust into the girdle. Soon after the capture of Polotsk in October of 1812, all members of the mass levy gave up their axes and were left only with muskets. Non-commissioned officers [uryadniki] were distinguished from plain or private soldiers by a red band and the same colored piping on the forage cap; a black leather belt fastened in front with a buckle, and a saber or short sword on a black leather belt over the right shoulder. Over the left shoulder they had a leather pouch on the same kind of belt, and were armed partly with muskets and partly with carbines (Illus. 2542). In parade dress officers wore the standard army tailcoat, as prescribed, but almost always they were seen in an army infantry frock coat, gray riding trousers with red piping on the outer seams and black leather reinforcement on the inner seams, and a dark-green forage cap with a red band, red piping, and black leather visor. When on campaign they had sashes and black leather backpacks with similar straps (Illus. 2543). In the summer of 1813, when at Danzig, all druzhinas received clothing made from dark-green Prussian cloth and matching forage caps with red bands (Illus. 2544). Even earlier, in spring of that same year at the start of the blockade of Danzig, when its own mass levy was being formed in Prussia and whose officers had gray cossack-style coats [kazakiny] and forage caps with gold crosses and the inscription “Mit Gott für König,” many officers of the St.-Petersburg druzhinas adopted the same frock coats and sewed to their caps crosses with the Cyrillic inscription “Za Veru i Tsarya” (Illus. 2545). This was by their own choice, even if the authorities decided to allow it, and although there was no established pattern, these continued to be worn right up to the return of the mass levy to St. Petersburg in 1814 (83).
The St.-Petersburg mass levy’s mounted regiments, titled the 1st and 2nd Cossack Regiments, and also called the 1st and 2nd Volunteer Regiments, had caftan coats in cossack style and sharavary pants, and black fur headdresses. These had white cords for lower ranks, with a white hair plume, black chinstrap without scales, and a black leather visor without edging, while for officers these had silver cords, a white hair plume, chinscales the same color as the buttons, and a metallic edge to the visor, again the same color as the buttons. All ranks wore boots with spurs. In the 1st Regiment the uniform was black with light-blue [svetlosinii] or sky-blue [goluboi] collar, pointed cuffs, and pants trim. Braid was made from white thread (silver for officers), and consisted of cords on the chest. White buttons (Illus. 2546 and 2546a). In the 2nd Regiment the uniform was very dark blue [temnosinii] with raspberry collar, cuffs, and trim. For officers the sewn-on braid was black cord with likewise black buttons, while lower ranks had no braid (Illus. 2546 and 2546a). All officers had epaulettes, and lower ranks—worsted cords, white in the 1st Regiment and black in the 2nd. In the 1st Regiment the shako for all ranks was of bearskin with a white (same as the buttons) human skull over two crossed bones. In the 2nd shakos were of bearskin for officers but sheepskin for lower ranks, both with a HIGHEST monogram beneath a crown.
(Note: Due to these shako badges, both regiments were popularly known by nicknames: the 1st (originally formed by Graf Doleiver, succeeded by Colonel Yakhontov) was the Deathdealers [Smertonosnyi] or Immortals [Bezsmertnyi], while the 2nd (formed by Staff-Captain Baron Bode) was Alexander’s [Aleksandriiskii]. Although both regiments were actually cossack, the simularity of parts of their uniforms to those of hussars, specifically the cords on the chest, lead to them often being called hussar regiments.)
Horse furniture was lancer pattern, and the regiments differed in the color of the saddlecloth: black with sky blue or light blue in the 1st, and dark blue with raspberry trim, piping, monograms, and crowns in the 2nd (84).
b) NOVGOROD MASS LEVY.
This opolchenie, consisting of 12 foot druzhinas and active throughout the war of 1812, ’13, and ’14 along with the St.-Petersburg mass levy, was identical to it in regard to uniforms and weapons (85).
III) MASS LEVY OF REGION III.
The commander of this opolchenie, Lieutenant General Graf Tolstoi, established a single common uniform and the same weapons and horse furniture for all its members:
For foot soldiers:
...gray camelhair armyak coat, also called a chepan, trousers or sharavary pants of gray cloth, with a belt [oshkurka], and able to be worn tucked into the boots during inclement weather; neck cloth, leather belt with buckle in place of a girdle; leather cartridge box for 20 rounds, worn on a leather girdle; boots with blunt toes, wide and reaching to the knee so that in bad weather the pants may be tucked into them; leather backpack with two straps; cloth cap on which is a cross pressed out of brass, with the SOVEREIGN EMPOROR’S monogram below; sheepskin half-coats able to cover the lower stomach.
For horse soldiers:
...gray camelhair armyak coat, or chepan; pants as for the infantry; neck cloth, cap as for the infantry; belt with buckle instead of girdle; leather pouch for 10 cartridges, worn on a waistbelt; boots able to have the pants tucked into them in bad weather; sheepskin half-coat as for the infantry; valise; saddle with stirrup straps [putlishcha], crupper [popers’e], lining [podlogon’e], valise straps on the rear arch and two on the front arch for the half-coat, and iron stirrups; bridle with forehead strap [nalobnik], chinstrap [podborodnik], and lead [chumbur]; linen sacks and bags tied to the rear arch, and two pairs of horseshoes.
Additionally, both foot and mounted personnel are to have water flasks with straps. For foot and horse personnel it is not prohibited to have cloth cossack jackets with sleeves, covering the soldier’s chest. (86).
This regulation was not strictly carried out, and the mass levy of Region III had clothing, arms, and horse furniture as follows:
a) NIZHNII-NOVGOROD MASS LEVY.
This opolchenie (5 foot regiments and 1 horse) was clothed at its formation according to Graf Tolstoi’s regulation, with four-cornered caps of lancer pattern, with a band of black sheep’s fleece. Foot soldiers were armed with pikes with a wide flat point (Illus. 2547), while horse soldiers had normal lances sabers and cossack shabracks of gray cloth with red trim and monograms. They were further distinguished from foot troops by having a gray cloth band on the cap instead of fleece, with two rows of red cloth piping. The same piping was along the top and bottom edges of the collar, on the cuffs, and along the front opening; gray cloth girdles with red cloth piping along the edges, with similar trim on the sharavary pants, in one row (Illus. 2547). In 1813, when the Nizhnii-Novgorod mass levy as over the border, soldiers in foot regiments received caftan coats and trousers of the previous pattern but in green, and similar cloth girdles, all with piping or trim of red cloth as for mounted soldiers in 1812. Along with this new uniform they were given infantry shakos of the current pattern, with cords and pompons, muskets, short swords, pouches, and accouterments (Illus. 2548). Horse soldiers received gray jackets with a red collar, lapels, and piping on the cuffs; yellow buttons; red girdles and a red band on the cap, to which was added a gray pompon. Horse soldiers kept all their previous weapons with a small red and white pennant added to the lance (Illus. 2548) (87). No information has been preserved regarding officers’ uniforms in the Nizhnii-Novgorod mass levy.
b) KOSTROMA MASS LEVY.
This opolchenie (4 regiments and 1 battalion on foot, and 1 horse regiment) was uniformed and armed after the manner of the Nizhnii-Novgorod mass levy with the sole difference that in 1813, when over the border, horse soldiers received dark-green jackets of lancer pattern but without tails, with orange collar, lapels, and cuffs, with yellow buttons and white epaulettes; orange girldes with yellow trim; gray riding trousers with orange stripes and piping; gray caps of lancer pattern, with black leather above and an orange band, on which in front over the visor was a triangular badge of yellow brass with the HIGHEST monogram pressed in relief, and a brass cross above the band, with white cords and pompon; black lancer saddlecloths trimmed with two rows of orange cloth. On the fronts of these saddlecloths were sewn HIGHEST monograms of yellow cord, and in the back a coat of arms in the form of a shield divided into quarters: left top—light blue or sky blue, with a yellow half moon turned downward; right top—yellow; left bottom—orange, both without figures; right botton—white with a yellow crown. (Note: This is what is depicted on preserved drawings. The significance of this coat of arms is unknown.) (Illus. 2549). Along with this same uniform and horse furniture, and in addition to their usual distinctions, officers differed from lower ranks in having dark-green chakchiry trousers instead of gray (Illus. 2549) (88).
c) SIMBIRSK MASS LEVY.
This opolchenie (4 foot and 1 horse regiment) was like the Nizhnii-Novgorod in regard to the uniforms for foot and horse soldiers except that instead of four-cornered caps with fleece bands, it had regular round forage caps of gray cloth, with a black leather visor, and turquoise piping on the collar, cuffs, and around the entire caftan coat, as well as on the side seams of the sharavary pants (Illus. 2550). Officers wore all the same uniform as prescribed for lower ranks, but with the collar, cuffs, epaulette field, and forage-cap band made from turquoise cloth. All of them had sabers on a black sword belt (Illus. 2551). In 1813 foot regiments received muskets in place of pikes, while the horse regiment was given completey new cossack style uniforms. These were very dark blue with turquoise collar, cuffs, piping down the front and around the edges of the shoulder straps, trim on the girdle, sharavary pants stripes and piping, and bag on the headdress. Around the entire collar and along the edges of the cuffs and front opening were sewn two rows of thin flat yellow cord. All horse soldiers had on their headdress a white hair plume and likewise white cords, as well as boots with spurs, asaber on a black belt, a pouch on the right side and a pistol on the left—both on black crossbelts, and a lance with a black shaft and a pennant with a turquoise upper half and white below (Illus. 2552). Horse furniture was as standard for cossacks but with hussar saddlecloths of dark-green cloth, with turquoise trim and yellow monograms. Officers of the horse regiment received uniforms of the same pattern as for soldiers but all trim was of thin gold cord, and headdresses had a plume of cock feathers, chinscales, and a visor, the last having a gilt edging on its outside. They were prescribed army hussar officer pattern sabers, sword knots, sword belts (black with gold galloon), pouches, pouch belts (black with gold galloon and silver mountings), sashes, and—for parades—waist-length jackets that were otherwise similar to the caftan coat (Illus. 2552) (89).
d) PENZA MASS LEVY.
The foot soldiers of this opolchenie, part of District III and consisting of 4 foot and 1 horse regiment, were dressed in peasant chepan or kaftan coats of gray cloth, and likewise gray sharavary pants worn over the boots. Each man was to have a neckcloth of any personally chosen color. The coat was girded with a gray cloth sash over which was a black leather strap with buckle. Soldiers in the foot regiments wore gray cloth headdresses shaped like a shako, with a black leather visor. On these was pressed brass cross, the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I, and an elongated badge in the shape of a ribbon with the Cyrillic inscription “Za Veru i Tsarya.” Part of these men were armed with muskets and the other with pikes. Those with muskets wore a black leather cartridge pouch in front, for 20 rounds, affixed to the waistbelt (Illus. 2553). Some had sabers, others short swords, and all were provided with rectangular backpacks of black leather, worn on two black straps crossing over the chest, as well as water flasks of white tin, worn on a black leather strap over the left shoulder.
Soldiers in the horse regiment were dressed just as those on foot except for the addition to the caftan coat of a small white cloth collar and similar cuffs. They all had sabers and the same kind of cartridge pouch and water flask as the foot soldiers. The flask was attached to a black strap worn over the left shoulder.
Most of the men were armed with a lance and a pistol stored in a black leather holster attached to the waistbelt at the left side (Illus. 2554). Some, but not many, had a carbine instead of the pistol.
Every man had a valise of gray cloth attched to the read saddle arch, and all horse furniture was like that of cossacks.
Apart from the clothing described here, neither foot nor mounted soldiers were prohibited from having cloth cossack jackets obtained on their own. Officers who had been retired without the right to wear a uniform, as well as officers who previously had been justs civil officials, had the standard army dress coat, while officers who had left the service with the right to wear the uniform wore those.
In the summer of 1813, when the Penza mass levy was outside Russia, it received uniforms of a new pattern, but no information has been preserved as to what it was exactly (90).
e) KAZAN MASS LEVY, JOINED WITH THE VYATKA MASS LEVY.
The uniform of this opolchenie (1 regiment and 1 battalion of foot and 3 horse sotnias) was in complete conformance with that established by Lieutenant General Graf Tolstoi for the District III mass levy, described above. With it, all soldiers wore the same caps as the foot component of the Simbirsk mass levy, and had: foot—muskets and cartridge pouches on a waistbelt, and horse—lances (Illus. 2555) (91).
f) TEMPORARY FORCES FORMED IN 1812 BUT NOT PART OF THE DISTRICTS OF THE TEMPORARY INTERNAL MASS LEVY.
a) HER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS GRAND DUCHESS CATHERINE PAVLOVNA’S BATTALION.
This battalion, armed as the army jäger regiments of that time, also had similar uniforms, but all dark green without piping. Long breeches [bryuki] or pants [sharavary] were worn over boots; shakos were trimmed with fur—dog for lower ranks and bearskin for officers—with the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I in front. With this officers wore gold guards epaulettes and sabers in scabbards with gilt mountings, hung over the shoulder on top of the coat on a sword belt of black lacquered leather (Illus. 2556) (92).
b) SQUADRON OF KHERSON PROVINCIAL LANDOWNER SKARZHINSKII.
Privates, or cossacks, of this squadron had white cloth jackets without tails, with a sky-blue collar, lapels, and cuffs; white piping on the collar and along all seams; sky-blue piping on the shoulder straps; white buttons; very dark blue sharovary pants with one sky-blue stripe outlined with a white edges; white girdles with sky-blue stripes; cossack headdresses with a sky-blue top and white cords; boots with spurs; sabers with iron hilts, in black scabbards with some iron mountings in places; pistols thrust in the girdle; pouches and pouch belts of black leather; lances with a black shaft; cossack horse furniture, with a sky-blue shabrack trimmed with white tape or white cloth (Illus. 2557). Cossacks in the rear rank, in addition to the above weapons, also had carbines held by a black elkskin strap worn over the right shoulder. Officers’ uniforms had the same colors and pattern as the lower ranks, with silver epaulettes, headdress cords, sashes, and sword knots, and headdresses with bearskin (Illus. 2557) (93).
c) CHERNIGOV MASS LEVY.
Cossacks in this opolchenie (8 three-battalion horse regiments and 1 composite battalion) had dark-green jackets with red piping and yellow regimental numbers on the shoulder straps; dark-green sharavary pants, with a single red stripe; black sheepskin headdresses with a red bag, white cords, and a black woolen plume; deerskin gloves with small guantlet cuffs; sabers with iron hilts, likewise iron open frame on the scabbards; black sword belts; black leather waistbelt 4 vershoks [7 inches] wide, with a cartridge box and two pistol holsters; two pistols each, on black cords; cartridge pouches of white tin with a brass two-headed eagle on the lid; black cartridge-pouch crossbelts (over the left shoulder), with white metal fittings; normal cossack nagaika whips thrust in the waistbelt on the left side; lance on black shafts 4 arshins [9 feet 4 inches] long, with a tricolor pennant: blue [svetlosinii] above, red middle, and white below. Horse furniture was as standard for cossacks, with a dark-gray cloth shabrack without any trim or decoration, and with a dark-blue cloth and fleece coat on the front saddle arch (when not being worn by the cossack) (Illus. 2558) (94).
d) POLTAVA MASS LEVY.
This opolchenie, which consisted of horse and foot cossacks, had two types of uniforms and weapons: horse and foot. Horse cossacks were dressed in dark-blue cossack jackets with red collars and cuffs, and in dark-blue sharavary pants with red stripes and piping; they wore black woolen girdles and had cossack headdresses of black astrakhan with a red cloth bag, white cords, white pompons, black hair plumes, brass chinscales, and a brass monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I within laurels and under a crown. Arms and accouterments were the same as for the Chernigov mass levy, but sword belts were of red Russia leather and the flank cossacks in each platoon additionally had carbines carried on black leather bandoleers. Along with the same horse furniture as in the Cherginov mass levy, Poltava horse cossacks had dark-blue saddlecloths with red cloth trim and HIGHEST monograms (Illus. 2559). Non-commissisoned officers had plumes with white tops (Illus. 2559). Officers had jackets for parades and caftan coats for normal wear. They were distinguished by flat silver cord sewn on the collar, cuffs, and along the front opening, in the same style as the Simbirsk mass levy. They wore silver epaulettes, headdresses with silver cords, pompon, edging on the visor, and white plume; hussar officers’ sabers, sword belts, cartridge pouches with silver fittings, silver sword knots, and silver sashes. Their saddlecloths were trimmed with red cloth as well as silver galloon, and had likewise silver monograms and crowns (Illus. 2560). Lower ranks of the Poltava mass levy’s foot component had, instead of jackets, short gray caftan coats reaching to above the knee; gray sharavary pants, and headdresses of the Don cossack pattern, with a gray bag (Illus. 2561). At first their weaponry consisted solely of pikes, but later also muskets, along with which they received cartridge pouches on a black belt. With both the pike and the musket they had infantry short sword on a black belt worn around the waist. Officers wore silver epaulettes and headdresses of black fleece, with a red top (Illus. 2561) (95).
e) VOLOGDA AND OLONETS MASS LEVY.
This opolchenie, which consisted of marksmen [strelki], was primarily drawn from indigineous Zyryan bird and animal hunters in Yarensk, and Ust-Sysolsk districts. They were prescribed to “have normal peasant clothing such as: cloth Russian caftan [kaftan], European coat [kamzol], or warm coat [fufaika], trousers [shtany], thick boots with foot wrappings, three shirts with pants [porty], hat or cap, neckerchief, and short fur coat for autumn. It is only required that all be of stout construction and not old or worn out. Each man is to have a musket of the kind using in the territory for hunting animals.” (96)
Later, when joined with the St.-Petersburg mass levy, the opolchenie of Vologda and Olonets was uniformed in the same way: gray cloth coats of cossack style, similar pants, and gray forage caps with a black visor and brass cross. Along with this, instead of a girdle, they belted their waists with a black leather strap with a brass buckle in front. They had gray cloth greatcoats and black accouterments of jäger pattern (Illus. 2562) (97). In 1813 this mass levy was uniformed exactly like that of St. Petersburg and Novgorod, i.e. in greenish-blue caftan coats, sharavary pants, and forage caps (98).
f) LIEUTENANT NIROT’S VOLONTEER MARKSMEN CORPS.
No information has been preserved regarding the uniforms and weapons of the Volunteer Corps of Mounted Marksmen [Volonterskii Korpus konnykh strelkov] which was in existence from 16 April 1812 throughout the duration of the Patriotic War. It was formed from the nobility of the Baltic provinces on the initiative of retired Lieutenant Nirot. It is known only that this corps was ordered to follow “the example of light irregular cossack troops.” (99)
g) COURLAND CORPS OF MARKSMEN.
Neither is any information recorded regarding the uniforms and weapons of the Courland Corps of Marksmen [Korpus Kurlayndskikh strelkov], established 12 June 1812 and recruited from Courland forest warden settlements [Bushvekhterskiya seleniya, c.f. German Buschwächter]. It is known only that privates, called Forest Jägers [Forsht-yegeri], were all mounted, and officers and non-commissioned officers were officials assigned from the Forestry administration [Lesnoe vedomstvo] (100).
h) CORPS OF LIVONIAN VOLUNTEER HORSE AND FOOT JÄGERS.
In regard to this corps [Korpus vol’nykh konnykh i peshikh Liflyandskikh yegerei], a relevant regulation of 2 August 1812 shows only that the one horse and two foot companies that comprised it were armed with: the first—broad swords, muskets with bayonets, and pistols, and the latter—daggers and muskets with bayonets. Also, that all the companies had cartridge pouches. What their uniform was remains unknown (101).
i) LIVONIA COSSACK REGIMENT.
On 23 October 1812 this regiment, consisting of two foot battalions, was prescribed: dark-blue cloth caftan coat with red lining; dark-blue sharavary pants with leather reinforcement, and leather cartridge pouches. There is no information on other parts of the uniform or weapons (102).
In regard to clothing and arms for other Temporary forces formed in 1812 and 1813, such as Lieutenant Colonel Diebitsch’s force [otryad Podpolkovnikova Dibicha] (formed from prisoners), the Riga Burgher Companies [Rizhskiya Birgerskiya roty], and the Russo-German Legion [Rossiisko-Germanskii Legion], no information of any kind has been preserved except that uniforms for lower ranks of the Legion were ordered to be made from recruit cloth, with yellow, sky-blue, or red collars (103).
G) FLAGS, BANNERS, AND REGALIA OF THE 1807 RURAL HOST OR MILITIA, AND THE 1812 INTERNAL MASS LEVY.
I) Flags of the 1807 Rural Host.
In 1807 flags were prepared for battalions of the Mobile or Serving militia, but due to the quickly concluded peace treaty with France, they were not issued to the battalions. They had a cross in the center and the inscription “For Faith and Fatherland” [”Za Veru i Otechestvo”]. Some of these flags were white with raspberry cross and inscription, others were raspberry of a more or less dark shade, with white, yellow, orange, sky-blue, and green crosses, and white letters. On the field of the flag, at three edges, was sewn silver or white fringe, and to the top of the pole (of no specified color) was affixed a brass outline of spearhead with a cross in the center (Illus. 2563) (104). It is not known for which militia battalions these flags were intended, nor in what numbers for each.
II) Flags, banners, and regalia of the 1812 Internal Mass Levy.
Of the number of mass levies called out in 1812, some were provided with new, specifically made flags [znamena]. Others, instead of flags, received banners [khorugvi] from local churches, and still others had only other regalia [znachki]. All of these, insofar as is known from surviving information, were as follows:
a) MOSCOW MASS LEVY.
Two banners, raspberry in color, with gold crosses, sun rays, stars, and other figures, and with gold edges. On one of the banners are depicted the Ascension of Our Lord and the Assumption of the Mother of God (Illus. 2564), and on the other—the Transfiguration of Our Lord and Saint Nicholas (Illus. 2565). The second of these banners has a silver fringe around it (105).
b) THIRD FOOT COSSACK REGIMENT, RYAZAN MASS LEVY.
A light-green flag with green fringes, having on each side in the center a rectangle surrounded by a light sky-blue [svetlogoluboi] border, with gold stripes or edging. On one of these rectangles is a painted image of the Saving of the Image Not Created by Human Hands, with the gold Cyrillic words on the edge, “The Lord provides and we do not want” [“Gospod’ nas paset nichtozhe lishit”]; on the other, dark sky-blue [temnogoloboi] rectangle is painted in gold the monogram name of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I, without a crown, and with the gold inscription on the edge “III regiment of the Ryazan mass levy in the year 1812” [“III polka Ryazanskago opolcheniya 1812 goda”]. The pole, the same color as the flag, has a hollow gilt spearhead with EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s monogram, without a crown (Illus. 2566) (106).
c) KALUGA MASS LEVY.
A sky-blue banner with white tracery, gold tassels and edges, and painted depictions: on one side—the Blessed Mother of God of Kaluga, and on the other—the Eminent St Lauretius, Kaluga Miracle Worker, holding in his had a chart on which is written, “By God’s mercy and St. Laurentius’s prayers be preserved from the howling hail” [“Bozhieyu milostiyu i molitvami Svyatago Lavrentiya ot voyuyushchikh izbavi grad sei”] (Illus. 2567) (107).
d) ST.-PETERSBURG MASS LEVY.
A white flag with a red cross in the center; with a gold inscription on the top and sides of the cross: “In this sign conquer” [“Sim pobedishi”], and in the corners gold monograms of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I within laurels. Steel spearhead; ribbons and tassels silver, as for regular infantry regiments; white pole (Illus. 2568) (108).
e) NIZHNII-NOVGOROD MASS LEVY.
A white flag with gold laurel branches around the edges. On one side is depicted in gold: a cross, crown, monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I, and the inscription: “For Faith and Tsar” [“Za Veru i Tsarya”]. Along the sides of the cross are the Cyrillic letters N. and O. (Nizhegorodskoe opolocheni), and along the sides of the monogram the regimental and battalion numbers. For example, in the 1st Battalion of the 1st Regiment: 1-go P. 1-go B. On the reverse is shown a dark-red deer with gold antlers, and under it a gold trophy of arms. (Note: This deer, representing the Nizhni-Novgorod coat of arms, was not entirely accurately displayed on the flags. It should have been red with black antlers and black hoofs.) The spearheads on the poles were hollow, with the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I (Illus. 2569) (109).
f) 3RD COMPANY, 2ND BATTALION, 2ND FOOT REGIMENT OF THE KOSTROMA MASS LEVY.
A small yellow flag [znachek] on one side of which was painted a gold cross and the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I, and on the other an unknown coat of arms showing a shield quartered. The upper left of the shield is raspberry with a yellow cross; the upper right and lower left—yellow or gold, without any images, and the lower right—green with a white crescent turned upside down. Above the shield is inscribed in black letters: “2nd Regiment of the Kostroma mass levy” [“Kostromskago opolcheniya 2-go polka”], and under the shield: “2nd Battalion 3rd Company” [“2-go bataliona 3-i roty”] (Illus. 2570) (110).
g) 1ST INFANTRY REGIMENT OF THE SIMBIRSK MASS LEVY.
A light-green flag with a gold cross in the center and the gold inscription: “1-go Simbirskago pekhotnago polka” [“1st Simbirsk Infantry Regiment’s”]. Black pole with a hollow gilded spearhead in which is the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I (Illus. 2571a) (111).
h) KHERSON PROVINCIAL LANDOWNER SKARZHINSKII’S SQUADRON.
Small light sky-blue flag with a white border and the image of a white unicorn. Light sky-blue pole with an iron spearhead (Illus. 2571b) (112).
i) PENZA MASS LEVY.
There were 10 flags for the foot opolchenie and 4 for the horse. All were of light-green taffeta [tafta] with gold galloon trim around the edges and a yellow 1/2-vershok [7/8-inch] wide fringe. All the flags were square and were 1 arshin [28 inches] along the side for infantry and 7 vershoks [12-1/4 inches] for horse. Both kinds had black poles with ahollow gilded spearhead in the center of which was the HIGHEST monogram. For all flags, one side had painted in gold: a monogram, over which was a crown, along the sides of the monogram were laurel wreaths, over the wreaths were the Cyrillic letters P. and O. [for Poltavskoe opolchenie –M.C.], and under the wreaths—the designation of the regiment, battalion, or squadron, e.g.: for the 1st Battalion of the 1st Foot Regiment—1-go polka 1-go bat. (Illus. 2572a), and for the 3rd Horse Squadron—Ko. Polka 3-go esk. (Illus. 2572b). On the other side of the flags was the inscription: “s nami Bog” [“God with us”], and a gold cross within rays of light. In infantry regiments the cross was similar to the crosses of knightly orders, but straight for horse units. These latter flags also differed from those for infantry in having three gold cords and tassels fastened to the upper part of the pole. In infantry regiments flag poles were 4-1/2 arshins [126 inches] long, and for horse—4 arshins [112 inches] (113).
j) CHERNIGOV MASS LEVY.
1) 1st Battalion of the 1st Regiment—a white flag with gold fringe; in the center a coffee-colored cross with an image of the crucified Saviour. Below the cross the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I underneath a crown; below the upper edge of the field the inscription “1-go Chernigovskago polka” and above the lower edge—“1-go bataliona.” The monogram and letters, as well as the flag’s tassels and cords, were gold; white pole; gilded spearhead with EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s monogram (Illus. 2573a).
2) The same battalion—the same flag but green, with a green pole (Illus. 2573b).
3) The 2nd Battalion of the same regiment—the same flag but light sky-blue, with a sky-blue pole (Illus. 2573c).
4) The 3rd Battalion of the same regiment—the same flag but rose colored, with a red pole (Illus. 2573d).
5) The 1st Battalion of the 2nd Regiment—a white flag with, in the center, a yellow cross, crown, and monogram, with green wreaths along the sides of these. Under the upper edge of the flag a yellow inscription: “Slavnyi 1812 god” [“The glorious year 1812”]; below this the yellow Cyrillic letters Ch. and O., signifying the Chernigov opolchenie, and above the lower edge the yellow inscription: “Vtorago Chernig. Polka batl. 1-go” [“Second Chernigov Regiment’s, 1st btn’s.”]. The fringe, cords, and tassels were of yellow worsted; yellow pole with a flag iron spearhead on which was engraved EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s monogram under a crown (Illus. 2574a).
6) The same battalion—the same flag but dark green, with light-gray wreaths (Illus. 2574b).
7) The 2nd Battalion of the same regiment—the same flag but very dark blue, with light-green wreaths (Illus. 2574c).
8) The 3rd Battalion of the same regiment—the same flag but dark red, with green wreaths (Illus. 2574d).
9) The 1st Battalion of the 6th Regiment—a white flag with a painted gold cross, HIGHEST monogram within laurels and under a crown, the letters Ch. and O., and the inscription: “Slavnyi 1812 god, 6-go polka 1-go bataliona.” White pole with the same cords, tassels, and spearhead as in the 1st Regiment (Illus. 2575a).
10) The 2nd Battalion of the same regiment—the same flag but rose colored, with a sky-blue pole (Illus. 2575b).
11 and 12) The 3rd Battalion of the same regiment—the same flags but sky blue, with light sky-blue poles, with one flag having the word “slavnyi” miswritten as “slvnyi” (Illus. 2575c and 2575d).
13) The Novozybkov Regiment—a white flag with gold fringe and gold inscriptions: below the upper edge—“Chernigovskoe opolchenie,” and above the lower edge—“1812. The Novozybkov Regiment’s”]. In the center the Chernigov coat-of-arms: a black single-headed eagle under a gold crown and with a gold cross in its talons. White pole; spearhead, cords, and tassels as in the preceding flags of the 6th Regiment (Ilus. 2576a).
14) The Gorodnitsk Regiment—the same flag but green, with the inscription below: “Gorodnitskago polka,” and with a dark-green pole (Illus. 2576b) (114).
k) REGIMENTS OF THE POLTAVA MASS LEVY.
A yellow flag with gold fringe and gold cross and monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I under a crown and within laurels; with the letters P. and O. (Poltava opolchenie); with an inscription between the cross and monogram: “Slavnyi 1812 god,” and the regimental and battalion numbers marked out below, for example: 1-go pol. 2-go bat. Straw-colored poles; spearhead, cords, and tassels as for the preceding flags (Illus. 2577) (115).
H) MEDALS AND OTHER BADGES ESTABLISHED TO REWARD SERVICE, MARK MILITARY DEEDS, AND COMMEMORATE NOTEWORTHY MILITARY EVENTS, DURING THE REIGN OF
EMPEROR ALEXANDER I.
1) In 1804 lower ranks who had taken part in the taking by storm of the Persian fortress of Gandja on 3 January 1804 were given silver medals on St.-George ribbon, on the obverse of which was the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I, and on the reverse of which was the inscription: “Za trudy i khrabrost’ pri vzyatii Ganzhi Genvarya 3 1804 goda” [“For service and bravery at the taking of Gandja January 3 1804”] (Illus. 2578a) (116). This medal, as all the following medals, was worn in buttonhole of the uniform coat.
2 and 3) 10 October 1806 and 5 February 1807 - because the current military situation could not allow the release of lower ranks from the active force to fill vacancies in provincial companies and state commands, retired lower ranks were invited to enroll in these units. For those who served a term of three years in these companies and commands and then volunteered to remain in service, there was established a silver medal inscribed “Za userdnuyu sluzhbu. 1806” [“For zealous service. 1806”], with a stand of arms on the reverse, and worn on a red ribbon (Illus. 2578b) (117), and for serving a term of six years—the same medal but on a sky-blue ribbon, with the inscription: “V chest’ zasluzhennomu soldatu 1806” [“In honor of a veteran soldier 1806”] (Illus. 2578c) (118).
4) 15 March 1807 – with the establishment of the Mobile or Serving Militia, a silver medal was instituted for those members who would take part in operational fighting. On the obverse was a bust of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I surrounded by the inscription “Aleksandr I Imp. Vseross. 1807” [“Alexander I Emp. of All the Russ. 1807”], and on the reverse—the inscription “Za Veru i Otechestvo. Zemskomu voisku” [“For Faith and Fatherland. The Rural Host”] (119). With the end of the war with France in that same year of 1807, these medals were distributed to the Mobile Militia in the following manner: gold on a St.-George ribbon for officers who took part in battles (Illus. 2578d), silver on a St.-George ribbon for militia soldiers who took part in battles (Illus. 2578e), and gold on a St. Vladimir ribbon for officers who had not taken part in any combat (Illus. 2578f) (120).
5) 13 February 1807 – to decorate lower military ranks who while actively serving in army or naval forces “distinguished themselves in the face of the enemy by their outstanding courage,” there was established a silver cross on a St.-George ribbon, in the center of which, on the obverse, was an image of St. George on horseback, and on the reverse—the initial letters of the words “St. George,” i.e. the Cyrillic letters S. and G., one laid over the other. On this same side, on the cross itself, was the serial number marking the seniority of receipt (Illus. 2579a), so that the first cross awarded showed No. 1, the second—No. 2, and so on. This decoration was given the name Badge of Distinction of the Military Order [Znak otlichiya Voennago Ordena] (121).
6) 31 August 1807 – to decorate all those officers who had taken part in the battle with the French near the town of Preussisch-Eylau and who had not received orders of St. George or St. Vladimir, but who had been nominated by the Command-in-Chief for a medal, there was established a gold cross on a St.-George ribbon, with inscriptions in the center: on the obverse—“Za trudy i khrabrost’” [“For deeds and bravery”], and on the reverse—“Pobeda pri Preish-Eilau 27 Gen. 1807 g.” [“Victory at Preussisch-Eylau 27 Jan. 1807”] (Illus. 2579c) (122).
7 and 8) 14 April 1809 – to commemorate the feats performed by the various corps under the command of Lieutenant General Barclay-de-Tolly and General-Adjutant Graf Shuvalov, as well as the vanguard of Prince Bagration’s corps commanded by Major General Kulnev, all of which crossed into Swedish territory: the corps of Baclay-de-Tolly across the part of the Gulf of Bothnia called the Kvarken, the corps of Graf Shuvalov through Torneo, and Kulnev’s column—through Alandshaf, there were established silver medals for wear by lower ranks on a sky-blue ribbon. On the obverse was the monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I, and on the reverse the inscription—for the troops of Lieutenant General Baclay-de-Tolly and Major General Kulnev—“Za perekhod na Shvedskii bereg 1809” [“For the crossing of the Swedish coast 1809”] (Illus. 2579c), and for the troops of Graf Shuvalov—“Za prokhod v Shvetsiyu chrez Torneo. 1809” [“For crossing into Sweden through Torneo. 1809”] (Illus. 2579d) (123).
9 and 10) 13 June 1810 – to decorate field and company-grade officers of the corps of Lieutenant General Graf Kamenskii 1 who distinguished themselves at the capture by assault of the Turkish fortress of Bazardzhik, but who did not receive knightly orders, there were instituted gold crosses worn on a St.-George ribbon, inscribed on the obverse with “Za otlichnuyu khrabrost’ [“For distinguished courage”], and on the reverse with “pri vzyatie pristupom Bazardzhika 2 Maiya 1810 goda” [“at the taking of Bazardzhik by storm, 22 May 1810”] (Illus. 2580a). Lower ranks who took part in the assault received silver medals, also on a St.-George ribbon, on whose face was the bust of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I encircled by the inscription: “Aleksandr I Imp. Vseross.” [“Alexander I Emp. of All the Russ.”]. On the reverse was the inscription “Za otlichie pri vzyatie pristupom Bazardzhika 22 Maiya 1810 g.” [“For distinction at the taking of Bazardzhik by storm, 22 May 1810”] (Illus. 2580b) (124).
11) 5 February 1813 – to commemorate the Patriotic War of 1812, there was established for all ranks who had taken part a silver medal on a sky-blue ribbon. On the face was the All-Seeing Eye within rays of light, under which was written “1812 god,” and on the reverse was the inscription “Ne nam, ne nam, a imeni Tvoemu” [“Not for us, no us, but in Your name”] (Illus. 2580c) (125).
12) 30 August 1814 – to commemorate the entry of Russian troops into Paris, for all ranks who took part in that event on that day in 1814 it was planned to establish a silver medal. It was only distributed during the reign of the SOVEREIGN EMPEROR NICHOLAS PAVLOVICH on 19 March 1826. To be worn on a ribbon that was half sky-blue and half St.-George colors, this medal had on its obverse a bust of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I in a laurel wreath, surrounded by rays of light emanating from the All-Seeing Eye, and on the reverse was the inscription “Za vzyatie Parizha 19-go Marta 1814” [“For the taking of Paris 19 March 1814”] (Illus. 2580d) (126).
END OF VOLUME EIGHTEEN.
(1) Complete Collection of Laws [Polnoe Sobranie Zakonov, henceforth PSZ], Vol. XLIV, pg. 58, No. 19,983, and contemporary drawings.
(3) Ibid., No. 20,901, and information and drawings received from the Don Host Government Ataman, 26 November 1846, No. 498.
(4) Ibid., No. 23,492, contemporary drawings, and information from contemporaries.
(5) Contemporary drawings and information from contemporaries.
(6) Instruction of Host Ataman Graf Platov to Government Ataman Ilovaiskii 5, 30 April 1816.
(7) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 102, No. 26,002.
(8) Instruction for Host Ataman Graf Platov to the commander of the Ataman Regiment, Major General Grekov 18, 11 October 1816, and contemporary drawings.
(9) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 137, No. 17,990.
(10) Announcement by the Chief of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’S Main Staff to the Chairman of the Committee for Don Host organization, General-Adjutant Chernyshev, 3 May 1822.
(11) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 136, No. 26,138.
(12) Ibid., and information received from the DON HOST GOVERNMENT ATAMAN, 26 November 1846, No. 498.
(13) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 137, No. 17,990, and contemporary drawings.
(14) Information received from the Black Sea Cossack Host, and HIGHEST Confirmed description of its uniforms and accouterments, 11 February 1816.
(15) Information from the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.
(16) Memorandum to the Black Sea Host Chancellery from the Field Ataman of Don Cossack Regiments in the Separate Caucasus Corps, Major General Vlasov, 2 March 1822, No. 642.
(17) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 136, No. 26,138.
(18) Information received from the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.
(19) Memorandum of the command-in-chief of the Separate Caucasus Corps to the Chief of Ways of Communications and Public Buildings, 4 August 1846, No. 1859.
(20) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pgs. 118 and 119, No. 26,839.
(21) Submission of the Astrakhan Cossack Host’s administration office to the Host officer commanding officer, Colonel Popov, 8 October 1846, No. 3004, and a directive from HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’S Main Staff’s Inspection Department to the Lieutenant Dontsov of the Astrakhan Cossack Host, 29 January 1818, No. 682.
(23) Information and drawings provided by the Kalmuck ruler of the Khomoutov ulus, Colonel Prince Serbedzhas-Tyumenev, who commanded the 2nd Kalmuck Regiment during the 1812, 1813, and 1814 campaigns, and in the years following.
(24) The same information and drawings.
(25) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 58, № 20,901.
(26) PSZ, Vol. XXVII, pg. 650, No. 20,789, and information and drawings received in 1847 from the Inspector of Reserve Cavalry and from the Kherson Civil Governor.
(27) The same information and drawings.
(28) The same information.
(29) PSZ, Vol. XXXII, pg. 339, No. 25,129, and information and drawings received in 1847 from the Inspector of Reserve Cavalry.
(30) The same information and drawings.
(31) The same information and drawings.
(32) Information and drawings provided by the commander of the 23rd Infantry Division in the absence of the commander of the Separate Orenburg Corps, 11 March 1848, No. 434.
(33) The same information and drawings, and a directive of the Orenburg Military Governor to the Host Chancellery of the Ural Host, 18 November 1806, No. 498.
(34) The same information and drawings, and a directive of the Orenburg Military Governor to the Host Ataman of the Ural Host, 19 July 1817, No. 795.
(35) HIGHEST Confirmed report of the State Military Collegium on the organization of the Orenburg Cossack Host and the Orenburg Permanent Cossack Regiment, 8 June 1803, point 12.
(36) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 59, No. 22,760.
(37) Directive of the Host Ataman of the Don Host to the Host Ataman of the Orenburg Host, Colonel Ugletskii, 13 March 1808, No. 393.
(38) Directive of the Orenburg Military Governor and Commander of the Separate Orenburg Corps to the Host Ataman of the Orenburg Host, 14 February 1816, No. 319.
(39) HIGHEST confirmed table of uniforms, weapons, and accouterments for one Orenburg Horse-Artillery company, 28 February 1821, and drawings received in 1848 from the commander of the Separate Orenburg Corps.
(40) Information received from the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.
(41) Information and drawings provided by the commander of the Separate Siberian Corps, 5 January 1847, No. 34.
(42) The same information and drawings.
(43) PSZ, Vol. XXX, pg. 947, No. 23,619.
(44) Instruction of Lieutenant General Glazenap to the Host Chancellery of the Siberian Line Cossack Host, 7 July 1812, No. 575.
(45) The information and drawings referred to in Notes 41 and 42.
(46) Collection of Laws and Regulations Relating to the Military Administration, 1816, Book III, pg. 153 et seq., and information received from the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.
(47) Information from the commander of the Separate Siberian Corps, 23 August 1849, No. 5079.
(48) Information delivered in 1847 from the officer in charge of the Trans-Baikal Town Cossack Regiment.
(49) Instructions of Irkutsk Civil Governor Treskin to the officer in charge of the Irkutsk Cossack Regiment, 6 June 1813.
(50) Report of the official in charge of Irkutsk Province to the acting Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, 29 July 1848, No. 4318.
(51) PSZ, Vol. XXVIII, No. 29,131, pg. 539, §§ 102-109.
(52) Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army, Vol. X, Chapter XXII, and PSZ, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 29,131, pg. 532, §§ 6-15.
(53) Ibid., pg. 544, § 182.
(54) Information and drawings provided by the commander of the Separate Siberian Corps, 23 August 1849, No. 5079.
(55) Directive of the Irkutsk Civil Governor to the acting Ataman of the Yeniseisk Cossack Regiment, 28 February 1824, No. 225, and drawings enclosed with this directive.
(56) Note on the uniform clothing of Town and Border cossacks in Irkutsk Province, sent by Irkutsk Civil Governor Zeidler to the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia in a report of 15 March 1823, No. 736, and a submission to him by the Governor-General, 15 February 1824, No. 108.
(57) The same information as in the preceding Note, a report by the official in charge of Irkutsk Province, Karpinskii, to the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, 17 April 1847, and drawings accompanying a directive of Collegial Assessor Zeidler to Tsurukhaituevsk Border Warden 12th class Razgildeev.
(58) The report of 17 April 1847 referenced in the preceding Note.
(59) Information received from the Balaclava Infantry Battalion.
(60) All information included in this section, as well as the accompanying drawings of flags, are taken from information and drawings provided by the Irregular Forces and the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.
(61) PSZ, Vol. XXIV, pg. 923, No. 22,390.
(62) Moscow Section of the Archive of the War Ministry’s Inspection Department, file on Militia, 1806, No. 157/220, bundle I, book “A”, and statements by contemporaries.
(63) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.
(64) 1) Drawings of the uniforms of the IMPERIAL Militia Battalion, created at the direction of TSESAREVICH CONSTANTINE PAVLOVICH by Academician Orlovskii and given in 1835 by the late GRAND DUKE MICHAEL PAVLOVICH to the Life-Guards Finland Regiment; 2) some actual items preserved up to now; portraits and evidence provided by persons who served in the IMPERIAL Militia Battalion, and 3) A Short Outline History of the Life-Guards Finland Regiment, by Major General Marin, who served in the regiment, St. Petersburg 1846, book I, page 10, and book II, pg. 153. The subsequent uniform of the battalion upon its incorporation into the Guards is appropriately located in Volume XIV of Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army.
(65) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 1039, No. 22,480, and statements by contemporaries.
(67) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 1047, Nos. 22,498 and 22496, and statements by contemporaries.
(68) Information and a drawing received from the chief of Vladimir Province, in correspondence of 18 September 1847, No. 8856.
(69) Report of the Riga Town Magistrate, 27 May 1847, No. 4354.
(70) PSZ, Vol. XXII, pg. 1114, No. 16,716.
(71) PSZ, Vol. XXX, pg. 456, No. 23,177, and information from the local administration.
(72) Statements by contemporaries who served in the Army of the Dnieper.
(73) Information and drawings received from the Moscow Military Governor-General in correspondence of 11 November 1846, No. 6493, and statements by contemporaries.
(74) The same information.
(75) Information extracted from the files of the Revisions department of the Tver Government Office, 2nd Desk of the recruiting section, regarding the 1812 mass levy, and statements from contemporaries.
(76) Correspondence from the chief of Yaroslavl Province, 21 December 1846, No. 8267.
(77) Information and drawings received from the chief of Vladimir Province in correspondence of 18 September 1847, No. 8856.
(78) Information received from the chief of Ryazan Province in correspondence of 31 May 1847, No. 7477.
(79) Information provided in 1847 to the chief of Tula Province by former members of the Tula mass levy: its commander, Colonel Bobrishchev-Pushkin, Collegial Assessors Khozikov and Speranskii, and retired artillery Lieutenant Novokshchenov. Also, information extracted from the archival files of the Kashira government offices by local police official Makshev-Matonov.
(80) Form the same information, especially a report from the Kashira police official to the chief of Tula Province, 1 May 1847, No. 352.
(81) Information received in correspondence from the chief of Kaluga Province, 10 February 1847, No. 1777.
(82) Information received from the Vitebsk, Mogilev, and Smolensk governor-general, in correspondence of 8 August 1847, No. 864.
(83) File No. 298 in the archive of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, “On providing the St.-Petersburg, Novgorod, and other mass levies with pay from the Commissariat, sheets 13 et seq.; Notes regarding the formation and field service itself of the St.-Petersburg mass levy of 1812 and 1813, Naval Captain-Lieutenant B. V. Sht., St. Petersb., 1814; oral statements by persons who served in the St.-Petersburg mass levy, especially the former commander of the 5th Druzhina, Senator and Privy Councilor D. M. Mordvinov, and State Councilor R. M. Zotov.
(85) Statements from State Councilor Zotov.
(86) Submission of the Simbirsk Civil Governor to the Committee of Simbirsk military forces, 29 August 1812, No. 4089.
(87) Information and drawings received in correspondence form the chief of Nizhnii-Novgorod Province, 6 November 1846, No. 13,463.
(88) Information and drawings received from the chief of Kostroma Province, in correspondence of 4 March 1847, No. 1966.
(89) Information received from the chief of Simbirsk Province, in correspondence of 4 November 1846, No. 8291.
(90) Information and drawings received in 1853 from the Penza Province’s Representative of the Nobility, Actual State Councilor Olsufev.
(91) Inforomation provided by the Kazan Military Governor and the chief of Vyatka Province, in correspondence of 4 October 1844, No. 1107, and 22 February 1847, No. 2852, and statements from contemporaries.
(92) Statements from the organizer and former commander of this battalion, Senator and Actual Privy Councilor Prince Obolenskii.
(93) Information and drawings received in correspondence from the chief of Kherson Province, 11 February 1847, No. 2086.
(94) Information and a drawing received from the chief of Chernigov Province in correspondence of 16 July 1847, No. 11,470.
(95) Information provided by the Chernigov, Poltava, and Kharkov governor-general, in correspondence of 4 December 1846, No. 5587, and 23 March 1849, No. 1174.
(96) Information provided by the chief of Vologda Province in correspondence of 23 October 1846, No. 7416, and by persons who served in the St.-Petersburg mass levy.
(97) Information and drawings provided by the chief of Olonets Province in correspondence of 9 August 1847, No. 8885.
(98) Statement by former member of the St.-Petersburg mass levy State Councilor Zotov.
(99) Announcement from the Minister of War, General-of-Infantry Barclay de-Tolly, to the chief of War Ministry departments, Lieutenant General Prince Gorchakov, 16 April 1812, No. 994.
(100) PSZ, Vol. XXXII, pg. 352, No. 25,139.
(101) Plan or proposal for the formation of a corps of Lifland horse and foot jägers, given to it commander, Lieutenant Schmit by the Riga Military Governor, Lieutenant General Essen, 2 August 1812, No. 492.
(102) Report by Courland Civil Governor Sievers to Riga Military Governor Lieutenant General Essen, 22 October 1812, No. 49, and the former’s directive from Lieutenant General Essen, 23 October 1812, No. 1030.
(103) PSZ, Vol. XXXII, pg. 501, No. 25,310.
(104) Serveral such flags that came from the Tiraspol Fortress, preserved in the Kiev Arsenal.
(105) The first of these banners is at the Moscow Uspenskii Cathedral and the second at the Preobrazhenskaya Spasskaya Church in that same city. Drawings were provided by the headquarters office of the 4th District of the Ways of Communications.
(106) Drawing of the flag kept at the Ryazan Uspenskii Cathedral, received with correspondence from the chief of Ryazan Province, 31 May 1847, No. 7477.
(107) Drawing of the banner kept at the Kaluga Cathedral, received with correspondence from the chief of Kaluga Province, 10 February 1847, No. 1777.
(108) Flag kept at the old St.-Petersburg arsenal.
(109) Actual flag received with correspondence from the chief of Nizhnii-Novgorod Province, 6 November 1846, No. 13,436.
(110) Drawing of the flag received with correspondence from the chief of Kostroma Province, 4 March 1847, No. 1966.
(111) Drawing of the flag received with correspondence from the chief of Simbirsk Province, 4 November 1846, No. 8291.
(112) Drawing and description of the flag, received with correspondence from the chief of Kherson Province, 14 February 1847, No. 2086.
(113) Information and drawings received in 1853 from the Penza Provincial Representative of the Nobility, Actual State Councilor Olsuf’ev.
(114) Drawings and description of flags preserved in the Chernigov Spasopreobrazhenskii Cathedral, received with correspondence from the chief of Chernigov Province, 16 July 1847, No. 11,470.
(115) Drawing of flags kept at the Poltava Uspenskii Cathedral, received with correspondence from the Chernigov, Poltava, and Kherson Governor-General, 4 December 1846, No. 5587.
(116) This as well as all the following drawings are taken from actual medals and other insignia, and are shown actual size.
(117) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, No. 22,326, pg. 793, article 10, and No. 22,448, pg. 1006, article 3 and 5.
(119) Ibid., Vol. XXIX, No. 22,496, pg. 1051, article 15.
(120) Information extracted from personal service records of members of the Mobile Militia, and testimony from some of these veterans.
(121) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, No. 22,455, pg. 1013.
(122) Ibid., Vol. XXIX, No. 22,606, pg. 1259.
(123) HIGHEST Order, 14 April 1809.
(124) PSZ, Vol. XXXI, No. 24,258, pg. 212.
(125) HIGHEST Order to the forces, 5 February 1813, at Klodawa, and PSZ, Vol. XXXII, No. 25,505, pg. 702.
(126) PSZ, Vol. XXXII, No. 25,761, pg. 907, article 3; HIGHEST Order to the Russian forces, 19 March 1826, and PSZ, 2nd Collection, Vol. I, No. 441, pg. 652.
END OF NOTES TO VOLUME EIGHTEEN.