HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION

OF THE CLOTHING AND

ARMS OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY

A.V. VISKOVATOV



Compiled by Highest direction

Saint Petersburg, Military Typography Office, 1851



[TRANSLATED BY MARK CONRAD, 2010]

--------------------------------------------

VOLUME 16

Guards Artillery, Sappers, Engineers, Horse Pioneers, General Staff, Garrison, Invalids, Équipage, and Training Units.

1801-1825





Changes in the uniforms and equipment from 1801 to 1825.

XLI.

Guards Foot Artillery

XLII.

Guards Horse Artillery

XLIII.

Guards Sappers

XLIV.

Guards Horse Pioneers

XLV.

Guards Engineers

XLVI.

Guards General Staff

XLVII.

Guards Garrison

XLVIII.

Guards Invalids

XLIX.

Guards Équipage

L.

Instructional Grenadier Battalions and Instructional Carabinier Regiment

LI.

Instructional Cavalry Squadron.

LII.

Instructional Artillery Brigade

LIII.

Instructional Sapper Battalion



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

2138. Company-Grade Officer and Cannoneer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1801-1803. Note: in the same year, the straw-colored gloves and netherwear were changed to white.

2139. Officer’s shabrack and pistol carriers of the Guards Foot Artillery, established in 1803.

2140. Mounted-Gun Handler, Bombardier, and Cannoneer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1803-1807. Note: In 1805 the round powder flasks were replaced by pouches or front boxes, as shown in Illus. 2091.

2141. Non-Commmissioned Officer [Feierverker] and Drummer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

2142. Field-Grade Officer and Company-Grade Officer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

2143. Bombardier and Cannoneer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1805-1807.

2144. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1807-1809.

2145. Non-Commmissioned Officer [Feierverker] and Cannoneer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1807-1808. (In winter and summer uniform.)

2146. Non-Commmissioned Officer [Feierverker] and Bombardier. Guards Foot Artillery, 1808-1809.

2147. Shako plate for Guards Foot Artillery, established 1808.

2148. Company-Grade Officer and General. Guards Foot Artillery, 1808-1809.

2149. Officers’ embroidery for Guards Artillery, established in 1809.

2150. Cannoneer and Non-Commmissioned Officer [Feierverker]. Guards Foot Artillery, 1809-1810.

2151. Field-Grade Officer and General. Guards Foot Artillery, 1809.

2152. Cannoneer and Non-Commmissioned Officer [Feierverker]. Guards Foot Artillery, 1809-1810.

2153. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1809-1810.

2154. Bombardier. Guards Foot Artillery, 1810-1811.

2155. Company-Grade Officers. Guards Foot Artillery, 1810-1811.

2156. Non-Commmissioned Officers [Feierverkery]. Guards Foot Artillery, 1811.

2157. Company-Grade Officer and Bombardier. Guards Foot Artillery, 1812-1814.

2158. Non-Combatants. Guards Foot Artillery, 1812-1825.

2159. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1814-1816.

2160. Non-Commmissioned Officer [Feierverker], Bombardier, and Drummer. Guards Foot Artillery, 1814-1816.

2161. Cannoneer and Company-Grade Officer. 1st Guards Artillery Brigade, 1817-1818.

2162. Shako plate for Guards Foot Artillery, established in 1817.

2163. Drum Major. 1st Guards Artillery Brigade, 1817-1818.

2164. Field-Grade Officer and Bombardier. 2nd Guards Artillery Brigade, 1817-1824.

2165. Drummer and Musician. 2nd Guards Artillery Brigade, 1817-1824.

2166. Company-Grade Officer of the 1st and Non-Commissioned Officer of the 2nd Guards Artillery Brigades, 1817-1824.

2167. Bombardier. L.-Gds. Foot Battery Company No. 5, 1818-1824.

2168. Field-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Foot Battery Company No. 5, 1818-1824.

2169. Company-Grade Officer and Cannoneer. 1st Guards Artillery Brigade, 1818-1824.

2170. Company-Grade Officer. 2nd Guards Artillery Brigade, 1820-1824.

2171. Musicians. 1st Guards Artillery Brigade, 1820-1824.

2172. Non-Commissioned Officers [Feierverkery]. 1st and 2nd Guards Artillery Brigades, 1824-1825.

2173. Company-Grade Officer. 1st Guards Artillery Brigade, 1824-1825.

2174. Bombardier and Company-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1801-1802. Note. In the same year of 1802, straw-colored gloves and netherwear were replaced by white.

2175. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Horse Artillery, 1802-1803.

2176. Bombardier. Guards Horse Artillery, 1803-1807.

2177. Cannoneer and Trumpeter. Guards Horse Artillery, 1803-1807.

2178. Non-Commissioned Officer [Feierverker]. Guards Horse Artillery, 1803-1807.

2179. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1803-1807.

2180. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1803-1807.

2181. Cannoneer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1806-1807.

2182. Field-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1807-1809.

2183. Field-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1809-1811.

2184. Company-Grade Officers. Guards Horse Artillery, 1808-1811. (In campaign and parade uniform.)

2185. Cannoneer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1808-1809.

2186. Cannoneer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1809-1811.

2187. Non-Commissioned Officer [Feierverker] and Cannoneer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1811-1812.

2188. Trumpeter and Company-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1811.

2189. Cannoneer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1812-1814.

2190. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1812-1824.

2191-92. Company-Grade Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1814-1817.

2193. Bombardier. Guards Horse Artillery, 1817-1820.

2194. Company-Grade Officers. Guards Horse Artillery, 1817-1819.

2195. Officer’s Cartridge Pouch for the Guards Horse Artillery, established in 1817.

2196. Cannoneer and Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Horse Light Battery No. 3, 1818-1820.

2197. Company-Grade Officer and Cannoneer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1818-1820.

2198. Trumpeter and Company-Grade Officer. Guards Horse Artillery, 1820-1824.

2199. Company-Grade Officer and Bombardier. Guards Horse Artillery, 1824-1825.

2200. Miner. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1812-1814.

2201. Sapper and Non-Commissioned Officer. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1812-1815.

2202. Musician and Field-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1812-1815.

2203. Miner. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1814-1815.

2204. Non-Commissioned Officer and Miner. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1816-1817.

2205. Shako Plate for the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, established 1816.

2206. Field-Grade Officer and Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1816-1817.

2207. Miner. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1817-1819.

2208. Adjutant. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1817-1820.

2209. Signaler [Signalist]. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1820-1822.

2210. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1820-1822.

2211. Private and Drummer. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1822-1824.

2212. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1822-1824.

2213. Private, Non-Commissioned Officer, and Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 1824-1825.

2214. Private. L.-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1819-1824.

2215. Non-Commissioned Officer and Trumpeter. L.-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1819-1824.

2216. Field-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1822-1824

2217. Officer’s Cartridge Pouch,. L.-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron, since 1819.

2218. Company-Grade Officers. L-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1819-1825. Note: In 1822, the coattail turnbacks were ordered to be red with white piping instead of black with red.

2219. Field-Grade Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer. L.-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1822-1824.

2220. Private and Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1824-1825.

2221. Field-Grade Officer. Guards Engineers, 1820-1825.

2222. Company-Grade Officer. Guards General Staff, 1814-1816.

2223. Company-Grade Officer. Guards General Staff, 1816-1817.

2224. Officers’ Embroidery for the Guards General Staff, since 1816.

2225. Field-Grade Officer. Guards General Staff, 1817-1825.

2226. Private and Non-Commissioned Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1801-1804.

2227. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1801-1804.

2228. Private. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1804-1807.

2229. Field-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1804-1807.

2230. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1807-1808.

2231. Non-Commissioned Officer and Musician. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1808-1809.

2232. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1808-1809.

2233. Non-Commissioned Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1809.

2234. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1809-1811.

2235. Drummer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1810-1812.

2236. Company-Grade Officer and Field-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1811-1812.

2237. Non-Commissioned Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1812-1815.

2238. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1812-1815.

2239. Private. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1816-1824.

2240. Drummer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1816-1819.

2241. Company-Grade Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1816-1824.

2242. Drummer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1820-1824.

2243 and 2244. Company-Grade Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer. L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, 1824-1825.

2245. Private. Guards Invalid Companies, 1809-1811.

2246. Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Invalid Companies, 1812-1815.

2247. Private. Guards Invalid Companies, 1816-1824.

2248. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Invalid Companies, 1816-1824.

2249. Guards Non-Serving Invalid. 1816-1823.

2250. Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Invalid Companies, 1824-1825.

2251. Company-Grade Officer and Private. Guards Invalid Companies Nos. 14-15, 1819-1825.

2252. Sailors. Guards Équipage, 1810. (In winter and summer formation uniform.)

2253. Shako plate for the Guards Équipage, 1810-1825 .

2254. Sailor. Guards Équipage, 1810. (In summer and everyday uniform.)

2255. Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Équipage, 1810. (In summer formation uniform.)

2256. Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Équipage, 1810. (In summer non-formation uniform.)

2257. Company-Grade Officer and Field-Grade Officer. Guards Équipage, 1810. (In winter and summer uniform.)

2258. Officers’ embroidery for the Guards Équipage, 1810-1811.

2259. Field-Grade Officer. Guards Équipage, 1810-1811. (In undress coat.)

2260. Cannoneer and Bombardier. Artillery Command of the Guards Équipage, 1810. (In winter uniform.)

2261. Non-Commissioned Officer. Artillery Command of the Guards Équipage, 1810. (In winter uniform.)

2262. Company-Grade Officers. Artillery Command of the Guards Équipage, 1810. (In summer uniform and undress coat.)

2263. Sailors. Guards Équipage, 1811.

2264. Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Équipage, 1811.

2265. Bombardier and Non-Commissioned Officer. Artillery Command of the Guards Équipage, 1811.

2266. Drummers. Guards Équipage and its Artillery Command, 1811.

2267. Fifer and Musician. Guards Équipage, 1811.

2268. Company-Grade Officers. GuardsÉquipage and its Artillery Command, 1811.

2269. Sailor and Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Équipage, 1812-1816.

2270. Company-Grade Officer. Guards Équipage, 1812-1816.

2271. Officer’s Embroidery for the Guards Équipage, since 1812.

2272. Non-Commissioned Officer and Bombardier. Artillery Command of the Guards Équipage, 1812-1816.

2273. Sailors. Guards Équipage, 1817-1823.

2274. Non-Commissioned Officer and Drummer. Guards Équipage, 1817-1819.

2275. Company-Grade Officers. Guards Équipage, 1817-1823.

2276. Company-Grade Officer and Cannoneer. Artillery Command of the Guards Équipage, 1817-1823.

2277. Fifer. Guards Équipage, 1820-1823.

2278. Company-Grade Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer. Guards Équipage, 1824-1825.

2279. Field-Grade Officer. Guards Équipage, 1824-1825.

2280. Grenadiers. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1808-1809.

2281. Grenadier and Non-Commissioned Officer. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1808-1809.

2282. Drummer. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1808-1810.

2283. Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1808-1810.

2284. Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1809.

2285. Private. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1811.

2286. Non-Commissioned Officer. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1811.

2287. Private and Non-Commissioned Officer. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1812-1816.

2288. Drummer and Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Grenadier Battalions, 1812-1816.

2289. Private and Non-Commissioned Officer. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1816-1823.

2290. Private and Non-Commissioned Officer. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1816-1823.

2291. Jäger Drummer. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1816-1823.

2292. Musician. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1816-1818.

2293. Company-Grade Officers. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1816-1823.

2294. Field-Grade Officer. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1816-1820.

2295. Drummer and Fifer. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1818-1819.

2296. Field-Grade Officer. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1820-1823.

2297. Musician. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1820-1823.

2298. Jäger and Carabinier. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1824-1825.

2299. Field-Grade Officer. Instructional Carabinier Regiment, 1824-1825.

2300. Private. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1809-1811.

2301. Non-Commissioned Officer and Trumpeter. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1809-1811.

2302. Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1809-1811.

2303. Non-Commissioned Officer and Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1812-1816.

2304. Private and Non-Commissioned Officer. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1817-1820.

2305. Company-Grade Officers. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1817-1823.

2306. Trumpeter. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1817-1819.

2307. Trumpeter. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1820-1823.

2308. Non-Commissioned Officer and Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 1824-1825.

2309. Cannoneer and Non-Commissioned Officer [Feierverker]. Instructional Artillery Brigade, 1820-1823.

2310. Company-Grade Officer and Drummer. Instructional Artillery Brigade, 1820-1823.

2311. Non-Commissioned Officer [Feierverker] and Bombardier. Instructional Artillery Brigade, 1824-1825.

2312. Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Artillery Brigade, 1824-1825.

2313. Private and Non-Commissioned Officer. Instructional Sapper Battalion, 1822-1823.

2314. Drummer. Instructional Sapper Battalion, 1822-1823.

2315. Field-Grade Officer. Instructional Sapper Battalion, 1822-1823.

2316. Private and Company-Grade Officer. Instructional Sapper Battalion, 1824-1825.




XLI. GUARDS FOOT ARTILLERY.
[Gvardeiskaya peshaya artilleriya.]


9 April 1801 - Lower ranks of the foot companies in the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion were ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 4 vershoks [7 inches] long, tying them midway down the collar (1).

10 May 1801 - Train officers [furshtatskie ofitsery] in the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion were prescribed to have the uniforms as other officers in this battalion, except with green pants (2).

18 May 1801 - Lower combatant ranks of the foot companies in the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion were given dark-green coats. These were of the same pattern as prescribed at this time for lower combatant ranks of Army and Guards Infantry, with a collar and cuffs of black worsted velvet [trip] or black plissé [plis]. There were flaps on the cuffs and—for gun handlers [gandlangery], cannoneers, and bombardiers—also a strap on the left shoulder, of black cloth with red cloth piping. There was the same sewn-on tape on the collar and cuff flaps as in the L.-Gds. Preobrazhenskii Regiment. The skirt turnbacks were of black cloth trimmed with red cloth piping, and the lining was black kersey (Illus. 2138). Small clothes were of pale straw-colored cloth. The hat tassels were yellow with a dark-green center. Boots, with a a notch cut out in the back, and all other items of clothing, accouterments, and arms were prescribed to be as for Army Foot Artillery, except that buttons, sword hilts, short-sword hooks and chapes, and metal fittings to sword belts, powder holders, crossbelts, and knapsack straps were all of copper (red brass) as for the rest of the Guards. Also, the crossbelt for drummers was trimmed with yellow and red tape. Officers had gold embroidered buttonhole loops on the coat’s collar and cuff flaps, and a gold aiguilette on the right shoulder. Otherwise, they were distinguished from lower ranks in the same way as throughout the Infantry, except that they were not authorized gorgets (Illus. 2138) (3).

11 June 1801 - Small clothes for all combatant ranks, as well as the gloves of non-commissioned officers and officers, were ordered to be white instead of the previous pale straw color (Illus. 2138) (4).

27 October 1802 - Generals and field and company-grade officers, when on the march with troops or on detached duties, were ordered to wear, instead of white pants, gray riding trousers with brass buttons and leather reinforcement, identical to those established at this time for generals and field and company-grade officers of Army and Guards Infantry and Cavalry (5).

16 June 1803 - The small clothes of officers of the train [furshtatskie ofitsery] was ordered to be gray instead of green (6).

29 June 1803 - Generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to have the same shabracks and pistol carriers as given at this time to generals and field and company-grade officers of Army Foot Artillery, but with velvet inlay instead of cloth, and with the addition of silver Guards stars (Illus. 2139) (7).

19 August 1803 - Lower ranks were given cloth headdresses in place of hats, of the same pattern as received on 19 October 1804 by the L.-Gds. Preobrazhenskii, Semenovskii, and Izmailovskii Regiments, but without plumes. These had the same two small tassels as were on the hat, i.e. yellow outside and dark green in the middle (Illus. 2140 and 2141) (8).

17 December 1803 - Confirmation was given to a new table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons for the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion, based on which the lower ranks of its foot companies kept all their previous uniform clothing and arms, with only the removal of red piping from cuff flaps. Around this time field and company-grade officers began to wear hats with a buttonhole loop made from thin gold galloon instead of being embroidered, and with a tall plume, as already mentioned above for officers of Army and Guards Infantry and Cavalry (Illus. 2142) (9).

4 January 1805 - The round powder flasks [porokhovyya natruski] used by bombardiers, cannoneers, and gun handlers were replaced by pouches [lyadunki ili podsumkami] of the same pattern as that introduced at this time for Army Foot Artillery, except with a badge of copper [“red brass”] (Illus. 2143) (10).

1 October 1806 - The sheepskin warm coats [ovchinnyya fufaiki] and short coats [polushubki] authorized for lower ranks up to now were withdrawn (11), and about this time HIGHEST Confirmation was given to rules drawn up under the direct supervision of the then Inspector of All Artillery, General Graf Arakcheev, regarding the sewing, cut, fitting, and wear of lower ranks’ uniforms and accouterments. These rules, set forth above under Army Foot Artillery, were extended with equal force to foot companies of the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion (12).

10 March 1807- Canes were withdrawn for officers (13).

17 September 1807 - Generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to wear a gold epaulette on the left shoulder, of the pattern established for the rest of the Guards, and on the right shoulder—a gold aiguilette, as before (Illus. 2144) (14). From this year onward these ranks stopped wearing queues and continued to powder their hair only for grand parades and appearances at HIGHEST Court. For lower ranks hair powder was completely eliminated and queues cut off short (15).

26 September and 19 December 1807 - Lower ranks were ordered to wear sword belts not around the waist, but over the right shoulder, as would be introduced on 7 March 1808 for Army Foot Artillery (Illus. 2145) (16).

23 December 1807 - Lower ranks were given new pattern summer and winter pants of the pattern confirmed at this same time for Army and Guards Infantry, i.e. the former with spats and the latter with leather trim or leggings [kragi], with seven brass buttons. Company-grade officers when in summer uniform were ordered to wear the same pants as lower ranks, and in winter—boots reaching to under the knee, without any cutout behind short (17).

3 January 1808 - Private lower ranks were ordered to have to have red shoulder straps on both shoulders. Pompons on the regulation headdress were to be white with a red center (Illus. 2145), and the the loop above the tassel on forage caps and the ring and loop of the sword knot were to be according to the company: in the first battery company - white, in the second battery company - red, in the first light company - sky blue, and in the second light company - green (18).

26 January 1808 - Generals at parades, on designated calendar days [tabelnye dni], and at troop formations in general, in peacetime as well as during wartime, were ordered to wear the newly introduced standard generals’ coat [obshchii generalskii mundir]. And with the coat of the Guards Foot Artillery, when not on duty, they were to have dark-green pants instead of white (19).

(Note: A description of the standard general-officer‘s coat is located below, at the end of the treatment of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I’s reign, in the chapter on generals’ uniforms.)

16 April 1808 - Privates and field and company-grade officers of foot companies in the Guards Artillery were given shakos [kivera] of the same pattern as established at this time for the L.-Gds. Preobrazhenskii, Semenovskii, and Izmailovskii Regiments, but without a plume and with a different pattern of front plate, one depicting a two-headed eagle sitting on two crossed cannons, below which lay various artillery munitions (Illus. 2146, 2147, and 2148) (20).

14 July 1808 - The round knapsacks used by lower ranks were exchanged for rectangular ones of the same pattern as those received at this time by Army and Guards Heavy Infantry and Army Artillery. Along with this, it was set forth as a rule that when the greatcoat was not being worn it was to be carried in accordance with same directives as described above in detail under grenadier uniforms (Illus. 2146) (21).

28 November 1808 [sic, should be 2 November - M.C.] - The winter pants with leather cuffs and the summer ones with spats, authorized on 23 December 1807, were kept only for combatant lower ranks, while for noncombatants the pants as well as the boots were ordered to be of the old patterns, i.e. the latter halfway up the calf [v pol ikry], with a cutout in the back (22).

5 November 1808 - Company-grade officers, when the troops were wearing knapsacks, were ordered to also have them, of the same pattern in all respects as was established for lower ranks (Illus. 2147) (23).

12 November 1808 - Field and company-grade officers, when not on duty, were allowed to wear dark-green pants instead of white (24).

27 March 1809 - Instead of one epaulette, generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to wear two, and consequently the aiguilettes which had been in use were abolished (Illus. 2148) (25). Around this same time these personnel began to wear on their dress coats, instead of buttonhole loops, the newly established gold embroidery (Illus. 2149) (26).

4 April 1809 - Noncommissioned officers were ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar, but on the upper and side edges (27).

20 April 1809 - The change in the manner of wearing the knapsack, introduced at this time throughout the Infantry and described above in detail for Grenadier regiments as well as the L.-Gds. Preobrazhenskii, Semenovskii, and Izmailovskii Regiments, i.e. with the addition of a third chest strap, was extended to foot companies of the Guards Artillery (Illus. 2150) (28).

24 May 1809 - Field and company-grade officers of the Guards Foot Artillery were given gorgets [znaki] of the same pattern as those established at this time for the L.-Gds. Izmailovskii Regiment (Illus. 2151) (29).

8 June 1809 - The plumage on generals' hats was discontinued. The hat’s former pattern of embroidered buttonhole was replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones were intertwined with each other as if in a plait (Illus. 2151) (30).

11 June 1809 - Combatant lower ranks were ordered to have red shako cords and pompons (Illus. 2152), while for non-commissioned officers the cords were to be multicolored, i.e. white, black, and orange, with the pompon as before: two quarters white and two black with orange (Illus. 2152) (31).

6 December 1809 - Instead of the former fine chain on the shako, field and company-grade officers were ordered to flat scales, as established at this time for officers of Guards Infantry (Illus. 2153) (32). In this same year any hair powder still being used by generals and officers was abolished, and they were allowed to wear frock coats of the same pattern as received by officers of Army Artillery, except with a velvet collar and without red piping (33).

10 February 1810 - Instead of a single chin strap, lower ranks’ shakos were given two chin straps with flat copper chinscales (Illlus. 2154). Officers were ordered to have completely silver shako cords without any addition of black or orange silk, and to shorten the plumes on their hats (Illus. 2155) (34).

24 September 1810 - The knapsack straps for lower ranks were ordered to be stitched at the edges, in the manner of crossbelts and sword belts, and have a bend at each shoulder so that they do not wear away the coat and are not constricting under the arms (35).

17 January 1811 - Instead of the multicolored cords on their shakos, noncommissioned officers and musicians were ordered to have red ones, the cords’ tassels being white with black and orange mixed in (Illus. 2156) (36).

25 October 1811 - Combatant lower ranks were given a new pattern of forage cap, identical to that established at this time for Army Foot Artillery (Illus. 2156) (37).

3 November 1811 - Gloves were discontinued for non-commissioned officers, and in their place in cold weather they were allowed to wear cloth mittens sewn from old tailcoats, as done at this time for privates (38). Also, from this year forward non-commissioned officers stopped carrying canes (39).

In January 1812 - All combatant ranks were ordered to have shakos and collars of a new style, lower than previously. The first item had a greater spread or widening toward the top and concave sides, and the second was closed in front and had red cloth piping around it. At this time red piping was also added to cuffs and cuff flaps (Illus. 2157). Along with these changes, lower ranks were given integral leggings [kragi] reaching up to the knees, with nine buttons instead of seven, and the previous sewn-on tape on the coats, with a checked design, was replaced with sewn-on buttonhole loops made from yellow woolen tape with orange stripes. This tape was also used to trim the coats of musicians and drummers. There was a red light, or thin stripe, on this tape, and a black light on the buttonhole loops on the collar and cuff flaps (Illus. 2157) (40). The change in collar pattern as described here, there was a change in the gold embroidery on officers’ coats, consisting of the loop’s slanted aspect becoming straightened so as to conform to the collar’s new upright edges (Illus. 2157).

10 February 1812 - Lower noncombatant ranks were given the same uniform as prescribed on this date for regiments of Guards Infantry, but with black piping and red shoulder straps (Illus. 2158) (41).

20 May 1814 - For campaign use, officers were ordered to change their previous riding trousers [reituzy] with leather reinforcements and buttons to ones without leather and buttons, with two wide stripes of black cloth along the outer side seams, and on the seams themselves—piping of red cloth (Illus. 2159) (42).

28 May 1814 - All combatant ranks were given hair plumes for their shakos, black for privates and officers, red for drummers, and for personnel holding non-commissioned officer rank—with a white top with a longitudinal yellow stripe, similar to the existing distinction in Army and Guards Infantry (Illus. 2159 and 2160) (43). In this same year it was ordered to have white tape around the cockades on officers’ hats, which later became silver. In 1815 uniforms for drum majors were introduced, identical to those prescribed at this time for drum majors in regiments of the Old Guard (44).

22 December 1815 - White cloth pants were withdrawn for all combatant ranks, and dark-green pants were to be worn at all times (45).

24 January 1816 - The scabbards for lower ranks’ short swords [tesaki] and officers’ rapiers [shpagi] were ordered to be black and lacquered (46).

12 May 1817 - With the formation of the 1st and 2nd L.-Gds. Artillery Brigades from the single L.-Gds. Artillery Brigade, their combatant personnel were ordered to have black turnbacks or lapels [otvoroty ili latskany] on their dress coats (velvet for officers, plissé for lower ranks), with red cloth piping. The brigades were distinguished from each other by their cuff flaps: 1st Brigade - red (Illus. 2161, 2162, and 2163); 2nd Brigade - dark green with red piping (Illus. 2164 and 2165)(47). Besides this, the 2nd Brigade followed the example of the 2nd Guards Infantry Division’s regiments (Moscow, Grenadier, Pavlovsk, and Finland) in being given for their greatcoat collars red cloth patches with a brass button (gilt for officers) (Illus. 2166) (48). The first battery companies of both brigades received sword knots with a red tassel, the second battery companies with a white tassel, and the light companies a blue [svetlosinii] knot (49).

13 May 1817 - In order to relieve combatant lower ranks while on campaign and to protect their accouterments, it was laid down that during such times they were always to be in greatcoats and that their shako, plume, pouch, and uniform with leggings were to have covers [chekhly] of raven’s-duck or Flemish linen painted with black oil paint, in all respects according to the instructions set forth on this subject at this same time for all Army and Guards Infantry and Army Foot Artillery (50).

8 August 1817 - The size of the forage cap was laid down as described above in detail for Grenadier regiments (51).

26 September 1817 - The description of accouterments and the instructions for the manner of wearing them in the Guards heavy infantry, issued on this date, was extended with equal force to the Guards Foot Artillery (52).

8 December 1817 - It was ordered that for lower ranks the leather cuffs on cloth pants were to have spat-like projections [kozyr'ki] of a pattern similar to the spats on summer pants (53).

2 March 1818 - The newly established L.-Gds. Foot Battery Company No. 5 in Warsaw was prescribed to have the same uniform as the L.-Gds. 1st Artillery Brigade, but with black cloth spats (for lower ranks) instead of leather pants cuffs (Illus. 2167), and an image of a Lithuanian horseman on the shako plate’s shield and on officers’ gorgets. Also, field-grade officers were ordered to not wear bottes fortes [botforty] as in the two Guards Artillery brigades, but the boots of company-grade officers that only reached to the knees, with spurs (Illus. 2168) (54).

21 March 1818 - In order to be distinguished from L.-Gds. Battery Company No. 5, the coats of the L.-Gds. 1st Artillery Battery were ordered to have white cloth piping on the cuff flaps (Illus. 2169) (55).

23 August 1818 - The length and width of shoulder straps on tailcoats and greatcoats was defined, identical to that laid down at this time for Army and Guards Infantry and described above in detail for Grenadier regiments (56). It was also confirmed that musicians’ and drummers’ coats would have red shoulder wings or swallows’ nests [plechevye klapany ili kryl'tsa] (57).

25 January 1819 - Drumsticks and the handles of entrenching tools were ordered to be be yellow (58).

4 April 1819 - For lower ranks in the 1st and 2nd Brigades the spats on the leggings were removed (59).

20 September 1820 - Field and company-grade officers throughout the Guards Foot Artillery were given a new pattern gorget, identical to that established at this time for Guards Infantry regiments, but without the inscription “1700 NO 19” as in the Preobrazhenskii and Semenovskii Regiments (Illus. 2170). In the companies of the 1st and 2nd Brigades there was, on the eagle’s shield on these gorgets, an image of St. George, as previously, and for the L.-Gds. Battery Company No. 5 the image of a Lithuanian horseman was kept (60). In this same year the sewn-on chevrons on the coats of musicians and drummers began to be placed closer together, almost touching one another, and on the swallows’ nests the tape was no longer perpendicular as before, but at a diagonal toward the lower edge. Also, all four sides of the collar began to be trimmed with this tape (Illus. 2171) (61).

26 November 1823 - All musicians, even though they might not hold non-commissioned officer ranks, were ordered to have: gold galloon on the coat and non-commisioned officers’ pompons on the shakos. This did not apply to drummers if they did not hold non-commissioned officer rank (62).

16 January 1824 - The following changes were ordered in the uniforms and accouterments of combatant lower ranks:

1) Coattails, which up to this time had one covering the other, were to be cut so that their inner edges came together, and sewn together where they touched (Illus. 2172).

2.) To the decorative end [trinchik] of the shako cords, which was to be level with the right shoulder, was to be added a special loop of white cord attached to the button on the right shoulder strap, so that the shako cords would stay in place when the soldier moved about (Illus. 2172).

3.) The knapsack chest strap was to be fitted so that it passed between the third and fourth buttons of the coat, as counted from the bottom (Illus. 2172) (63).

From this year, officers as well as lower ranks began to wear a taller shako with wider cords (Illus. 2172 and 2173), but no regulations were issued in this regard (64).

29 March 1825 - For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (65).




XLII. GUARDS HORSE ARTILLERY.
[Gvardeiskaya konnaya artilleriya.]


9 April 1801 - Lower ranks of the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion’s Horse company were ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 4 vershoks [7 inches] long, tying them midway down the collar (66).

10 May 1801 - Train officers [furshtatskie ofitsery] in the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion’s Horse company were prescribed to have the uniforms as other officers in this battalion, except with green pants (67).

18 May 1801 - The L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion’s Horse company was the same uniforms as the battalion’s foot companies, but with the addition of a yellow worsted aiguilette for lower ranks (Illus. 2174). Other other pieces of uniform, accouterments, and weaponry were prescribed to be the same as for Army Horse Artillery, except for yellow brass being replaced by copper (red brass) (Illus. 2174) (68).

11 June 1801 - Small clothes for all combatant ranks, as well as the gloves of non-commissioned officers and officers, were ordered to be white instead of the previous pale straw color (69).

27 October 1802 - Generals and field and company-grade officers, when on the march with troops or on detached duties, were ordered to wear, instead of white pants, gray riding trousers with brass buttons and leather reinforcement, identical to those established at this time for generals and field and company-grade officers of Army and Guards Infantry and Cavalry (71).

16 June 1803 - The small clothes of officers of the train [furshtatskie ofitsery] was ordered to be gray instead of green (72).

18 October 1803 - All combatant ranks were given helmets instead of hats, of the same pattern as those introduced at this time in the Cavalier Guards and Horse regiments (Illus. 2176, 2177, 2178, and 2179) (73).

17 December 1803 - Bombardiers and cannoneers were ordered to have two pistols instead of one (74), and a new pattern of saddlecloth was confirmed, of dark-green cloth: for lower ranks—with one row of the same tape as on the coat, and with a straw-colored cloth monogram of EMPEROR ALEXANDER I and crown (Illus. 2176), and for officers—with one row of gold galloon and silver stars of the standard Guards pattern (Illus. 2179) (75). Around this time generals and field and company-grade officers began to wear hats with a with a tall plume. The field and company-grade officers also had a buttonhole loop of narrow gold galloon instead of embroidery (Illus. 2180) (76).

27 February 1804 - The deerskin pants prescribed for the Guards Horse Artillery were replaced by white cloth pants (77).

1 October 1806 - The sheepskin warm coats, or short coats [ovchinnyya fufaiki, ili polushubki], authorized for lower ranks up to now were withdrawn (78), and about this time HIGHEST Confirmation was given to rules drawn up under the direct supervision of the then Inspector of All Artillery, General Graf Arakcheev, regarding the sewing, cut, fitting, and wear of lower ranks’ uniforms and accouterments. These rules, set forth above under Army Horse Artillery, were extended with equal force to Horse companies of the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion, which from this time received white (instead of the previous dark green) forage caps with a red band and a tassel colored white and red (Illus. 2181) (79).

10 March 1807- Canes were withdrawn for officers (80).

17 September 1807 - Generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to wear a gold epaulette on the left shoulder, of the pattern established for the rest of the Guards, and on the right shoulder—a gold aiguilette, as before (Illus. 2182) (81). From this year onward these ranks stopped wearing queues and continued to powder their hair only for grand parades and appearances at HIGHEST Court. For lower ranks hair powder was completely eliminated and queues cut off short (82).

3 January 1808 - Shoulder straps in the Guards Horse Artillery, instead of black worsted velvet or plissé [chernye tripovye, ili plisovye] with red piping, were ordered to be red cloth (Illus. 2183) (83).

26 January 1808 - Generals at parades, on designated calendar days [tabelnye dni], and at troop formations in general, in peacetime as well as during wartime, are ordered to wear the newly introduced standard generals’ coat [obshchii generalskii mundir]. And with the coat of the Guards Horse Artillery, when not on duty, they are to have dark-green pants instead of white (84).

26 November 1808 - The L.-Gds. Horse Artillery is ordered to have plumes on their helmets in the new flat style—black for officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates, and red for musicians. The helmets are also given chinstraps with flat scales (Illus. 2183 and 2184). Officers are ordered to wear such helmets only when on campaign, and during the rest of the time they are to have the previous—i.e. thick and dense—plumes (85).

27 March 1809 - Instead of one epaulette, generals and field and company-grade officers are ordered to wear two, and consequently the aiguilettes which had been in use are abolished (86). Around this same time these ranks began to wear on their dress coats, instead of buttonhole loops, the newly established gold embroidery, the same as was given to officers of Guards Foot Artillery (Illus. 2185) (87).

4 April 1809 - Non-commissioned officers are ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the coat collar, but on the upper and side edges (88).

8 June 1809 - The plumage on generals' hats is discontinued. The hat’s former pattern of embroidered buttonhole is replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones are intertwined with each other as if in a plait (89).

22 October 1809 - All lower ranks are ordered to have two shoulder straps, colored red as before, while the aiguilettes were taken away (Illus. 2186) (90). In this same year the hair powder still being used by generals and officers was abolished, and they were allowed to wear frock coats of the same pattern as received by officers of Guards Foot Artillery, except with white lining (91).

2 February 1811 - The Guards Horse Artillery is ordered to have:

1) Shakos instead of helmets, the same as for Guards Foot Artillery but with a white hair plume (red for trumpeters), at whose root was black hair with an admixture of orange. Personnel holding non-commissioned officer rank were distinguished by a black and orange top (Illus. 2187 and 2188).

2) Instead of white pants with hight boots—long dark-green pants or chakchiry trousers with red inserts or stripes and the same color of piping, following the pattern for lancer chakchiry, and the boots as lancers (Illus. 2187 and 2188).

3) Instead of broad swords—sabers of the same pattern as for lancers (Illus. 2187 and 2188).

4) On lower ranks’ saddlecloths, instead of one row of red with yellow checks—two rows of yellow tape without checks, sewn along a black insert piped red (Illus. 2187) (92).

25 October 1811 - Combatant lower ranks are given a new pattern of forage cap, identical to that receieved at this time by the Guards Foot Artillery (93). Also, in this year non-commissioned officers’ canes were withdrawn (94).

In January 1812 - The Guards Horse Artillery underwent the same changes in uniforms as occurred at this time in the Guards Foot Artillery, i.e. collars were lower than before and no longer open in front at an angle but rather closed with small hooks, red cloth piping was added around the collar and to the coat’s cuffs, and the tape on lower ranks’ dress coats was changed (Illus. 2189 and 2190) (95).

10 February 1812 - Lower noncombatant ranks are given new uniforms, the same as established on this date for lower noncombatant ranks in the Guards Foot Artillery (96).

20 May 1814 - Officers on campaign are ordered to have the same riding trousers [reituzy] as given at this time to the Guards Foot Artillery, but with red stripes instead of black (Illus. 2191) (97).

26 June 1814 - All combatant ranks are ordered to have single-breasted coats instead of double-breasted, with nine buttons (Illus. 2191 and 2912) (98). Also, beginning this year, white lace was added around the cockades on officers’ hats, the lace later being changed to silver (99).

7 March 1816 - Officers are ordered to sew gold galloon onto the sword belts for their sabers (Illus. 2194) (100).

19 March 1817 - It is ordered that only officers and non-commissioned officers were to have gloves, in both cases without gauntlet cuffs (101).

12 May 1817- The Guards Horse Artillery, at this time consisting of three batteries (Battery and Light Nos. 1 and 2) is ordered to have dress coats with red cloth cuff flaps and the same lapels as were given at this time to the Guards Foot Artillery, i.e. black (plissé for lower ranks and velvet for officers), with red piping (Illus. 2193 and 2194) (102).

25 May 1817 - Field and company-grade officers, when in formation and parades, are ordered to have coats with short tails and wear these with cartridge pouches on crossbelts with gold galloon and silver fittings (Illus. 2194 and 2195) (103).

2 March 1818 - The newly established L.-Gds. Horse Artillery Light Battery No. 3 in Warsaw is prescribed to have the same uniform as the preceding three batteries, but with an image of a Lithuanian horseman on the shako plate’s shield instead of St. George, and an oblong pompon the same color as the shako cords, instead of a plume (Illus. 2196) (104).

18 March 1818 - This battery is ordered to have dark-green cuff flaps with red piping (Illus. 2196), while those in the first three batteries remained all red (105).

21 March 1818 - The same three batteries are ordered to have white piping on their red cuff flaps (Illus. 2197) (106).

16 February 1819 - The Guards Horse Artillery is ordered to have covers on shakos and plumes, identical to those established at this time for Dragoon, Hussar, and Horse-Jäger regiments and Army Horse Artillery (107).

23 April 1820 - The first three batteries are ordered to have, instead of plumes, the same oblong pompons as in Light Battery No. 3 (Illus. 2198) (108). In this same year the sewn-on chevrons on the trumpeters’ coats began to be placed closer together, almost touching one another, and on the swallows’ nests the tape was no longer perpendicular as before, but at a diagonal toward the lower edge. Also, all four sides of the collar began to be trimmed with this tape (109).

1 May 1824 - It is ordered to have round pompons instead of oblong (Illus. 2199) (110). In this same year all combatant ranks began to wear a taller shako with wider cords. The latter had a special loop to attach to the button of the right shoulder strap (Illus. 2199) (111).

29 March 1825 - For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there are established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (112).




XLIII . GUARDS SAPPERS.
[ Gvardeiskie sapery.]


27 December 1812 - The newly formed L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, consisting of two Miner and two Sapper companies, is given the exact same uniforms and weapons as Army Sapper and Pioneer regiments had at this time, but with black plissé collars and cuffs (black velvet for officers) with guards tape sewn on for lower ranks, and for officers—the same embroidery as in Guards Artillery but in silver. Pouches had the round guards pattern badge in copper, and there was a guards pattern badge on the shako with two crossed axes beneath it. A further distinction is that pants were not gray, but dark green (Illus. 2200, 2201, and 2202). Officers’ shabracks and pistol carriers in this battalion are the same as in Guards Foot Artillery but with silver galloon instead of gold (113).

20 Mary 1814 - The campaign riding trousers of gray cloth with buttons and leather reinforcement on the inner seams, used by officers since the establishment of the battalion, are withdrawn, and in their place were given the same riding trousers as received at this time by officers throughout the Foot Artillery and in Army Sapper and Pioneer regiments, i.e. with wide black stripes and red piping (114).

31 July 1814 - The pistols given to miners since the time the battalion was established are withdrawn and replaced by dragoon muskets [dragunskiya ruzh'ya], i.e. the same as in the Sapper companies (Illus. 2203) (115). In this same year white tape was added around the cockades on officers’ hats, later replaced by silver. In 1815 uniforms for drum majors were established, identical to those prescribed at this time for drum majors in the rest of the Old Guard (116).

24 and 27 January 1816 - The scabbards for lower ranks’ short swords [tesaki] and officers’ rapiers [shpagi] are ordered to be black and lacquered, and lower ranks’ shako cords were to be white instead of red (117).

5 March 1816 - All combatant ranks are ordered to add red piping to the lower edge of the collar, after the example of the Guards Artillery (118).

9 March 1816 - HIGHEST Confirmation is given to a new table of uniforms, accouterments, and other items for the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, based on which it keeps its previous uniform clothing and arms. Only new shakos are issued, taller than before, with a flat top instead of the concave pattern prescribed since 1812 (Illus. 2204, 2205, and 2206). Also, in each Sapper company, for use during training exercises, black iron helmets and cuirasses are authorized for one officer, one non-commissioned officer, and four sappers. For miners, in case they had to carry out mining work during wartime, it is ordered that one pistol be kept for each man, after the example of Army Sapper and Pioneer battalions, as described above (119).

23 May 1816 - Field and company-grade officers are given gorgets of the same pattern as used by Guards Infantry and Guards Foot Artillery (Illus. 2206) (120).

8 May 1817 - All combatant ranks are ordered to have a red cloth tab on each side of the greatcoat collar, with a button on each tab, as related above for regiments of the 2nd Guards Infantry Division and for the 2nd Guards Artillery Brigade (121).

12 May 1817- Black lapels are added to the dress coats of the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion. For lower ranks these were of plissé, and for officers—of velvet, in both cases with red cloth piping (Illus. 2207 and 2208) (122).

13 May 1817 - In order to relieve combatant lower ranks while on campaign and to protect their accouterments, it is laid down that during such times they were always to be in greatcoats and that their shako, plume, pouch, and uniform with leggings were to have covers [chekhly] of raven’s-duck or Flemish linen painted with black oil paint, in all respects according to the instructions set forth on this subject at this same time for all Army and Guards Infantry (123).

8 August 1817 - The size of the forage cap is laid down as described above in detail for Grenadier regiments (124).

26 September 1817 - The description of guards infantry shakos and accouterments and the instructions for the manner of wearing then, issued on this date, is also applied to the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion (125).

8 December 1817 - It is ordered that for lower ranks the leather cuffs on cloth pants were to have spat-like extensions [kozyr'ki] (126).

23 August 1818 - The length and width of shoulder straps on tailcoats and greatcoats are defined, identical to that laid down at this time for Army and Guards Infantry and described above in detail for Grenadier regiments. It was also confirmed that musicians’ and drummers’ coats would have red shoulder wings or swallows’ nests [plechevye klapany ili kryl'tsa] (127).

22 January 1819 - Pompons on miners’ shakos, instead of the previous yellow, are ordered to be red, the same as for Sappers (128).

25 January 1819 - Drumsticks and the handles of entrenching tools are ordered to be be of mountain ash [ryabinovoe derevo], and lacquered (129).

4 April 1819 - For lower ranks the spats on the leggings were removed (130).

12 April 1819 - The hornists [gornisty] or signalers [signalisty] introduced onto the battalion’s establishment are authorized the same uniform as for drummers, and the signal horns [signalnye rozhki] are to be of yellow brass, with white straps, and painted inside with black paint, with a gold wreath around the edge (Illus. 2209). In this same year all combatant ranks in the battalion, upon its transfer from the 2nd Guards Infantry Division to the 1st and in order to achieve uniformity with the other troops of this division, are ordered to have red flaps on the cuffs with white piping, while greatcoat collars were to be without tabs (Illus. 2209) (131).

20 September 1820 - Officers are given a new pattern gorget, identical to that received at this time by officers in the Guards Infantry and Guards Foot Artillery (Illus. 2210) (132). In this same year there was a change for the dress coats of musicians, signalers, and drummers, consisting of the sewn-on chevrons beginning to be placed closer together than previously, almost touching one another, and on the swallows’ nests the tape was no longer perpendicular as before, but at a diagonal toward the lower edge. Also, all four sides of the collar began to be trimmed with this tape (Illus. 2211) (133).

17 January 1822 - Lower ranks and officers are given round pompons for their shakos, for the former of red wool (Illus. 2211) and the latter of silver (Illus. 2212). Along with this, all these personnel are ordered to have red turnbacks on the coat skirts, with white piping (Illus. 2211 and 2212). Additionally, officers’ frock coats were to have red linings (134).

26 November 1823 - All musicians, even though they might not hold non-commissioned officer ranks, are ordered to have: silver galloon on the coat and non-commisioned officers? pompons on the shakos. This does not apply to drummers if they do not hold non-commissioned officer rank (135).

16 January 1824 - The following changes are ordered in the uniforms and accouterments of combatant lower ranks:

1) Coattails, which up to this time had one covering the other, were to be cut so that their inner edges came together, and sewn together where they touched (Illus. 2213).

2.) To the decorative end [trinchik] of the shako cords, which is to be level with the right shoulder, is to be added a special loop of white cord attached to the button on the right shoulder strap, so that the shako cords will stay in place even when the soldier moved about (Illus. 2213).

3.) The cartridge pouch is to be worn so that when the soldier bends his elbow, the distance between it and a line level with the top edge of the pouch is to be equal to 3 vershoks [5-1/4 inches].

4.) The knapsack chest strap is to be fitted so that it passes between the third and fourth buttons of the coat, as counted from the bottom (Illus. 2213).

5.) On the musket sling, opposite the cocking piece, there is to be a loop of the same kind of leather as the sling, for stowing the flint cover [ognivnyi chekhol] when it has to be taken off (Illus. 2213) (136).

From this year, officers as well as lower ranks began to wear a taller shako with wider cords than previously (Illus. 2213), but no regulations were issued in this regard (137).

29 March 1825 - For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (138).


XLIII . GUARDS HORSE PIONEERS.
[Gvardeiskie konno-pionery.]


28 November 1819 - The newly formed L.-Gds. Horse-Pioneer Squadron is ordered to have the same uniforms and shakos as the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, but with short skirts for the dress coats, and yellow pompons and simillarly colored pyramidal pompons. There are gray cloth taps on the greatcoat collar, and on the covers of officers’ cartridge pouches an image of a two-headed eagel and two crossed axes. Saddlecloths are as for Guards Horse Artillery but with silver galloon for officers. All other uniform items, accouterments, and arms, as well as horse furniture, are as described above for the the 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron (Illus. 2214, 2215, 2216, and 2217). When not on duty, officers are allowed to be in undress coats [vitse-mundiry] with long skirts (Illus. 2218) and the same frock coats [syurtuki] as possessed by officers in the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, but with white lining (139).

6 April 1822 - All combatant personnel in the squadron are ordered to have red skirt turnbacks with white piping instead of black with red, after the example established on 17 January of this year for the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion (Illus. 2219) (140).

1 May 1824 - The pyramidal pompons on shakos are replaced by round ones. In this same year all combatant ranks began to wear a taller shako with wider cords. The latter had a special loop to attach to the button of the right shoulder strap (Illus. 2220) (141).

29 March 1825 - For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there are established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (142).


XLV . GUARDS ENGINEERS.
[Gvardeiskie inzhenery.]


3 December 1820 - Field and company-grade officers of the Guards Engineers are ordered to wear the uniform prescribed for Field Engineers [Polevye Inzenery, i.e. ordinary Army engineers - M.C.] in these ranks, but with the addition of a silver edge to the collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps, the last items being red (Illus. 2221), and with silver Guards stars on the shabracks (143).


XLVI . GUARDS GENERAL STAFF.
[Gvardeiskii Generalnyi Shtab.]


1 August 1814 - Generals and field and company-grade officers of the newly established Guards General Staff are ordered to have the exact same uniform as HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs has at this time, but with the addition of an embroidered gold edge on the collar and cuffs of the dress coat (Illus. 2222) (144).

10 July 1816 - These same ranks are ordered to have silver appointments instead of gold, instead of cavalry cuffs—infantry cuffs with red cloth flaps on which was three silver rows of the previous embroidery tracery, and instead of red cloth piping on the contre-epaulettes or cross straps [kontr-epolet ili pogonchiki]—black velvet piping (Illus. 2223 and 2224) (145).

7 March 1817 - All these ranks, instead of a double-breasted coat, are ordered to wear a single-breasted coat with nine buttons, with red cloth piping around the entire collar, on the cuffs, down the front opening, and on the pocket flaps. Also, instead of one epaulette, they are to have two, keeping the aiguillette, while hats were to be worn cocked fore-and-aft [shlyapy nadevat' s polya] (Illus. 2225) (146).


XLVII . GUARDS GARRISON.
[Gvardeiskii garnizon.]

In 1801 and 1802, with the general change in Guards uniforms, there were no special directives for the L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion. It was only ordered to follow the example of the L.-Gds. Preobrazhenskii Regiment as it did during the preceding Reign, having white buttons; grenadier caps of regular army pattern with a red top, white tin front plate and band, and a red tassel in the center; silver embroidery on officers’ coats, these being without aiguillettes (Illus. 2226 and 2227). Neither were officers authorized gorgets (147). Based on this, the uniform clothing and weapons of the L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion underwent almost all the same changes as occurred in the L.-Gds. Preobrazhenskii Regiment.

19 October 1803 - Instead of just one, privates are ordered to have two shoulder straps.

19 October 1804 - Combatant lower ranks—instead of grenadier caps—are ordered to have a cloth headdress with a visor and thick hair plume (Illus. 2228). Beginning in this year, field and company-grade officers began to wear hats with a buttonhole loop of narrow silver galloon instead of embroidery, and with a high plume (Illus. 2229).

1 October 1806 - The sheepskin warm coats [ovchinnnya fufaiki] of lower ranks are discontinued.

10 March 1807 - Officers’ spontoons are abolished. In this same year the queues of lower ranks were cut short, while in this regard officers were allowed to proceed according to their own wishes.

17 September 1807 - Officers are given silver epaulettes [epolety], the same color as their buttons (Illus. 2230). In this year they began to wear boots below the knee, without cut-outs in back, and cut off their queues, continuing to powder their hair only for grand parades and appearances at HIGHEST Court.

26 September and 19 December 1807 - Lower ranks were ordered to wear their sword belts over the shoulder (Illus. 2231).

23 December 1807 - Lower ranks are given new pattern summer and winter pants: the first with spats and the second with leather cuffs provided with seven brass buttons (Illus. 2231).

16 April 1808 - Lower ranks are given shakos [kivera] with a plate, cords of red and yellow wool, and a pyramidal plume (Illus. 2231).

Officers, when in formation or on other duties, receive the same shakos with those distinctions that distinguishes them from lower ranks. In this same year, the previous embroidery on their coats was replaced by buttonhole loops (Illus. 2232).

14 July 1808 - The round knapsacks prescribed for use by lower ranks are exchanged for rectangular ones, and the manner of wearing it is defined, as is the method of carrying the greatcoat when that item is not being worn.

5 November 1808 - Company-grade officers, when the troops are wearing knapsacks, are ordered to also have them, in all ways of the same pattern as is established for lower ranks.

12 November 1808 - Field and company-grade officers, when not on duty, are allowed to wear dark-green cloth pants instead of white ones.

4 April 1809 - Non-commissioned officers are ordered to sew galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar, but on the upper and side edges.

8 April 1809 - The lower bracket on the musket stock, for the sling, is to be moved higher up to the brass trigger guard. The button on the sling is to be located two fingers from the upper sling bracket. A buckle with prong is to be fixed to the middle of the ramrod’s brass lower band or tube, and the upper side, i.e. the side painted red, of the sling is to be lacquered so that it would not stain the pouch crossbelt.

20 April 1809 - Supplementary instructions are issued for the directives of 14 July 1808 concerning knapsacks and greatcoats.

30 May 1809 - Non-commissioned officers with muskets and front pouches [podsumki] have the latter item replaced with pouches [sumy] of the same pattern as for privates. Consequently, these men as well as all personnel of non-commissioned officer rank, and also company drummers and fifers, are given shoulder straps on both shoulders (Illus. 2233).

29 August 1809 - Halberds are retained only for first sergeants [feldfebeli], while all other non-commissioned officers were given muskets identical to soldiers’.

1 September 1809 - Confirmation was given to a table of uniform clothing and other items for the battalion, based on which its uniforms remain as before.

6 December 1809 - Officers’ shakos are given the same plumes as for lower ranks, and scales for the chinstrap instead of the small chain (Illus. 2234) In this same year officers were given frock coats and their canes and hair powder were abolished.

10 February 1810 - Chinscales are added to lower ranks’ shakos, which at the same time are ordered to have white cords instead of multi-colored ones, except for non-commissioned officers with their multi-colored tassels and slides (Illus. 2235). Officers receive entirely silver cords, and for all combatant ranks in the battalion a new pattern shako plume is confirmed, narrower at the bottom than at the top (Illus. 2235 and 2236). Also, the plumes on officers’ hats are shortened (Illus. 2236).

23 September 1811 - All ranks are ordered to have forage caps of the new pattern, dark green with a red band, plus a cockade for officers.

9 October 1811 - The halberds that had been retained by first sergeants are withdrawn, and they were given muskets and cartridge pouches.

3 November 1811 - Gloves are discontinued for non-commissioned officers, and in this same year their canes were withdrawn.

January 1812 - All combatant ranks were given: a shako lower than before, with a concave top; collars closed by small hooks; for lower ranks only sewn-on tape of yellow with orange stripes and a red light; integral leggings [kragi] reaching up to the knees, with nine buttons (Illus. 2237 and 2238).

In 1814 white tape was added around the cockades of officers’ hats, which later became silver.

31 December 1815 - The L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion is ordered to have, instead of red collars, dark-green collars with red piping (Illus. 2239, 2240, and 2241) (148).

24 January 1816 - The scabbards for short swords [tesaki] and officers’ swords [shpagi] are ordered to be black and lacquered.

13 May, 8 August, and 26 September 1817 - Instructions were issued regarding: the soldier’s marching uniform, the dimensions of his forage cap, and the construction and wearing of accouterments.

8 December 1817 - Lower ranks are given spat-like projections [kozyr'ki] to the leather cuffs on pants.

23 August 1818 - The length and width of shoulder straps are defined.

4 April 1819 - The spats on the leggings are removed.

In 1820 there were changes in the uniforms of musicians, fifers, and drummers, consisting of their sewn-on chevrons beginning to be placed closer together, almost touching one another, and on the swallows’ nests the tape was no longer perpendicular as before, but at a diagonal toward the lower edge. Also, all four sides of the collar began to be trimmed with this tape (Illus. 2242).

26 November 1823 - All the battalion’s musicians, even though they might not hold non-commissioned officer ranks, are ordered to have: silver galloon on the coat; plumes on the shakos with non-commissioned officers’ tops and non-commissioned officers’ pompons. This does not apply to fifers and drummers who do not hold non-commissioned officer rank.

16 January 1824 - The following changes are ordered in the uniforms and accouterments of combatant lower ranks:

1) Coattails, which up to this time had one covering the other, are to be cut so that their inner edges came together, and sewn together where they touched (Illus. 22434).

2.) To the decorative end [trinchik] of the shako cords, which is to be level with the right shoulder, there is to be added a special loop of white cord attached to the button on the right shoulder strap, so that the shako cords stay in place when the soldier moves about (Illus. 2243).

3.) The cartridge pouch is to be worn so that when the soldier bent his elbow, the distance between it and a line with the top edge of the pouch is equal to 3 vershoks [5 1/4 inches].

4.) The knapsack chest strap is to be fitted so that it passes between the third and fourth buttons of the coat, as counted from the bottom (Illus. 2243).

5.) On the musket sling, opposite the cocking piece, there is to be a band of the same kind of leather as the sling, for stowing the flint cover [ognivnyi chekhol] when it needs to be removed (Illus. 2243).

In this same year officers as well as lower ranks began to wear a taller shako with wider cords (Illus. 2243 and 2244), but no specific instructions were officially issued for this.

29 March 1825 - For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there are established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (149).



XLVIII . GUARDS INVALIDS.
[Gvardeiskii invalid.]


27 January 1809 - Guards Invalid companies are ordered to have: gray coat and pants, the first without any sewn-on lace, with red collar, shoulder straps, cuffs, and skirt turnbacks; boots reaching below the knee; and a forage cap of gray cloth with a red band and a gray and red tassel (Illus. 2245). Officers were uniformed as officers in the L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion but did not have buttonhole loops on their coats, nor shakos (150).

23 September 1811 - Lower ranks are given forage caps of a new pattern, identical to that introduced at this time throughout the Army, colored gray as before, with a red band on which was the company number in yellow (Illus. 2246) (151).

In 1812 the high open collars were replaced by lower ones closed with small hooks (Illus. 2246) (152).

31 December 1815 - Guards Invalid companies are given new uniforms, the same as received at this time by the L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion, but without piping on the collar, dark-green cuffs, and a shako without a plume. Lower ranks are given short swords [tesaki] on a white crossbelt (Illus. 2247 and 2248) (153). Non-serving Guards Invalids, who would be disbanded in 1823, are ordered to have all items as for the preceding serving Invalids, but the coat and pants were gray (Illus. 2249) (154).

After 1815 the changes related above for the L.-Gds. Garrison Battalion were also applied to Guards Invalids, who in 1824 received taller shakos with wider cords than previously, with lower ranks also having tailcoats with the skirts sewn together (Illus. 2250 and 2251). Invalid personnel with the Guards troops in Warsaw were distinguished from other Guards Invalids by the yellow color of their cuff flaps and skirt turnbacks (155).



XLIX . GUARDS ÉQUIPAGE.
[Gvardeiskii Ekipazh.]


23 February 1810 - A table of uniforms and other items for the Guards Équipage is confirmed, based on which the following are authorized:

For Privates (youths and sailors) [Ryadovye (mladshie yungi i matrosy)]: double-breasted jacket [kurtka] of dark-green cloth, with white cloth piping on the collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps; with Guards checkered tape sewn on the collar and cuff flaps; red shoulder straps and brass buttons; single-breasted (under the jacket) vest [zhilet ] of dark-green cloth, without sleeves, with covered buttons; winter pants of dark-green cloth, and summer ones of Flemish linen; boots and neckcloth, of the same patterns as for other Infantry; round black hat with a Guards pattern plate to which is added only two crossed anchors (Illus. 2252 and 2253); greatcoat, of normal infantry pattern, of gray cloth, with collar and shoulder straps of the same colors as on the jacket, with brass buttons. In summertime, when not on duty they are to wear a jacket and pants of striped ticking (white with dark blue), patterned after the cloth items except that the first has covered buttons and no shoulder straps, cuffs, or cuff flaps (Illus. 2254). Under the summer jacket is worn a white vest of ticking with one row of covered buttons (156).

Non-commissioned officers (quartermasters, boatswain mates, and boatswains [Unter-ofitsery (kvartirmeistery, botsmanmaty i botsmany]) are distinguished by gold galloon on the collar and cuffs on the cloth jacket, and have gloves and a cane (Illus. 2255). Their summer clothing is not striped but white (Illus. 2256) (157).

Of noncombatant ranks, the assistant storekeeper and cooks [unter-bataler i povara] are uniformed as privates, while the storekeeper, medical orderly, clerk, and steersman assistants [bataler, fel'dsher, klerk i shkiperskie pomoshchniki] as non-commissioned officers (158).

Company-grade officers (Midshipmen and Lieutenants [Michmany i Leitenanty]) wear a dark-green double-breasted tailcoat with the same buttons as throughout the Guards Infantry, with gold embroidery on the collar and cuff flaps depicting an anchor fouled with rope and cable; gold edging on the collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps; gold epaulettes as for all Guards company-grade officers, with red cloth backing (Illus. 2257 and 2258). Dark-green cloth pants are prescribed for winter dress, and in summer—white linen. In both seasons they wear an infantry pattern three-cornered hat without a plume, and an officer’s sword [shpaga] with a silver sword knot (Illus. 2257). Field-grade officers (Captain-Lieutenant and 1st or 2nd Rank Captain [Kapitan-Leitenant i Kapitan 2-go ili 1-go ranga]) are distinguished only by fringe on the epaulettes (Illus. 2259). When not on duty all officers wear a double-breasted dark-green undress coat [vitse-mundir] with embroidered gold buttonhole loops on the collar and cuff flaps, and instead of a sword—a dagger [kortik] with a white bone handle and gilt fittings. Officers’ greatcoats are the same as in the Army, with a dark-green cloth collar (159).

Cannoneers of the Guards Équipage Artillery Command [Artilleriiskoi komandy Gvardeiskago Ekipazha kanoniry] are uniformed like sailors, but instead of dark-green collars and cuffs they have black, and on their hats are two crossed cannons. Bombardiers [bombardiry] are distinguished by gold galloon on the collar and wore gloves. They have a cane and a short sword [tesak] in a black lacquered scabbard on a likewise black lacquered crossbelt that is two vershoks [3-1/2 inches] wide (Illus. 2261). The metalsmith [slesar'] in the command is uniformed the same as cannoneers, and the commissioned officers (Sub-Lieutenant and Lieutenant [Unter-Leitenant i Leitenant]) differ from the Équipage officers only in the black color of the collar and cuffs (Illus. 2262) (160).

In 1811 non-commissioned officers’ gloves and canes were withdrawn, as were all lower ranks’ winter and summer vests and summer clothing except for the white pants prescribed for wear with the cloth jackets. In place of round hats, the Équipage’s privates were given the infantry shakos of that time, with the same plate as the hat, white cords, and a dark-green pompon. They also received infantry muskets and jäger pouches with a brass anchor on the cover, along with attached bayonet scabbards (Illus. 2263). Non-commissioned officers of the Équipage received shakos, muskets, pouches, and infantry short swords with non-commissioned officers’ sword knots (Illus. 2264). The Artillery detachment received shakos with red cords and pompon, and bombardiers and cannoneers were given short swords and pouches on crossbelts, on one of which were prickers (Illus. 2265) Along with these changes, the Équipage was authorized drummers, fifers, and musicians, uniformed as the other combatant lower ranks, with the distinctions established for all Guards Infantry, the drum hoops and drumsticks being black (Illus. 2266 and 2267). Officers in formation or on parade were ordered to also be in shakos, and instead of swords, they were to always have sabers, with a gilded hilt and a scabbard of black lacquered leather. Hooks and chape were gilded. These sabers were worn on a crossbelt of black lacquered leather over the right shoulder, over the coat (Illus. 2268) (161).

In 1812 the shakos and collars began to be lower than before, the first with a concave top and the second without a diagonal opening in front, being closed with small hooks and having, for lower ranks, the same sewn-on tape as the rest of the Guards (Illus. 2269, 2270, 2271, and 2272) (162).

1817 - In regard to the shape of the shako and construction of accouterments, the Guards Équipage was guided by the same directives as set forth for the rest of the Guards on 26 September of that year, described in detail above for Grenadier regiments (Illus. 2273, 2274, 2275, and 2276) (163).

In 1820 the tape on the coats of drummers, fifers, and musicians began to be sewn on more closely together, and around the entire collar (Illus. 2277) (164).

In 1824 the shako began to become taller and the shako cords wider, the latter having a loop to attach to the button on the right shoulder strap and epaulette, as related above regarding shakos in the Army and Guards (Illus. 2278). Along with this, the knapsack chest strap was to be fitted between the fourth and fifth buttons of the coat instead of the second and third as was done before, counting from the collar (165).

29 March 1825 - For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there are established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve, of yellow tape of the same appearance and according to the same rules as described above for the Army and Guards (166).

In addition to the uniform clothing items described here for the Guards Équipage, those field and company-grade officers who were prescribed to be mounted when in formation were given dark-green cloth shabracks and pistol carriers, with two rows of gold galloon and the usual pattern of Guards star in silver (Illus. 2279) (167).


L . INSTRUCTIONAL GRENADIER BATTALIONS and the INSTRUCTIONAL CARABINIER REGIMENT.
[Uchebnye grenaderskie bataliony i Uchebnyi Karabinernyi polk.]


20 June 1808 - All uniform clothing, accouterments, and weapons for the Instructional Grenadier Battalion are prescribed to be the same as used at this time in Army Grenadier regiments, except that the shoulder straps were trimmed with two rows of woolen tape, colored red with yellow stripes along the sides and—between the stripes—yellow circles [kruzhki] (Illus. 2280, 2281, and 2282). The field on officers’ epaulettes was not cloth, as in Grenadier regiments, but gold, in the manner of the Guards (Illus. 2283) (168). Subsequent HIGHEST orders and regulations confirmed by HIGHEST Authority for Grenadier regiments, described above in full detail, were also extended to Instructional Grenadier battalions, viz.: 20 November 1808 - on having pants with leather cuffs only for combatant lower ranks; 5 November 1808 - on officers having knapsacks of the same pattern as lower ranks; 12 November - on allowing officers to wear dark-green pants when not on duty; November of 1808 - on changing the pattern for officers’ gorgets; 11 February 1808 - on the changes in uniforms for noncombatant ranks; 4 April 1809 - on sewing non-commissioned officers’ galloon not along the lower and side edges of the collar, but along the upper and side edges; 8 April 1809 - on the new manner of fitting the sling to the musket; 20 April 1809 - on the manner of carrying the greatcoat with the knapsack, and providing the knapsack with a strap across the chest; 30 May 1809 - on replacing front pouches, for non-commissioned officers with muskets, with pouches worn at the back; and 8 June 1809 - on privates having all-white shako cords, and non-commissioned officers—white with a mix of black and orange (169).

28 June 1809 - The newly established second Instructional Grenadier Battalion is prescribed all the same uniform clothing, accouterments, and weapons as the battalion formed in 1808 (170). (Note: on 15 August 1809 this battalion was ordered to be named the 2nd Instructional Grenadier Battalion, and the previous battalion—the 1st.) Subsequent HIGHEST orders and regulations confirmed by HIGHEST Authority for Grenadier regiments, described above in full detail, were also extended to these two battalions, viz.: 29 August 1809 - on only sergeants having halberds, with other non-commissioned officers having muskets; 23 February 1809 - on the pompons in the 1st Battalion being white with a green center and in the 2nd—green with a white center; 6 December 1809 - on officers to wear shakos when in formation (Illus. 2284); 24 September 1810 - on making knapsack straps with stitching at the edges and with a curve at the shoulders; 17 January 1811 - on white shako cords for non-commissioned officers and musicians, with a mix of black and orange only in the tassels and slides [gaiki], and all-silver cords for officers; 29 January 1811 - on red cuffs for officers’ frock coats, instead of dark green; 4 February 1811 - on new shako plumes, wider at the top and narrower at the bottom (Illus. 2285 and 2286); 22 February 1811 - on pompons, red in the 1st Battalion’s Grenadier company, red with green below in the 2nd Battalion’s Grenadier company, white with a green center in the 1st Battalion’s Fusilier companies, and green with a white center in the 2nd Battalion’s Fusilier companies, and on this same date—on red acorns, loops, and bands for sword knots in the 1st Battalion’s Grenadier platoon; yellow acorns, loops and bands in the Marksmen platoon; white acorns, loops, and bands in the 1st Fusilier Company; sky-blue acorns, loops, and bands in the 2nd; orange acorns, loops, and bands in the 3rd; red acorns and green loops, and bands in the 2nd Battalion’s Grenadier platoon; yellow acorns and green loops, and bands in the 2nd Battalion’s Marksmen platoon; green acorns and white loops and bands in the 1st Fusilier Company; white acorns and sky-blue loops and bands in the 2nd; and white acorns and orange loops and bands in the 3rd (171).

16 July 1811 - The newly established 3rd Instructional Grenadier Battalion is prescribed all the same uniform clothing, accouterments, and arms as the first two battalions (172). Subsequent HIGHEST orders and regulations confirmed by HIGHEST Authority for Grenadier regiments, described above in full detail, were also extended to all three Instructional Grenadier battalions, viz.: 23 September 1811 - on a new pattern forage cap, dark green with a red band and different piping for each company; 9 October 1811 - on sergeants exchanging their halberds for muskets; 3 November 1811 - on gloves being withdrawn from non-commissioned officers, and in this same year?on their canes being withdrawn and the plumes of officers’ hats being shortened; 17 December 1811 - on noncombatant lower ranks being prescribed new uniforms of gray cloth with red piping; in 1812 - on having shakos lower than before, with a concave top; collars closed with small hooks and without a diagonal front opening; and leggings to the knees (Illus. 2287 and 2288); 10 February 1812 - on noncombatant lower ranks having the same pattern of shoulder straps as combatants; in 1814 - on officers wearing riding trousers without leather reinforcements or brass buttons, with wide red stripes and piping, and on the addition of white tape to the cockades on officers’ hats, later changed to silver; and 24 January 1816 - on having the scabbards for short swords and bayonets of black polished leather, and for officers’ swords—of black lacquered leather (173).

16 March 1816 - The Instructional Carabinier Regiment, formed from the Instructional Grenadier battalions, was ordered to have all the same uniform clothing, accouterments, and arms as Carabinier regiments in the Grenadier Corps, except that shoulder straps were to be trimmed with yellow tape [bason] with red longitudinal stripes, and officers’ epaulettes were to have a gold field with no number. The shako was to have the plate established on 16 April 1817 for Grenadier and Carabinier regiments (Illus. 2289, 2290, 2291, and 2292), and officers’ epaulettes were gold, without any cloth field (Illus. 2293 and 2294) (174). Subsequent HIGHEST orders and regulations confirmed by HIGHEST Authority for Carabinier regiments, described above in full detail, were also extended to all the Instructional Carabinier Regiment, viz.: 13 May 1817 - on covers or cases for shakos, plumes, pouches, and the coat; 8 August 1817 - on the dimensions of the forage cap; 26 September 1817 - on patterns for accouterments and the manner of wearing them; 8 December 1817 - on spat-like projections [kozyr'ki]on the leather cuffs of pants; 23 August 1818 - on the size of crossbelts over the shoulder and on wings for the coats of drummers, fifers, and musicians being of red cloth instead of yellow, and sewn-on tape have a white stripe down the center (Illus. 2295); 4 April 1819 - on the removal of spats from pants cuffs; 10 April 1819 - on uniforming hornists the same as drummers; 20 September 1820 - on new pattern gorgents for officers (Illus. 2296), and in the same year—on sewn-on tape for the coats of drummers, hornists, fifers, and musicians being spaced more closely than before (Illus. 2297); 26 November 1823 - on all musicians to have non-commissioned officer galloon, pompons, sword knots, and plumes; and 24 January 1824 - on sewing coattails together, adding a loop to the decorative end of the shako cords, wearing the knapsack chest strap between the fourth and fifth buttons, counting from the collar, and on adding a band to the musket sling for the firing cover. Since 1824 the Instructional Carabinier Regiment, after the example of other regiments, began to wear taller shakos and wider shako cords than before (Illus. 2298 and 2299) (175).




LI. INSTRUCTIONAL CAVALRY SQUADRON.
[Uchebnyi Kavaleriiskii eskadron.]


22 April 1809 - The Instructional Cavalry Squadron is prescribed all the same uniform clothing, accouterments, and arms and laid down in this year for Army Dragoon regiments, except with shoulder straps of the pattern used in Instructional Grenadier battalions (red with yellow tracery). Collar, cuffs, coattail lining and turnbacks, and saddlecloth trim were red. Buttons were yellow (Illus. 2300, 2301, and 2302 (176). Subsequent HIGHEST orders and regulations confirmed by HIGHEST Authority for Army Dragoon regiments, described above in detail, were also extended to all the Instructional Cavalry Squadron, viz.: 16 June 1810 - on making musketoons according to a new pattern and henceforth calling them dragoon muskets; 16 September 1811 - on the removal of buckles, prongs, and end pieces from cartridge-pouch belts, as well as belt hooks and the rings on the pouch itself; 23 September 1811 - on the introduction of new pattern forage caps of dark-green cloth with a red band; 11 December 1811 - on new pattern uniform clothing for noncombatant lower ranks, being gray with red piping; in 1812 - on having collars lower than before, without the diagonally open front, and closed by small hooks (Illus. 2303), and on withdrawing muskets; 20 May and 19 August 1814 - on having riding trousers without buttons, with wide stripes and piping in the color of the collar; in 1817 - on officers wearing pouches when in formation, on lower ranks’ helmets being replaced by shakos with a grenadier plate, double-breasted coats being replaced by single-breasted, epaulettes replacing shoulder straps, dark-green chakchiry pants replacing white pants, with wide red stripes and piping, and the saber replacing the broadsword (Illus. 2304 and 2305); on trumpeters having wings the same color as the collar (Illus. 2306); 16 February 1820 - on the pattern for a shako cover; 20 February 1820 - on the removal of shako plumes; 7 August 1820 - on allowing officers to wear moustaches, and in the same year—on the tape on trumpeters’ coats being sewn on more closely together (Illus. 2307). Since 1824, taller shakos began to be worn in the Instructional Cavalry Squadron, and shako cords became wider and provided with a loop for attachment to the button of the right epaulette (Illus. 2308) (177).




LII . INSTRUCTIONAL ARTILLERY BRIGADE.
[Uchebnyi Artilleriiskaya brigada.]


(Note: Before 1820 the companies that made up this brigade were part of the Guards Foot Artillery and had the same uniform, which can be seen from examination of HIGHEST Confirmed equipment tables for them.)

28 May 1820 - All uniform clothing, accouterments, and weapons for the Instructional Artillery Brigade are ordered to be the same as used in this year in Grenadier Artillery brigades, except that the shoulder straps of lower ranks are trimmed with tape, yellow with thin red stripes, and officers have epaulettes with a gold field instead of cloth, and no number, as in the Instructional Carabinier Regiment (Illus. 2309 and 2310)(178). Subsequent orders in 1824 on sewing coattails together, adding a loop to the decorative right end of the shako cords, fitting the knapsack chest strap so that it passed between the fourth and fifth coat buttons as counted from the collar, and having taller shakos and wider shako cords (Illus. 2311 and 2312), were all applied to the Instructional Artillery Brigade (179).




LIII . INSTRUCTIONAL SAPPER BATTALION.
[Uchebnyi Sapernyi batalion.]


21 May 1820 - The Instructional Sapper Battalion is ordered to have all uniform clothing, accouterments, and weapons the same as it had before being renamed from the 2nd Sapper Battalion, except that lower ranks’ shoulder straps were to be as in the Instructional Carabinier Regiment and Instructional Artillery Brigade, and officers’ epaulettes were to have a silver field instead of cloth, and without a number (Illus. 2313, 2314, and 2315) (180). Subsequent HIGHEST orders of 26 November 1823 - on all musicians’ coats to have non-commissioned officers’ galloon and their shakos to have non-commissioned officers’ pompons—and 16 January 1824 - on sewing coattails together, adding a loop to the decorative right end of the shako cords, fitting the knapsack chest strap so that it passed between the fourth and fifth coat buttons as counted from the collar, were all applied to the Instructional Sapper Battalion, which in 1824 began to wear taller shakos with wider shakos cords than before (Illus. 2316) (181).




END OF VOLUME SIXTEEN.




NOTES

(1) Complete Collection of Laws [Polnoe Sobranie Zakonov, henceforth PSZ], Vol. XXVI, pg. 609, No. 19,826.

(2) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, Pt. II, regulation on uniforms, pg. 28, No. 19,863.

(3) Ibid., No. 19,867, and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(4) Memorandum from the Commissariat Office to the Inspector of All Artillery, 11 June 1801.

(5) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 30, No. 20,485, and information received from the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(6) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 28, No. 20,201.

(7) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(8) From the same files, and drawings held in the SOVEREIGN EMPEROR’S Own Library, catalogued under No. 54.

(9) HIGHEST Confirmed table of uniforms and other items for the L.-Gds. Artillery Battalion, 17 December 1803; the drawings mentioned in the previous note, and information from contemporaries.

(10) Correspondence from the Inspector of All Artillery to the Commissariat Commission, 4 January 1805.

(11) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(12) Drawings depicting various items of clothing and accouterments of Artillery crewmen, in the office of the Inspector of All Artillery, Graf Arakcheev, issued in 1807, and information from contemporaries.

(13) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(14) From the files of that same Department

(15) Statements by contemporaries.

(16) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pgs. 14, No. 22,633 and 13, No. 22,720, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(17) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 13, No. 22,727, from the files of the same Department, and statements by contemporaries.

(18) Signed Ukase announced to the Military Collegium by the Minister of Military Land Forces, 3 January 1808, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(19) PSZ Vol. XX, pg. 45, No. 22,784, and statements from contemporaries.

(20) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and actual shakos preserved up to the present time.

(21) File from the archive of the War Ministry’s Inspection Department, with drawings and a description of how to wear the knapsack and greatcoat, 1808, No. 13786/654, from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, statements from contemporaries.

(22) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No. 23,335.

(23) Ibid., Vol. XXX, pg. 669, No. 23,343.

(24) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(25) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 13, No. 23,548.

(26) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(27) From the files of the same Department.

(28) PSZ Vol. XXX, pg. 950, No. 23,625, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(29) PSZ Vol. XXX, pg. 965, No. 23,654.

(30) Ibid., pg. 1006, No. 23,695.

(31) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 31 No. 22,373, and model pattern shako cords preserved in the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(32) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and statements from contemporaries.

(33) Ditto.

(34) Ditto.

(35) PSZ Vol. XXXI, pg. 362, No.24,357.

(36) Ibid., pg. 517, No. 24,488, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(37) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(38) Ditto.

(39) Statements from contemporaries.

(40) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(41) Ditto.

(42) Ditto.

(43) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 103, No. 25,592.

(44) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and statements by contemporaries.

(45) PSZ Vol. XXXIII, pg. 103, No. 26,037.

(46) Ibid., Vol. XXXIII, pg. 450, No. 26,095, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(47) Highest Confirmed description of the uniforms for Guards Artillery, 12 May 1817, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(48) From the files of that same Department.

(49) Ditto.

(50) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 120.

(51) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(52) Ditto.

(53) Ditto.

(54) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 104, No. 27,298.

(55) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 102, No. 27,311.

(56) Ibid., pg. 121 and 122, No.27,504, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(57) Ditto.

(58) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 108 No. 27,653.

(59) Order of the Chief of H.I.M.’s Main Staff, 4 April 1818, No. 21.

(60) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and statements by contemporaries.

(61) From the files of that same Department and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(62) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 122, No. 29,658.

(63) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 16 January 1824, No. 22, and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(64) Contemporary drawings and shakos.

(65) PSZ Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(66) Ibid., Vol. XXVI, pg. 609, No. 19, 826.

(67) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 28, No. 19,863.

(68) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 15, No. 19,867, and contemporary drawings.

(69) Memorandum from the Commissariat Office to the Inspector of All Artillery, 11 June 1801.

(70) PSZ., Vol. XLIV, pg. 14 No. 20,204.

(71) Ibid., pg. 30, No. 20,485, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(72) Ibid., pg. 28, No. 20,201.

(73) Ibid., Vol. XXVII, pg. 934, No. 20,989; from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department; drawings held in the SOVEREIGN EMPEROR’S Own Library, catalogued under No. 54.

(74) Proposal by the Intendant-General of the Army to the Commissariat Office, 17 December 1803.

(75) Highest confirmed table of uniforms and accouterments for the L.-Gds. Artillery Regiment’s Horse Company, 17 December 1803, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(76) Statements from contemporaries and contemporary drawings.

(77) Proposal of the Intendant-General of the Army to the Commissariat Office, 27 February 1804.

(78) From the files of the War Ministry?s Commissariat Department.

(79) The drawings referenced above under Note 12, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(80) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(81) Ditto.

(82) Statements from contemporaries.

(83) Signed Ukase relayed to the Military Collegium by the Minister for Military Land Forces, 3 January 1808, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(84) PSZ Vol. XXX, pg. 45, No. 22,784, and statements by contemporaries.

(85) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 13, No. 23,373, and pg. 54, No. 23,373.

(86) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 13, No. 23,548.

(87) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(88) Ditto.

(89) PSZ Vol. XXX, pg. 1006, No. 23,695.

(90) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 28, No. 23,925, and fromthe files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(91) Statements by contemporaries.

(92) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary uniform coats and other items.

(93) From the files of the same Department.

(94) Statements by contemporaries.

(95) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and statements from contemporaries.

(96) From the files of the same Department.

(97) Ditto.

(98) Ditto.

(99) Statements by contemporaries.

(100) HIGHEST Directive sent by HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS THE TSAREVICH to the acting head of the War Ministry, 7 March 1816, No. 143.

(101) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 120, No. 26,789.

(102) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(103) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 102, No. 27,311.

(104) Ibid., pg. 104, No. 27,298.

(105) Proposal by the Minister for War to the Commissariat Department, 18 March 1818, No. 1227.

(106) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 102, No. 27,311.

(107) Ibid., pg. 101, No. 27,681.

(108) Ibid., pg. 102, No. 28,251.

(109) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(110) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 103, No. 29,888.

(111) Contemporary drawings and shakos.

(112) PSZ Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(113) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department; uniforms and other items preserved up to the present time, and statements from contemporaries.

(114) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(115) PSZ Vol. XXXII, pg. 844, No. 25,627.

(116) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and statements from contemporaries.

(117) PSZ Vol. XXXIII, pg. 450, No.26,095, and Collection of Laws and Regulations Relating to the Military Administration, 1816, Book I, pgs. 81 and 82.

(118) Signed Ukase relayed by the acting head of the War Ministry to the Inspection Department, 5 March 1816, No. 142.

(119) Table of 9 March 1816.

(120) PSZ Vol. XXXIII, pg. 854, No. 26,281.

(121) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 104, No. 26,842.

(122) HIGHEST Confirmed description of the uniform for the L.-Gds. Sapper Battalion, 12 May 1817, and contemporary uniforms.

(123) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 120.

(124) Ibid., pg. 104, No. 26,992.

(125) Ibid., pg. 104, No. 27,067.

(126) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(127) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pgs. 121 and 122, No. 27,504, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(128) Ibid., pg. 116, No. 27,449.

(129) Ibid., pg. 108, No. 27,653.

(130) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary drawings.

(131) Ditto.

(132) Ditto.

(133) From the same files and contemporary uniforms.

(134) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 103, No. 28,874.

(135) Ibid., pg. 122, No. 29,658.

(136) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 16 January 1824, No. 22, and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(137) Contemporary drawings and shakos.

(138) PSZ Vol. XL, pg. 188 No. 30,309.

(139) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, contemporary drawings, and contemporary uniforms and other items.

(140) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 102, No. 28,992.

(141) Ibid., pg. 103, No. 29,888.

(142) Ibid., Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(143) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department; contemporary drawings and uniforms and statements from contemporaries.

(144) Ditto.

(145) Ditto.

(146) Ditto.

(147) From the files of the same Department.

(148) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 109, No. 26,058, and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(149) Ibid., Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(150) HIGHEST confirmed table of uniforms items for the Guards Invalid Company, 27 January 1809; from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and information from contemporaries.

(151) From the same files and statements by contemporaries.

(152) Ditto.

(153) PSZ Vol. XLIV, pg. 109, No.26,058, and contemporary drawings and uniforms.

(154) Ditto.

(156) HIGHEST confirmed table for the Guards Équipage, 23 February 1819, and information from contemporaries.

(157) Ditto.

(158) Ditto.

(159) Historical description of the Guards Équipage, compiled by this équipage in 1820, and statements from persons who served in the unit from the time of its formation.

(160) HIGHEST confirmed table for the Guards Équipage, 23 February 1810, and information from contemporaries.

(161) Historical Journal, compiled in 1820 at the Guards Équipage, and statements from contemporaries.

(162) Statements from contemporaries.

(163) Statements from contemporaries and contemporary drawings.

(164) Ditto.

(165) Statements from contemporaries and contemporary drawings and shakos.

(166) See above, in all the notes for Army and Guards Infantry and Cavalry.

(167) Statements from contemporaries; contemporary drawings, and shabracks and pistol carriers still on hand at the present time.

(168) HIGHEST confirmed table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons for the 3rd Instructional Grenadier Battalion, 20 July 1808, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(169) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(170) Ditto.

(171) Ditto.

(172) HIGHEST confirmed table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons for the Instructional Grenadier Battalion, 16 July 1811.

(173) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(174) PSZ Vol. XXXIII, No. 26,198, pg. 558, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(175) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary drawings.

(176) HIGHEST Confirmed table of accouterments and weapons for the Instructional Cavalry Squadron, 22 August 1809, and from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(177) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department.

(178) HIGHEST Confirmed table of uniforms, accouterments, and other items for the two Battery and one Light companies of the Instructional Artillery Brigade, 28 May 1820; from the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary drawings.

(179) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary drawings.

(180) PSZ Vol. XXXVIII, No. 29,009, pg. 60 § 13.

(181) From the files of the War Ministry’s Commissariat Department, and contemporary drawings.



END OF NOTES TO VOLUME SIXTEEN.