HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION
OF THE CLOTHING AND
ARMS OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY

VOLUME 12


Army and Garrison Artillery, Army Sappers and Pioneers, Field and Garrison Engineers, Military Labor Battalions and Companies, HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY's Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, and Topographers
1801-1825

A.V. VISKOVATOV

Compiled by HIGHEST direction

Saint Petersburg, Military Typography Office, 1857

 [TRANSLATED BY MARK CONRAD, 2005]

 ------------------------------

Changes in the clothing and armaments of Army and Garrison Artillery, Army Sappers and Pioneers, Field and Garrison Engineers, Military Labor battalions and companies, HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY'S Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, and Topographers, from 1801 through 1825:

CONTENTS

List of Illustrations.

VIII. Army Foot Artillery

IX. Army Horse Artillery

X. Garrison Artillery

XI. Army Sappers and Pioneers.

XII. Army Horse Pioneers.

XIII. Field and Garrison Engineers.

XIV. Military-Labor battalions and companies.

XV. HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY's Suite for Quartermaster Affairs.

XVI. Topographers.

Source notes.

 

-------------------------------

ALEKSANDR VASILEVICH VISKOVATOV (pronounced vi-sko-VA-tof), born April 22nd (May 4th New Style) 1804, died February 27th (March 11th) 1858 in St. Petersburg, Russian military historian. He graduated from the 1st Cadet Corps and served in the artillery, the hydrographic depot of the Naval Ministry, and then in the Department of Military Educational Establishments. He mainly studied historical artifacts and the histories of military units. Viskovatov’s greatest work was the Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army (Vols. 1-30, St. Petersburg, 1841-62; 2nd ed. Vols. 1-34, St. Petersburg-Novibirsk-Leningrad, 1899-1948). This work is based on a great quantity of archival documents and contains four thousand colored illustrations. Viskovatov was the author of Chronicles of the Russian Armv (Books 1-20, St. Petersburg, 1834-42) and Chronicles of the Russian Imperial Army (Parts 1-7, St. Petersburg, 1852). He collected valuable material on the history of the Russian navy which went into A Short Overview of Russian Naval Campaigns and General Voyages to the End of the XVII Century (St. Petersburg, 1864; 2nd edition Moscow, 1946). Together with A. I. Mikhailovskii-Danilevskii he helped prepare and create the Military Gallery in the Winter Palace. He wrote the historical military inscriptions for the walls of the Hall of St. George in the Great Palace of the Kremlin. [From the biographical article in The Soviet Military Encyclopedia.]

  

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

 

1603. Cannoneers [i.e. artillery privates - M.C.]. Foot Artillery 1801.

1604. General. Foot Artillery, 1801.

1605. Officer's shabrack and holsters, Foot Artillery, established in 1803.

1606. Mounted Gun Handler and Cannoneers. Foot Artillery, 1803-1805.

1607. Bombardier [i.e. artillery corporal - M.C.]. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1608. Fireworker [i.e. artillery noncommissioned officer - M.C.]. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1609. Company and Battalion Drummers. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1610. Company-grade Officer. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1611. Company-grade Officer of the Train. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1612. Train Noncommissioned Officer and Clerk. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1613. Barber. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1614. Train Privates. Foot Artillery, 1803-1807.

1615. Pontoniers. Pontoon Regiment (2nd and 3rd Class), 1805-1807.

1616. Pontonier 1st Class and Noncommissioned Officer. Pontoon Regiment, 1805-1807.

1617 Company-grade Officer and Clerk. Pontoon Regiment, 1805-1807.

1618. Company-grade Officer. Foot Artillery of the Caucasus Inspectorate, 1806-1807.

1619. Cannoneer. Foot Artillery, 1806-1807.

1620. Bombardier. Foot Artillery, 1806-1807.

1621. Mounted Cannoneer. Foot Artillery, 1806-1807.

1622. Mounted Cannoneer. Foot Artillery, 1806-1807.

1623. Bombardier and Gun Handler. Foot Artillery, 1806-1807.

1624. Noncombatant Noncommissioned Officer. Foot Artillery, 1806-1807.

1625. Barber and Master Craftsman. Foot Artillery, 1806-1807.

1626. Cannoneer and Company-grade Officer. Foot Artillery, 1808.

1627. Company and Field-grade Officers' epaulettes, Foot Artillery, 1808-1821.

1628. Noncommissioned Officer. Potoon Companies, 1808.

1629. Company-grade Officer. Foot Artillery. (With lace button loops and in campaign uniform.) 1808-1809.

1630. Bombardiers. Foot Artillery, 1808-1809.

1631. Noncombatant. Foot Artillery, 1809.

1632. Noncommissioned Officer. Foot Artillery, 1809-1810.

1633. Company Drummer and Noncommissioned Officer. Foot Artillery, 1809-1811.

1634. Company-grade Officers and Mounted Gun Handler. Foot Artillery, 1809-1811.

1635. Field-grade Officer. Foot Artillery, 1809-1811.

1636. Noncommissioned Officer. Foot Artillery, 1811.

1637. Privates. Foot Artillery, 1811.

1638. Noncombatants. Foot Artillery, 1811.

1639. Field-grade Officer and Noncommissioned Officer. Foot Artillery, 1812-1816.

1640. Field-grade Officer. Foot Artillery. (With lace button loops and badge for distinction on the shako.) 1813-1814.

1641. Company-grade Officer. Foot Artillery, 1814-1816.

1642. Drum Major and Drummer. Foot Artillery, 1815-1816.

1643. Bombardier. Grenadier Artillery Brigades, 1816.

1644. Cannoneers. Field and Grenadier Brigades of Foot Artillery, 1817-1819.

1645. Cannoneer. Foot Field Brigades of the Artillery of the Lithuania Corps, 1818-1823.

1646. Company-grade Officer. Foot Field Brigades of the Artillery of the Lithuania Corps, 1818-1825.

1647. Drummers. Grenadier and Field Brigades of Foot Artillery, 1818-1820.

1648. Sword knots for lower ranks of the Foot Artillery, established in 1819.

1649. Cannoneer. Grenadier Artillery Brigades, 1820-1823.

1650. Shako plate for Grenadier Artillery Brigades, 1820-1828.

1651. Drummer. Foot Field Artillery, 1820-1825.

1652. Cannoneers. Grenadier Artillery Brigades, 1824-1825.

1653. Bombardier and Company-grade Officer. Horse Artillery, 1801.

1654. Cannoneer. Horse Artillery, 1802-1803.

1655. Private. Horse Artillery, 1803-1806.

1656. Private. Horse Artillery, 1804-1806.

1657. Bombardiers. Horse Artillery, 1804-1808.

1658. Noncommissioned Officer. Horse Artillery, 1804-1807.

1659. Trumpeter and Staff-Trumpeter. Horse Artillery, 1804-1807.

1660. Company-grade Officers and General. Horse Artillery, 1804-1807.

1661. Private. Horse Artillery, 1804-1807.

1662. Private. Horse Artillery, 1806-1807.

1663. Noncommissioned Officer. Horse Artillery, 1806-1807.

1664. Barber and Bonesetter. Horse Artillery, 1806-1809.

1665. Medical Assistant [Fel'dsher]. Horse Artillery, 1806-1807.

1666. Field-grade Officer and Cannoneer. Horse Artillery, 1808-1809.

1667. Company-grade Officer and Bombardier. Horse Artillery, 1809-1811.

1668. Privates. Horse Artillery, 1811.

1669. Noncommissioned Officer and Field-grade Officer. Horse Artillery, 1812-1813.

1670. Field-grade Officer and Private. Horse Artillery, 1814.

1671. Bombardier and Trumpeter. Horse Artillery, 1814-1816.

1672. Field-grade Officers. Horse Artillery, 1814-1816. (One of the field-grade officers is shown with button loops on the coat and with a Badge for Distinction on the shako.)

1673. Company-grade Officer and Cannoneer. Horse Artillery, 1816.

1674. Company-grade Officers. Horse Artillery, 1817-1819.

1675. Pouch for Horse-Artillery Officers, established in 1817. (Note: Later, about 1821, the belt for the pouch began to be fastened no longer by rings, but in the same manner as belts for infantry pouches, as shown below in Plate No. 1708.)

1676. Field-grade Officer and Bombardier. Horse Artillery of the Lithuania Corps, 1818-1825.

1677. Trumpeter and Company-grade Officer. Horse Artillery. 1820-1825.

1678. Officer. Garrison Artillery, 1801-1802.

1679. Company-grade Officer, Noncommissioned Officer, and Private. Garrison Artillery, 1802-1803.

1680. Arsenal Warden [Tseikhvarter]. Garrison Artillery, 1802-1804.

1681. Noncommissioned Officer and Private. Garrison Artillery, 1803-1806.

1682. Master Craftsmen [Masterovye]. Powder Works, 1806-1807.

1683. Master Craftsmen. Powder Works, 1806-1811. (In working uniform.)

1684. Powder Workers [Porokhovshchiki]. Powder Works. (In working dress.)

1685. Arsenal Fireworker and Private. Garrison Artillery Companies, 1808-1809.

1686. General. Garrison Artillery, 1808-1809.

1687. Forage caps for lower ranks in the Garrison Artillery, established 25 October 1811. a) Garrison companies. b) Laboratory companies. c) Fortress Commands. d) Detachments at Powder Works. e) Detachments at Permanent Arsenals. f) Detachments at Mobile Arsenals. g) Replacement Parks.

1688. Company-grade Officer and Private. Garrison Artillery, 1812-1816.

1689. Noncommissioned Officer and Company-grade Officer. Garrison Artillery, 1818-1819.

1690. Company-grade Officer, Cannoneer, and Drummer. Garrison Artillery, 1820-1824.

1691. Company-grade Officer and Noncommissioned Officer. Mobile Arsenals, 1820-1824.

1692. Noncommissioned Officer. Permanent Arsenals, 1820-1825.

1693. Private. Laboratory Companies, 1820-1825.

1694. Company-grade Officer. Garrison Artillery, 1822-1825.

1695. Private and Field-grade Officer. Garrison Artillery, 1824-1825.

1696. Drummer. Garrison Artillery, 1824-1825.

1697. Private and Battalion Drummer. Pioneer Regiment, 1802-1803.

1698. Company-grade Officer. Pioneer Regiment, 1802-1803.

1699. Miner and Pioneer. 1st Pioneer Regiment. 1803-1806.

1700. Noncommissioned Officer. 2nd Pioneer Regiment, 1804-1807.

1701. Drummer and Musician. 1st Pioneer Regiment, 1804-1807.

1702. Company-grade Officer and General. 2nd Pioneer Regiment, 1804-1807.

1703. Company-grade Officer and Pioneer. 1st Pioneer Regiment, 1808-1809.

1704. Noncommissioned Officer and Company-grade Officer. 2nd Pioneer Regiment, 1809-1810.

1705. Miner, Sapper, and Pioneer. 2nd Pioneer Regiment, 1809-1811.

1706. Company-grade Officer. 1st Pioneer Regiment, 1809-1811.

1707. Pioneer and Company-grade Officer. 1st Pioneer Regiment, 1812-1815.

1708. Company-grade Officer. Sapper Regiment, 1812-1815.

1709. Sapper and Pioneer. 2nd Pioneer Regiment, 1812.

1710. Musicians. Sapper and Pioneer Battalions, 1816-1817.

1711. Company-grade Officers. Sapper and Pioneer Battalions, 1816.

1712. Sapper helmet and cuirass, established in 1816.

1713. Field-grade Officer. Sapper Battalions, 1816-1820.

1714. Shako Plate for Sapper Battalions, established 26 September 1817. (Note: Later, in 1818, 1819, or 1820, plates of this pattern were replaced by new ones of the style shown below in Plate No. 1705 [sic - should be 1719 and/or 1720 - M.C.].)

1715. Sappers. Pioneer Battalions, 1817-1821.

1716. Company-grade Officer. Pioneer Battalions, 1817-1820.

1717. Pioneer. 1817-1825.

1718. Drummers. Sapper and Pioneer Battalions, 1817-1820.

1719. Bugler and Company-grade Officer. Sapper Battalions, 1820-21.

1720. Company-grade Officer. Sapper Battalions, 1822-1824.

1721. Sapper. Pioneer Battalions, 1822-1824.

1722. Miner Drummer. Pioneer Battalions, 1822-1825.

1723. Sapper. Lithuania Pioneer Battalion, 1823-1825.

1724. Company-grade Officer. Lithuania Pioneer Battalion, 1823-1825.

1725. Noncommissioned Officer. Pioneer Battalions, 1824-1825.

1726. Privates. 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1822-1824.

1727. Shako plate of the 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1822-1828.

1728. Noncommissioned Officer. 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1822-1824.

1729. Trumpeter. 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1822-1824.

1730. Company-grade Officer. 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1822-1824.

1731. Officer's pouch, 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron, established in 1822.

1732. Noncommissioned Officer and Company-grade Officer. 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 1824-1825.

1733. General. Corps of Engineers, 1801-1802.

1734. Company-grade Officer, Noncommissioned Officer, and Private. Corps of Engineers, 1802-1803.

1735. Company-grade Officer. Corps of Engineers, 1803-1807.

1736. Field-grade Officer. Corps of Engineers, 1810-1811.

1737. Draftsman-Artist [Konduktor]. Corps of Engineers, 1810-1811.

1738. Clerk. Corps of Engineers, 1810-1811.

1739. Draftsman-Artist and Company-grade Officer. Corps of Engineers, 1812-1816.

1740. Field-grade Officer. Corps of Engineers, 1817-1825.

1741. Draftsman-Artist. Corps of Engineers, 1818-1819.

1742. Company-grade Officer. Garrison Engineers, 1819-1825.

1743. General. Corps of Engineers, 1819-1825.

1744. Private. Military-Labor Battalions, in Moscow, 1816-1817.

1745. Private. Military-Labor Battalions, 1817-1824.

1746. Noncommissioned Officer. Military-Labor Battalions, 1817-1824.

1747. Drummers. Military-Labor Battalions, 1817-1825.

1748. Company-grade Officer. Military-Labor Battalions, 1817-1825.

1749. Private. Military-Labor Battalions, 1817-1825.

1750. Private. Military-Labor Battalions, 1817-1825. (In winter work clothing.)

1751. Private and Noncommissioned Officers. Military-Labor Companies of the Engineer Administration, 1818-1824.

1752. Drummer, Military-Labor Companies of the Engineer Administration, 1818-1820.

1753. Company-grade Officer. Military-Labor Companies of the Corps of Engineers, 1818-1825.

1754. Drummer. Military-Labor Companies of the Engineer Administration, 1820-1825.

1755. Private. Military-Labor Companies of the Engineer Administration, 1824-1825.

1756. General and Company-grade Officer. HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY's Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1801.

1757. Officer's coat embroidery, .H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, established in 1801.

1758. Column Leader. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1801.

1759. Company-grade Officer. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1804-1807.

1760. Field and Company-grade Officers. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1807-1808.

1761. Officer's shabrack and holsters, H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, established in 1808.

1762. Column Leaders. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1810-1811.

1763. Company-grade Officer and Column Leader. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1812-1814.

1764. Field-grade Officers. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1814-1816.

1765. Column Leader and Company-grade Officer. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1816-1817.

1766. Field-grade Officer. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1817-1825.

1767. Column Leader. H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs, 1817-1825.

1768. Company-grade Officer and Column Leader. Separate Lithuania Corps, 1825.

1769. Company-grade Officer and Cadet. Haapaniemi Topographic Corps, 1816-1817.

1770. Cadet and Company-grade Officer. Haapaniemi Topographic Corps, 1817-1819.

1771. Field-grade Officer. Corps of Topographers, 1822-1825.

1772. Topographer. 1822-1825.

 

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Chapter VIII.

Army Foot Artillery [Armeiskaya peshaya artilleriya].  

9 April 1801- Lower ranks of Field [Polevaya]—or Army Foot [Armeiskaya Peshaya]—Artillery were ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 7 inches long [4 vershka], tying them midway down the collar (1).

19 May 1801Train [Furshtatskii] officers of Foot Artillery were prescribed the same uniforms as other officers of this artillery, except that the pants were green [shtany zelenyya] (2).

13 May 1801 – Lower ranks of Foot Artillery were given dark-green coats of the same pattern as prescribed in 1802 for lower ranks of Army infantry, with collar, cuffs, and skirt turnbacks of black cloth, with red cloth piping along the edges of the collar, cuff-flaps, and turnbacks, and lined with black kersey [karazeya]. Pants, boots, hats, and other uniform items were issued the same as for their army infantry equivalents, except that the first were light green as before (Illus. 1603). Generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to also have uniforms of the infantry pattern but with the same colors as for the lower ranks (Illus. 1604), while their shabracks and holsters [chepraki i chushki] were left dark green with one row of gold galloon (4).

11 June 1801Small clothes [nizhnee plat’e] for all combatant ranks of the Foot Artillery, and in addition the gloves of noncommissioned and commissioned officers, were to be white instead of a light pale yellow [svetlopalevyi] (4).

27 March 1802– Combatant ranks of the Foot Artillery were ordered to have shoulder straps by battalions: in the 1st Battalion – red, in the 2nd – white, in the 3rd – yellow, in the 4th – light raspberry [svetlomalinovyi], in the 5th – turquoise [biryuzovyi], in the 6th – pink [rozovyi], in the 7th – light green, in the 8th – gray, in the 9th – lilac [lilovyi], in the 10th – dark blue [sinii], and the 11th – pale yellow [palevyi], in the 12th – orange, in the 13th – camel colored [verblyuzhii], and in Pontoon Depots – light green. Noncombatant and train lower ranks were given the same uniform as noncombatant lower ranks of the Army infantry had as this time, but with a black standing collar (without piping), black facings, and a shoulder strap on the left should only, in the battalion color (5).

27 October 1802- While on the march with troops or on detached duties, generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to wear, instead of white pants [pantalony], gray riding trousers [reituzy], with brass buttons and leather lining, identical to those established at this time for officers of Army infantry and cavalry (6).

16 June 1803– Officers of thetrain were ordered to wear grey small cloths (7).

29 June 1803- New patterns for the shabrack and holster were designated for generals and field and company-grade officers, of dark-green cloth with two rows of gold galloon, with black cloth between these rows, and with red cloth piping along the edges (Illus. 1605) (8).

19 August 1803– Lower ranks were given cloth shakos [shapki] in place of the tricorn hat [shlyapa]. These had leather visors in the same style as introduced at this time in musketeer regiments (Illus. 1606) (9).

17 December 1803– A new authorization table of weaponry and accouterments for artillery regiments was confirmed, based on which privates, i.e. canoneers and gun handlers [kanoniry i gandlangery] kept the same uniforms as laid down on 13 May 1801 with subsequent changes, except that mounted gun handlers were given gray riding trousers with covered buttons and leather lining, exactly as used by the cavalry from 1801 to 1814. Artillery privates had swords [shpagi] (with broad blades [tesachnye klinki]), swordbelts, knapsacks, and water bottles all of the same patterns as for the infantry, while powder flasks [porokhovyya natruski] were the same as used during the preceding reign (Illus. 1606).
     Bombardiers[bombardiry, i.e corporals] were distinguished from cannoneers and gun handlers only by gold lace on cuffs of the coat (Illus. 1607).
     Fireworkers[feierverkery, i.e. sergeants], officer candidates [yunkera], and first sergeants [fel’dfebeli] did not carry powder flasks, but had gold galloon on the collar and cuffs of the coat, as well as along the lower edge of the shako. Following the example of noncommissioned officers in grenadier, musketeer, and jäger regiments, they were prescribed gloves, canes, and they had the same colored rings [trinchiki] on the sword knot and the same center to the top tuft [kist’] on shakos that these ranks had (Illus. 1608).
     Distinguished officer candidates[portupei-yunkera] had silver sword knots of the pattern for infantry officers.
     Drummers[barabanshchiki] had chevrons sewn on the coat, and drums, that were exactly the same as laid down for drummers in the Army infantry, while the drum sticks were black (Illus. 1609).
     Battalion drummershad chevrons and drums like those for battalion drummers in the Army infantry, and the same galloon, gloves, canes, tufts on top of the shako, and sword-knot tassels that these personnel had, as authorized for noncommissioned officers (Illus 1609).
     Musicians[muzykanty] (two each for the bassoon, French horn, clarinet, flute, and trumpet), at first authorized only for the 1st Artillery Regiment, were uniformed identically to battalion drummers (10).
     Officers, including generals, were left with the uniforms set forth for them on 13 May and 11 June 1801, except that it was directed that they were to wear hats with a tall plume and a button loop of narrow gold galloon (Illus. 1610) (11).
     Officers of the traindiffered from combatant officers only in that they had gray small clothes (Illus. 1611) (12).
     Noncombatant lower ranks, including those of the train, kept the uniforms prescribed for them on 27 March 1802, with only the hat being replaced by the shako instituted on 19 August 1803. This shako did not have two pompons as for combatants, but only a single lower tuft. Of these ranks all those having noncommissioned officer status—nurses [nadzirateli bol’nykh], doctors’ assistants [fel’dshera], clerks [pisarya], and supply train noncommissioned officers—had, just as did combatant noncommissioned officers, galloon, gloves, canes, shako pompons, and sword knots. In addition, for riding horses train noncommissioned officers were issued gray riding trousers with leather (Illus. 1612). Barbers [tsiryul’niki], who were prescribed a sword [shpaga] (without a sword knot), sword belt, and pouch for shaving instruments and other items, did not wear galloon lace, and had pompons on the shako in the same colors as did privates (Illus. 1613). Lazarette orderlies [lazaretnye sluzhiteli], master craftsmen ]masterovye] and their apprentices, farriers [konovaly], and train personnel [furleity] were uniformed the same as barbers except they did not have the latters’ pouch, nor were they authorized a sword (Illus. 1614). All these ranks, except for train personnel, had knapsacks and water flasks. Instead of knapsacks, train personnel were issued valises [chemodany] of gray cloth (13).
     Doctors [lekarya] and auditors [auditory, i.e. legal assistants] were uniformed completely the same as doctors and auditors in all the other branches of the Army (14).

     Regiments were distinguished from one another by their shoulder straps and the center of the privates’ shako pompon, which were prescribed to be the following colors:  

     1st Artillery Regiment – red.
     2nd —        white.
     3rd —        yellow.
     4th —        light raspberry.
     5th —        turquoise.
     6th —        pink.
 
    7th —        light green.
     8th —        dark blue.
     9th —        orange.
     Pontoon —      black.  

     In the first battalions of all these regiments the lower and upper pompons on the shako were white, and in the second battalions – red. The middle of the pompon was, for privates, the same color as the shoulder strap, while for noncommissioned officers it was black and orange. Pompons on train shakos were in two colors: dark green and that prescribed for the shoulder strap. For privates’ sword knots the acorn [derevyashka] was the same color as the shoulder strap while loops [gaechki] and rings [trinchiki] varied by company: in first Battery companies – white, in second Light companies – sky blue, in third Light companies – orange, and in fourth Battery companies – red. For noncommissioned officers sword knot rings were white, black, and orange (15).

     Each company of Foot Field Artillery was issued entrenching tools [shantsevyi instrument]: 20 axes  and 20 iron shovels, with cases, as for Army Infantry regiments.

     In a Battery company the guns were four half-pood unicorns [polupudovye yedinorogy, a half pood, or pud, being eighteen pounds] and two 3-pounder unicorns; in a Light company – four 12-pounder unicorns and eight 6-pounder cannons (18).

5 March 1805– The round powder flasks used by bombardiers, cannoneers, and gun handlers were replaced by pouches [lyadunki] of black leather with a round brass plate of a pattern and size similar to the plates on cavalry pouches at this time (Illus. 1615). The crossbelt for this pouch was prescribed to be 2 1/2 inches [2/1/2 dyuima] wide, while fittings to the crossbelt were according the following list:

     Prickers [protravniki] (one iron and the other brass), 7/8 inch [1/2 vershka] long to the bend in the ring [do zagiba kol’tsa], the bend being 1/2 inch [1/3 vershka].
     Chain (brass) to the prickers: for tall men – 8 3/4 inches [5 vershkov], men of middle height – 8 inches [4 1/2 vershka], and short men – 7 inches [4 vershka].
     The first sewn-on attachment on the crossbelt, to which the chain fastened, was 1 3/4 inches [1 vershok] below the shoulder strap.
     The second attachment, through which passed the prickers, was sewn on 8 inches from the first for tall men, 7 inches for men of middle height, and 6 1/2 inches [3 3/4 vershka] for short men.
     The third tab, into which the ends of the prickers were placed, was positioned 7 1/2 inches [4 1/4 vershka] below the second.
     The sizes of the tabs were: first or uppermost – 2 1/2 inches long, 3/4 inches wide; second or middle – 3 1/2 inches long, 3/4 inches wide; and third or lowest – 4 inches long, 2 inches wide.
     The first two tabs were rectangular, but for the third the lower end was rounded (17).

16 March 1805– HIGHESTconfirmation was given to a table of uniform clothing, accouterments, and weaponry for the Pontoon Regiment formed from the Pontoon Depot. Based on this table, privates or pontoniers [pontonery] of the 3rd and 2nd, i.e. junior, classes received the exact same uniforms and weapons as gun handlers and cannoneers of Artillery regiments, with the only exceptions being that the shoulder straps and center of the shako pompon were to be black, and pants were to be gray. Along with this, mounted personnel were prescribed riding trousers (Illus. 1615). 1st Class Pontoniers [Pontonery 1-i stat’i] were distinguished, similarly to artillery bombardiers, by gold galloon on the cuffs (Illus 1616).
      All other ranks—fireworkers, officer candidates, distinguished officer candidates, first sergeants, drummers, officers, and all noncombatants holding the same titles as in Artillery regiments—were uniformed and armed in accordance with the regulations in force for those regiments, with only the aforementioned difference in colors for the shoulder straps, shako pompons, and small clothes (Illus. 1616 and 1617) (18).

23 December 1805– In order to avoid certain negative aspects encountered during battles with the enemy, Artillery generals and field and company-grade officers with the forces of the Caucasus Inspectorate were ordered to wear shakos in all respects similar to those of the soldiers, except instead of worsted pompons they were to have silver ones with a mixture of black and orange silk (Illus. 1618). These shakos were stipulated to be only for campaign use and during military operations, and hats were to be worn the rest of the time (19).

27 January 1806– The newly formed 10th and 11th Artillery Regiments were assigned shoulder straps: pale yellow for the first, and black for the second (20).

1 July 1806– There were the same changes in uniforms of doctors in the Foot Artillery as were described in detail above for Army infantry and cavalry (21).

1 October 1806 – The sheepskin warm coats [ovchinnyya fufaiki] authorized for lower ranks up to now were withdrawn (22).

2 December 1806– Lower ranks were ordered to cut their hair short; generals, though, and field and company-grade officers, were in this regard allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (22).

     In this same year HIGHESTconfirmation was given to regulations drawn up under the direct supervision of General Graf Arakcheev, Inspector of all Artillery at that time, regarding the cut, tailoring, colors, fit, and use of uniform items andaccouterments for the lower ranks. These were partly in accord with the regulations established on 15 January 1802 for personnel of the Army infantry, with the above tables of 17 December 1803 and 16 March 1805, and partly with some changes and additions that included the following:

     a) When combatant lower ranks were ordered to have the greatcoat carried with them, then it was to be fastened to the knapsak strap after having been tightly rolled into a tube 14 inches [8 vershkov] long (Illus 1619).
     b) A greatcoat, rolled up in this way and tied at the two ends with special 1-inch wide whitened straps, was to be fastened by these straps to the knapsack strap by a loop sewn on top of the knapsack (Illus. 1619).
     c) The knapsack with or without the flask and rolled greatcoat attached was to be worn over the man’s right shoulder, close to the shoulders and a little higher to the right, diagonally so that during any movement the arms were free to move (Illus 1619).
     d) When knapsacks were without greatcoats, the knapsack strap was to be shortened, being tightened so that the knapsack was right at the shoulders (Illus. 1620).
     e) Mounted cannoneers with the guns and caissons were not to wear knapsacks with greatcoats and flasks, but rather pack these behind the horse’s saddle, placing the knapsack with all its internal contents and the rolled up greatcoat held to it on the cushion [podushka], and then attaching all this behind the saddle by three whitened straps located there, with iron buckles (Illus. 1621). From the right side of the knapsack there were to be hung a rope for general use and forage [arkannaya i furazhnaya verevka], 1/2 inch thick and 30 feet [5 sazhen] long and coiled into a ring the same size as the circumference of the knapsack, with the ends tied to the knapsack’s middle buckle under the cover flap. The water flask was to be attached over this coil of rope, its straps being held by the first separate strap that fastened the greatcoat and knapsack (Illus. 1622).
     f) When personnel were detached to accompany horses for cut forage, then each company’s detailed fireworkers and bombardirs were to wear full accouterments but without the pouch, on saddled horses with knapsacks with greatcoats and flasks behind the saddle (Illus. 1623). Gun handlers, for whom saddlers were not authorized, were to leave their knapsacks and flasks with their section baggage [artel’naya povozka], while the greatcoat was to be over the right shoulder, rolled along its whole length and tied at the ends with whitened straps (Illus 1623).
     g) All noncombatant ranks, including junior train-masters [unter-furmeistery] and train personnel, were to wear knapsacks with rolled greatcoats and water flasks over the right shoulder, exactly as related for combatants (Illus. 1624 and 1625). h) Junior train-masters and train personnel who had valises instead of knapsacks were to pack these, along with their greatcoats and flasks, behind the saddles of their horses. If the train personnel were not mounted and instead leading pack animals, then all these thing were to be left with the wagons (24).

10 March 1807Canes were withdrawn for officers and noncommissioned officers (25).

22 September 1807– With the reorganization of Army Foot Artillery from regiments to brigades, these latter were ordered to have shoulder straps of the following colors:

     In the 2nd Brigade (the Guard Artillery formed the 1st Brigade) – white, in the 3rd – white with red piping, in the 4th – yellow, in the 5th – yellow with red piping, in the 6th – black, in the 7th – light raspberry, in the 8th, light raspberry with black piping, in the 9th – turquoise, in the 10th turquoise with red piping, in the 11th – pink, in the 12th – pink with dark green piping, in the 13th – dark blue, in the 14th – red with black piping, in the 15th – white with black piping, in the 16th – dark green, in the 17th – dark green with red piping, in the 18th – dark blue with red piping, in the 19th orange, in the 20th – orange with black piping, in the 21st – red, in the 22nd – black with red piping, in the 23rd (Siberia) – lilac, in the Reserve St.-Petersburg Brigade – gray, in the Reserve Kiev Brigade – gray with red piping, and in the Reserve Moscow Brigade – lilac with red piping (26).

23 September 1807– All companies in a brigade were ordered to have sword-knot acorns of the same color as the shoulder straps, while loops and rings were to be white in the first Battery company, red in the second, sky blue in the first Light, green in the second, and black in the Pontoon company (27). As for the [shako’s – M.C.] small pompons [kistochki or repeiki] and tufts [sultanchiki or kardonchiki], the outside was to be white as previously while the center was the same color as the shoulder strap, ignoring any piping this may have around it (28).

23 December 1807– Lower ranks were given new pattern summer and winter pants of the pattern confirmed at this same time for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, i.e. with spats for the first, and for the second—leather trim or leggings [kragi], with seven brass buttons (29).

3 January 1808 – Lower ranks throughout the Army Foot Artillery were ordered to have just red shoulder straps, with the brigade number of yellow worsted cord sewn on, 1-3/4 inches [1 vershok] long, and when there was no number, then with the initial letters of the title, namely: in the Siberia Brigade – the letter C., in the St.-Petersburg Reserve Brigade – C. .P., in the Kiev Reserve Brigade – K.P., and in the Moscow Reserve Brigade – M.P. (30). Field and company-grade officers were given epaulettes with a red cloth field and the brigade number embroidered in gold, similar to the description for Army regiments but without a twisted cord around it, and with a thick tongue [nakladka] (Illus 1626 and 1627). Generals were directed to have epaulettes without numbers (31). Along with this there was a new allocation of colors for sword knots and the pompons and tassels of shakos and forage caps:

     In the first Battery companies of all brigades – the ring and loop of the sword knot and the loop above the tassel on forage caps were to be white.
     In second Battery companies – red.
     In first Light companies – sky blue.
     In second Light companies – green.
     In Pontoon companies – black.

     In all these companies sword-knot acorns were to be red; pompons [kisti ili repeiki] and tufts [sultanchiki] of shakos, and the tassels [kisti] on forage caps – white with a red center.
     For noncommissioned officers – sword-knot rings and shako tufts remained of of three colors as before: white, black, and orange (32).

7 March 1808– For the entire Foot Artillery sword belts [portupei] were ordered to be worn not around the waist but over the right shoulder, as described for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, but without the frog for the bayonet scabbard, which was not authorized for artillerymen (33). From this same time the cloth shakos introduced in 1803 began to be lined with black leather to make them stronger, and the visors for them were sewn on. After this they received the name kiver (Illus. 1628) (34).

8 March 1808 – For the successful bombardment of the Svartholm fortress, field and company-grade officers of Colonel Belgard’s Battery Company of the 21st Artillery Brigade were ordered to have as a badge of distinction gold embroidered button loops [petlitsy]: two on each side of the collar and three on each cuff flap (Illus. 1629) (35).

14 July 1808 – For lower ranks of the Foot Artillery the round knapsacks were exchanged for rectangular ones of the same pattern as those established at this time for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments. Along with it was set forth as a rule for these personnel to carry the greatcoat, when it was not being worn, in accordance with the rules set forth above for Grenadiers (Illus. 1630) coat (36).

14 September 1808– Lower ranks of the Foot Artillery were ordered to have gray cloth pants instead of white ones (37).

8 October 1808– Instead of a ribbon [bant], the shako of Foot Artillery lower ranks was to have a plate [gerb] of two crossed brass cannons with a similarly brass bomb [bombochka] (Illus. 1630) (38).

2 November 1808- The pants authorized on 23 December 1807, with leggings [kragi] in the winter and spats in the summer, were kept only for combatant lower ranks, while for noncombatants the pants as well as the boots were directed to be of the patterns established on 17 December 1803 (39).

5 November 1808- Company-grade officers of the Foot Artillery, when the troops were wearing knapsacks, were ordered to also have them, of the same pattern in all respects as was established for lower ranks (40).

12 November 1808- When not on duty, field and company-grade officers were allowed to wear dark-green cloth pants instead of white ones (41).

11 February 1809– All noncombatant lower ranks not holding noncommissioned officer status were given a new pattern cap [shapka] in place of the shako [kiver] and forage cap with tassel, identical to those which were introduced at this time in Army Infantry regiments, but with a black band and red piping around its edges (Illus 1631) (42).

4 April 1809- Noncommissioned officers were ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar, but on the upper and side edges (Illus. 1632) (43).

20 April 1809 – The change in the manner of wearing the knapsack, introduced at this time for Army Infantry, i.e. with the addition of a third strap running crossways, was extended to Artillery and Pontoon companies (Illus. 1632) (44).

24 May 1809– Field and company-grade officers of the Foot Artillery, including Pontoon officers, were given gorgets [znaki] of the same pattern as those established in 1808 for grenadier and musketeer officers (45).

8 June 1809–The plumage on generals' hats was discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole was replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones were intertwined with each other as if in a plait (46).

11 June 1809Cords [etishkety] were given to the shakos of lower ranks: red for privates and multicolored white, black, and orange for noncommissioned officers and musicians (Illus. 1633)(47). Along with this pompons for all privates were ordered to be red, while for noncommissioned officers they were as before, two quarters white and two quarters black with orange (Illus. 1633)(48).

28 August 1809– In order to distinguish officers’ coats of the Foot Field Artillery from those of Jäger regiments, generals and field and company-grade officers of the Artillery were ordered to have red cloth piping not only along the top and sides of the collar, but also along the lower edge (Illus. 1634)(49).

8 October 1809– Lower ranks of Battery, Light, and Pontoon companies were ordered to have dark-green winter pants, the same color as the coat, and mounted gun handlers and train noncommissioned officers were additionally to have black leather along the inner seam. After this, gray riding trousers were no longer authorized for them (Illus 1634) (50).

6 December 1809– Field and company-grade officers of the Foot Field Artillery were ordered to wear a shako [kiver] instead of the hat when in formation, of the same pattern as established at this time for field and company-grade officers of Fusilier (in Grenadier regiments) and Musketeer battalions, only with the same plate as artillery privates (Illus. 1634)(51), but when not in formation the hat was kept as before, except with a shortened plume (Illus. 1634)(52).
     In this same year the powdering of the hair was completely discontinued for officers, and it was permitted for them when off duty to wear frock coats [sertuki] like the officers’ frock coats in the Army infantry, except with black collar and cuffs piped red, and black lining (Illus. 1635) (53).

24 September 1810- Knapsack straps were ordered to be stitched on the edges, in the manner of crossbelts and swordbelts, and have a bend at each shoulder so that they do not wear away the coat and constrict a man under his arms (54).

17 January 1811– Instead of the multicolored cords on their shakos, noncommissioned officers and musicians of the Foot Field Artillery were to have red ones, the tassels being white with black and orange mixed in (Illus. 1636) (55).

25 October 1811– Lower ranks of the Foot Field Artillery were given dark-green caps [shapki] of a new pattern, with a black band that had the brigade number in red cord sewn on in front. The pattern of these caps was exactly like that for the forage caps introduced on 23 September of this year in Grenadier and other Army infantry regiments, and by which the companies in each branch were distinguished by piping, in this case of the following colors:

     In Battery companies – black on top around the cap; red around both edges of the band (Illus. 1637)(56).
     In Light companies – black on top around the cap; red around the top edge of the band (Illus. 1637)(57).
     In Pontoon companies – red on top around the cap (Illus. 1637)(58).

3 November 1811- Gloves were abolished for noncommissioned officers, and to replace them in cold weather they were allowed to wear cloth mittens [rukavitsy] sewn from old dress coats (59).

17 December 1811- Noncombatant lower ranks of the Foot Artillery, in place of the uniforms they had since 1802, were given new ones identical to those established at this time for noncombatant lower ranks in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, but with black piping and the brigade number in red cord on the cap (Illus. 1638)(60).

10 February 1812- Noncombatant lower ranks were ordered to have shoulder straps on their caftan coats [kaftany] and greatcoats of the same color and pattern as the shoulder straps of combatant ranks (61), and about this time there were the following changes in the uniforms of combatant ranks of the Foot Artillery:

     1) New-pattern shakos were issued, lower than before, with a big indentation or widening upwards, and sloping upwards at the sides. They lacked the sewn-on neck flaps or ear flaps, which from this time on were worn separately (Illus. 1639).
     2) The high collars which opened diagonally upwards were replaced by lower ones closed with small hooks (Illus. 1639).
     3) Lower combatant ranks were given gaiters and officers high boots reaching up to the knees, the first having nine buttons (Illus. 1639).
     4) Instead of the brigade number, it was ordered that shoulder straps and epaulettes were to have the company number and the initial letter of its title, for example: in the 5th Battery Company – 5 followed by a Cyrillic B; in the 17th Light Company – 17 followed by a Cyrillic L; in the 1st Pontoon Company – 1 followed by a Cyrillic P, and so on (Illus. 1639).
     5) In order to lessen their expenditures, officers were allowed to have white shako cords and sword knots instead of silver ones, and stamped brass fittings to the epaulettes instead of gold (62).

13 April 1813– In the Foot Artillery, Battery Companies No. 14, 23, and 24, and Light Companies No. 33 and 47 were granted badges [znaki] for the shako, with the inscription “For Distinction” [“Za otlichie”], following the style for Army infantry regiments, i.e. in the form of a shield, and which was accepted as standard for all Foot Artillery companies which would receive this award in the subsequent years of Emperor Alexander I’s reign (Illus. 1640) (63). Apart from these badges, officers of the indicated companies were granted gold button loops: two on each side of the coat collar and three on each cuff flap. This was subsequently extended to all other companies that received the badge for distinction (Illus. 1640)(64). (Note: a detailed listing of Artillery companies and other units which received shako badges will be found later, in the separate chapter “Badges for Distinction.”)

20 May 1814– The gray riding trousers with buttons and leather lining prescribed since 1802 for field and company-grade officers of Foot Artillery were replaced by similarly gray ones with black double stripes [lampasy] with red piping (both stripes and piping being of cloth), and without leather lining (Illus. 1641) (65).

In 1814, it was ordered that the cockades on officers’ hats have white tape around them, later replaced by silver, and in 1815 Artillery drum majors were directed to be uniformed according to the patterns for Army drum majors, with the only difference being the appropriate changes in coat colors (Illus. 1642). The placement of chevrons sewn on musicians’ and drummers’ coats was also changed, these coats being single-breasted with small hooks instead of buttons, and with tape or lace [tes’ma ili bason] on both sides of the opening, following the example, as stated above, of musicians and drummers of Army infantry (Illus. 1642) (66).

24 January 1816Scabbards for short swords [tesaki] and officers’ swords [shpagi] were ordered to be black throughout the Foot Field Artillery, the first being polished, and the second lacquered (67).

10 February 1816– Combatant lower ranks of the Foot Artillery in the Guards Corps were ordered to have chinstraps with smooth brass scales (Illus 1643). Other companies, as before, were not authorized these (68).

13 April 1816 - Field and company-grade officers of the Foot Field Artillery were ordered to wear cloth pants with high boots only during reviews and parades, and during the rest of the time to have the riding trousers with stripes prescribed in 1814, with the exception of officers in the capitals, where they were prescribed to be in dark-green pants and high boots (69).

16 June 1816– Foot Artillery companies in the Grenadier Corps and the Georgia Grenadier Brigade were given plumes [sultany] for the shako, of the pattern for grenadier plumes in the Army infantry (Illus. 1643 (70).

28 July 1816– It was ordered that in the Foot Artillery, officers on their epaulettes, and lower ranks on their shoulder straps, have the brigade number and not that of the company, as it was until 1812 (71).

16 November 1816– The order of 28 August 1809 for officers in the Foot Artillery to have red piping all around the collar was extended to lower ranks (Illus 1643) (72).

8 August 1817- The size of the forage cap was fixed as established at this time for forage caps in Army infantry regiments (73).

26 September 1817 – The description confirmed on this day of shakosand accoutermentsand the rules for wearing them were adopted in the Foot Artillery (Illus. 1644)(74).

8 December 1817- The leather leggings [kragi] on the cloth pants were ordered to have integral spats [kozyrki] of a pattern similar to the gaiter spats [shtibletnye kozyrki] of summer pants (Illus. 1644)(74).

17 February 1818– It was reaffirmed that all ranks in the Foot Artillery have red piping around the collar (76).

26 June 1818– In the Foot Artillery of the Separate Lithuania Corps, i.e. in the 27th and 28th Brigades (Note: on 20 May 1820 the 27th Brigade was renumbered as the 24th, and the 28th became the 25th) it was ordered to have coats with black lapels [latskany] (of cloth for lower ranks and velvet for officers) with red piping around their edges, and shakos with round pompons the same color as the cords. Instead of leather leggings they were to wear cloth gaiters with spats [shtiblety s kozyrkami], following the example of Grenadier, Infantry, and Jäger regiments in this corps (Illus. 1645 and 1646) (77).

23 August 1818- Combatant lower ranks of the Foot Artillery were ordered to have shoulder straps on coats and greatcoats that were as long as the shoulder and 2 1/8 inches wide, of the previous red color, with the brigade number 1 3/4 inches in size, cut out 7/8 inch from the lower edge of shoulder strap and backed with yellow cloth stiched around the edges of the cutout. The flaps or wings [klapany ili kryltsa] on  musicians' and drummers' coats were prescribed to be of black cloth with red piping, while the tape for sewn-on trim, 7/8 inch wide, was white with a red stripe down the center for Artillery in the Grenadier Corps and the Georgia Grenadier Brigade, and in the rest of the Artillery—all white (Illus. 1647) (78).

25 January 1819- Drumsticks and entrenching tool handles were directed to be black throughout the Foot Artillery (79).

16 February 1819– Lower ranks of the Foot Artillery, when on campaign or in camps, were ordered to have black linen covers for the shako, plume, pouch, and coat with leggings, of the same patterns and following the same guidelines as established on 13 May 1817 for Grenadier and other regiments of Army infantry, with only the addition of letters designating the company. For example, in a first Battery company [1 Batareinaya rota] – 1 followed by a Cyrillic B. and R., and so on (80).

4 April 1819- The spats on the leggings were abolished (81).

18 April 1819– In the newly formed Georgia Grenadier Artillery Brigade, epaulettes and shoulder straps were ordered to have the Cyrillic letters G.B., i.e. Georgia Brigade (82).

11 November 1819– The following colors were assigned for sword knots:

    In the first Battery companies of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Grenadier Brigades – red (Illus. 1648, a).
    In the second Battery companies of these three brigades – red loop [okolysh], white rings and acorns [gaiki i derevyashki] (Illus. 1648, b).
    In Light companies of these brigades – red loop, light blue [svetlosinii] rings and acorn (Illus. 1648, c).
    In Park companies of these brigades – red loop, green rings and acorn (Illus. 1648, d.)
    In Reserve companies of these brigades – red loop, yellow rings and acorn (Illus. 1648 e.)
    In the first Battery companies of the Georgia Grenadier Brigade and all Field brigades – completely red (Illus. 1648, f).
    In the second Light companies of these brigades – white (Illus. 1648, g).
    In the third Light companies of these brigades – light blue (Illus. 1648, h).
    In Park companies of these brigades – green (Illus. 1648, i).
    In Reserve companies of these brigades – yellow (Illus. 1648, k).
    In Pontoon companies (Note: on 20 April 1822 these companies were transferred to the control of the Engineers) – black (Illus. 1648, l) (83).

9 May 1820– It was ordered that shakos of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Grenadier Brigades and the Georgia (from 21 October 1821 – Caucasus) Grenadier Brigade have plates of the pattern for grenadiers, with two crossed cannons below (Illus. 1649 and 1650) (84).

3 June 1820– In the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Grenadier Artillery Brigades it was ordered that the Cyrillic letter G be added to brigade number on epaulettes andshoulder straps (85).

12 October 1820- Field and company-grade officers of the Foot Artillery were given a new pattern of gorget [znak], flatter and narrower than before, without a ribbon, of the same shape and with the same rank distinctions as were established in this year for field and company-grade officers of Grenadier, Infantry, and Jäger regiments (86).
     In this same year of 1820 there were changes in musicians' and drummers' coats which consisted of the tape on the sleeves beginning to be sewn on almost touching each other, and on the wings it was already not straight down to the lower edge, as before, but slanted; it also began to be sewn around all four edges of the collar (Illus. 1651) (87).

21 October 1820– It was ordered that epaulettes and shoulder straps in the Caucasus Artillery Brigade have the Cyrillic letters K.B. (88).

27 January 1822– Officers of the Foot Artillery were ordered to have epaulettes of the same pattern as for all officers of the Army infantry (89).

26 November 1823– In the Foot Artillery all musicians, even though they might not hold noncommissioned officer ranks, were ordered to have coats with gold galloon and noncommissioned officers’ pompons on the shako. However, this was not extended to drummers who did not hold noncommissioned officer rank (90).

16 January 1824 - The following changes were ordered to be carried out in the uniforms and accouterments of combatant lower ranks:

     1.) Coattails, which up to this time had one covering the other, were to be cut so that their inner edges came together, and sewn together so they touched (Illus. 1652).
     2.) The decorative end [trinchik] of the shako cords, which was to be level with the right shoulder, was to have another special loop of red cord attached to the button on the right shoulder strap, so that the shako cords stayed in place when the soldier moved about (Illus. 1652).
     3.) The cartridge pouch was to be worn so that when the soldier bent his elbow, the distance between it and the line of the top edge of the pouch was equal to 5 1/4 inches [3 vershka].
     4.) Knapsack chest straps were to be fitted so that they were between the fourth and fifth buttons of the coat, as counted from the collar (Illus. 1652) (91).

29 March 1825- For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (92).

 

 

Chapter IX.

Army Horse Artillery [Armeiskaya konnaya artilleriya].

  ----------

9 April 1801- Lower ranks of Field [Polevaya]—or Army Horse [Armeiskaya Konnaya]—Artillery were ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 7 inches long [4 vershka], tying them midway down the collar (93).

19 May 1801Train [Furshtatskii] officers of Horse Artillery were prescribed the same uniforms as other officers of this artillery, except that the pants were green [shtany zelenyya] (94).

13 May 1801 – All combatant lower ranks of Horse Artillery were ordered to have the same uniform clothing and established at this same timve for the Foot Artillery, but with the addition of aiguilettes [aksel’banty]: of yellow worsted [garus] for lower ranks, and gold for officers and generals (Illus. 1653) (95).

29 May 1801– Horse-Artillery officers as well as generals were given white plumes for their hats, of the pattern for their cavalry counterparts (Illus. 1653) (96).

11 June 1801Small clothes [nizhnee plat’e] for all combatant ranks of the Horse Artillery, and in addition the gloves of noncommissioned and commissioned officers, were to be white instead of a light pale yellow [svetlopalevyi] (97).

27 March 1802– Personnel of the Horse Artillery were prescribed new uniforms cut like those confirmed for Dragoon regiments in this same year of 1802, in the following colors: dark-green coat with black collar, slit cuffs, and lining on the skirts and turnbacks, trimmed with red cloth, with black lining, and with an orange strap on the left shoulder. White pants, of cloth. Yellow buttons (Illus. 1654). Noncombatant and train lower ranks were given the same uniform as these personnel had in the Foot Artillery (98).

27 October 1802- While on the march with troops or on detached duties, generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to wear, instead of white pants, gray riding trousers, with brass buttons and leather lining, identical to those established at this time for officers of Army Infantry Cavalry, and Foot Artillery (99).

16 June 1803Train officers in the Horse Artillery were ordered to wear grey small cloths (100).

22 June 1803– In the newly formed 2nd Horse-Artillery Battalion shoulder straps were prescribed to be white, and in the 1st Battalion—red instead of the previous orange (101).

18 October 1803– All combatant lower ranks in the Horse Artillery were ordered to wear helmets [kaski] when in formation), of the pattern introduced at this time in Cuirassier and Dragoon regiments, while hats were kept for off duty (102).

17 December 1803– A new authorization table of uniforms, weaponry,andaccouterments for Horse-Artillery battalions was confirmed, based on which lower ranks kept the same uniforms as laid down on 27 March 1802 and 18 October 1803, but without aiguilettes. New broadswords [palashi] were issued, with brass hilts, 29 3/4 inches [1 arshin 1 vershok] from the joining of the hilt to the tip of the blade, with blackened leather scabbards with a brass end piece (Illus. 1655). Sword knots (white tassels in the 1st Company, sky blue in the 2nd, yellow in the 3rd, black in the 4th, and green in the 5th), sword belts, pouches, pouch belts, water flasks (wooden, wrapped in black leather), saddles (without saddle buckets [bushmaty]), shabracks (dark green with pale yellow trim, monogram, and crown), and all other horse equipment, were of the patterns for dragoons (Illus. 1655 and 1656). Pistols, also identical to those for dragoons, were authorized at one per man only for those cannoneers who were not employeed with the guns or ammunition caissons.
     Bombardiers, as in the Foot Artillery, had gold galloon on the coat’s cuffs (Illus. 1657).
     Fireworkers, officer candidates, and first sergeants had coats with gold galloon on the collar and cuffs. The front of the helmet crest [plyumazh] was white with a light-orange stripe. The sword-knot tassel was white with black and orange. A cane and two pistols were prescribed (Illus. 1658).
     Distinguished officer candidates [portupei-yunkera] were distinguished from the preceding noncommissioned officers only by officer-pattern cavalry sword knots on their broadswords.
     Trumpeters had white chevrons on the coat and brass trumpets with red cords and tassels exactly like those prescribed for trumpets in Dragoon regiments. The helmet crest was red (Illus. 1659).
     Staff-trumpeters had chevrons and trumpets (with cords and tassels colored white, black, and orange) also the same as those used by staff-trumpeters in Dragoon regiments. They also had the latter’s appointments as noncommissioned officers: galloon, cane, sword knot, and top to the helmet crest (Illus. 1659) (103).
     Officers, including generals, kept the uniforms they had received on 27 March 1802 and 18 October 1803. In formation, when wearing sashes, they wore the helmets established on 18 October 1803, with a hair creast (white towards the top, black towards the bottom, with an orange strip in between) (Illus. 1660), and during other times—hats with a white plume and a gold button loop of narrow galloon. Shabracks were laid down to be dark green with gold galloon, monogram, and crown (Illus. 1660) (104).
     Company-grade officers of the train differed from combatant officers only in that their small clothes were gray (105).
     Noncombatant lower ranks, including train personnel, were uniformed after the example of noncombatants of the Foot Artillery, with the only difference being that instead of knapsacks they had gray cloth valises, and train noncommissioned officers had spurs on their boots (106).
     Auditors were not authorized for Horse-Artillery battalions, but doctors were clothed in the standard uniform prescribed for this position, as described in detail above for Grenadier regiments (107).
     Fifteen axes were issued to each Horse-Artillery company, and the same number of iron shovels. Guns consisted of six 12-pounder unicorns and six 6-pounder cannons (108).

1 July 1806– There was the change in doctors’ uniforms for the Horse Artillery as described above for Army Infantry, Cavalry, and Foot Artillery (109).

1 October 1806 – The sheepskin warm coats [ovchinnyya fufaiki] authorized for lower ranks up to now were withdrawn (110).

2 December 1806– These same ranks were ordered to cut their hair short; generals, though, and field and company-grade officers, were in this regard allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (111).

In this same year the Horse Artillery was ordered to have white forage caps with red bands and insertions [proshivki], and with a tassel of both these colors (Illus. 1661). There were also established rules regarding the cut, tailoring, colors, fit, and use of uniform items andaccouterments. These rules were partly in accord with the regulations established on 17  March 1802 for Dragoon regiments and the above table of 17 December 1803, and partly new, which consisted of the following:

    a) “When mounted cannoneers with the guns and caissons are ordered to have the greatcoat carried with them, then it was to be placed on the valise, having been tightly rolled into a tube 16 inches [9 vershkov] long, i.e. the same length as the valise, and tied in two places at the ends with a white strap 1 inch wide.” (Illus 1662).
    b) “The valise with everything stowed inside and the greatcoat placed on top of it is to be packed behind the saddle with three whitened straps with iron buckles. From the left side of the valise there was to be hung a rope for general use and forage [arkannaya i furazhnaya verevka], 1/2 inch thick and 30 feet [5 sazhen] long and coiled into a ring the same size as the circumference of the valise, with the ends alongside that item tied to the second strap holding the valise and greatcoat. The water flask is to be attached over this coil of rope, its straps being held by the same second strap.” (Illus. 1662).
    c) “In this same exact manner fireworkers and mounted privates with the guns are to pack their valise, water flask, and rope for general use and forage behind the saddle, while on top of the valise goes the forage sack with or without forage. The greatcoat, though, rolled into a tube 35 inches [1 1/4 arshina] long, is to be laid across the horse’s neck and at its midpoint tied tightly to the saddle arch, and its ends tied to the ends of the holsters so that the greatcoat is covered by the shabrack.” (Illus. 1663.)
    d) “When personnel are detached to accompany horses for cut forage, then each company’s detailed fireworkers and privates acting as corporals [ryadovye za yefreitorov] are to wear full accouterments but without pouchs, on saddled horses with valises with greatcoats and flasks behind the saddle. Those without saddles are to leave their valises and flasks with their section baggage cart [artel’naya povozka], while the greatcoat is to be over the right shoulder, rolled along its whole length and tied at the ends with whitened straps.”
    e) “Entrenching tools (shovels and axes), when personnel are on foot, are to be worn on one’s person in the manner of the infantry, but when mounted and on the move, then these are to be tied to the side of each ammunition caisson.”
    f) “As for noncombatants with horses (the bone setter [konoprav], nursing orderly, barber, smith, and farrier), they are to pack their greatcoats, valises, and water flasks the same way as combatants.” (Illus. 1664.)
    g) “Other noncombatants, except train personnel [furleity], have packed valises, water flasks, and greatcoats on their persons, on a strap 1 1/2 inches wide. This strap’s ends fasten to iron buckles sewn onto the sides of the valise. It is to this same strap that the greatcoat, rolled into a tube the length of the valise, is tied by means of a loop sewn onto the top of the valise. The wooden water flask, wrapped in black leather, is fastened to the middle of the valise by a black leather strap across it. In this way the valise with greatcoat and flask is carried over the right shoulder, close to the back with the right end raised higher so that it lies somewhat diagonally.” (Illus. 1665.)
    h) Train personnel driving wagons leave their valises along with their greatcoats and flasks in their vehicles (112).

10 March 1807Canes were withdrawn for officers and noncommissioned officers (113).

22 September 1807– With the disbandment of Horse-Artillery battalions and the distribution of their component companies to brigades, these companies were ordered to have shoulder straps of the following colors:

     Horse company of the 2nd Brigade (Note: the Guard Artillery formed the 1st Brigade) – white, of the 3rd – white with red piping, of the 4th – yellow, of the 5th – yellow with red piping, of the 6th – black, of the 7th – light raspberry, of the 8th, light raspberry with black piping, of the 9th – turquoise, of the 10th turquoise with red piping, of the 11th – pink, of the 12th – pink with dark green piping, of the 13th – dark blue, of the 14th – red with black piping, of the 15th – white with black piping, of the 16th – dark green, of the 17th – dark green with red piping, of the 18th – dark blue with red piping, of the 21st – red, of the 22nd – black with red piping, of the Reserve St.-Petersburg Brigade – gray, of the Reserve Kiev Brigade – gray with red piping, and of the Reserve Moscow Brigade – lilac with red piping (114). (Note: The 19th, 20th, and 23rd Brigades did not have horse companies.)

3 January 1808 – Lower ranks of all Horse Artillery companies were ordered to have just red shoulder straps, with the brigade number of yellow worsted cord sewn on, 1-3/4 inches [1 vershok] long, and when there was no number, then with the initial letters of the title, namely: in the St.-Petersburg Reserve Brigade –  Cyrillic P, in the Kiev Reserve Brigade – K, and in the Moscow Reserve Brigade – M. The acorn of the sword knotwas ordered to be red and the loop and ring white (Illus. 1666). Field-grade officers were given epaulettes with a red cloth field and the brigade number in gold, similar to those established at this for field and company-grade officers of the Foot Artillery (Illus. 1666). Generals were directed to have epaulettes without numbers (115).

19 February 1808– For distinction shown against the French in 1807, the field and company-grade officers of Colonel Prince Yashvil’s Horse-Artillery Company, 4th Artillery Brigade, and Colonel Yermolov’s Horse-Artillery Company, 7th Artillery Brigade, were ordered to have gold button loop embroidery on their coats’ collars and cuffs (Illus. 1666) (116).

18 May 1808– All combatant lower ranks in Horse-Artillery companies were ordered to have two pistols each (117).

26 November 1808– For all Horse-Artillery companies a new style of crest [plyumazh] was prescribed for their helmets, like that confirmed at this time for Cuirassier regiments. Officers were prescribed to have these crests only when on campaign, and the rest of the time to wear the previous thick style established 18 October 1803 (Illus. 1666) (118).

11 February 1809– All noncombatant lower ranks not possessing noncommissioned officer status were given a new pattern forage cap, identical to those established at this time for noncombatants in the Foot Artillery (119).

4 April 1809- Noncommissioned officers were ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar, but on the upper and side edges (120).

8 June 1809–The plumage on generals' hats was discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole was replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones were intertwined with each other as if in a plait (121).

28 August 1809– Horse-Artillery officers were ordered to have red cloth piping not only along the top and sides of the coat collar, but also along the lower edge (Illus. 1667)(122).

22 October 1809– Lower ranks of the Horse Artillery were ordered to have two shoulder straps on their coats and greatcoats instead of just one (Illus. 1667) (123).
      In this same year the powdering of the hair was completely discontinued for officers, and it was permitted for them when off duty to wear frock coats [sertuki] of the same pattern as established at this time for officers of the Foot Artillery. Also, plumes [sultany] on their hats were shortened. (124).

25 October 1811– Lower ranks of Horse-Artillery companies were given new forage caps [furazhnyya shapki] of the pattern introduced at this time in the Foot Artillery (Illus. 1668) (125).

17 December 1811- Noncombatant lower ranks of the Horse Artillery were given new uniforms identical to those received at this time by noncombatant lower ranks in the Foot Artillery(126).

10 February 1812– These lower ranks were ordered to have shoulder straps on their caftan coats [kaftany] and greatcoats of the same color and pattern as the shoulder straps of combatant ranks (127), and about this time there were the following changes in the uniforms of all combatant ranks of the Horse Artillery:

    1) The thick [gustoi] style of crest on officers’ helmets was completely abolished, leaving only the flat [ploskii] style.
    2) The high collars which opened diagonally upwards were replaced by lower ones closed with small hooks (Illus. 1669).
    3) Lower combatant ranks were given gaiters and officers high boots reaching up to the knees, the first having nine buttons (Illus. 1639).
    4) Instead of the brigade number, it was ordered that shoulder straps and epaulettes were to have the company number and the initial letter of its title. For example, 1 K. in the 1st Horse Company [1-ya Konnaya rota] (128).

29 November 1812- In order to lessen their expenditures, Horse-Artillery officers were allowed to have stamped bronze [kovanyi bronzovyi] fittings to their epaulettes instead of gold, and white sashes and sword knots instead of silver (129).

18 April 1813– Horse Artillery Companies No. 3, 4, 6, and 12, were granted badges [znaki] for the helmet, with the inscription “For Distinction” [“Za otlichie”], following the style for Army Infantry regiments, i.e. in the form of a shield (Illus. 1670). Independently of these badges, officers of these companies were granted gold embroidered button loops on their coats’ collars and cuffs, which was extended to other companies which would granted such a distinction (Illus. 1670 (130).

20 May 1814– The gray riding trousers with buttons and leather lining prescribed since 1802 for field and company-grade officers of Horse Artillery were replaced by likewise gray ones but with black cloth double stripes [lampasy] with red cloth piping, and without leather lining (Illus. 1670) (131).

16 and 26 June 1814– The following changes were made to the uniforms and weapons of combatant ranks in the Horse Artillery:

    1) Shakos [kivera] were to be issued instead of helmets, of the same pattern as in the Foot Artillery except with the addition of hair plumes: for privates – white with black and orange at the base; for noncommissioned officers – white with black and orange at the top; for trumpeters – red; for field and company-grade officers – white with black and orange at the base (Illus. 1671 and 1672).
    2) The double-breasted coats were changed to single-breasted, with nine buttons and red piping (Illus. 1671 and 1672).
    3) White pants with high were replaced by long dark-green pants of the pattern described above for lancers, with double stripes, piping, and also buttons and red cords for fastening at the bottom (Illus. 1671 and 1672).
    4) Gloves were kept only for officers and noncommissioned officers, for the former as before without cuffs [krageny], and for the latter with cuffs.
    5) Broadswords [palashi] and wide sword belts with buckles were replaced by sabers [sabli] and sword belts with hooks, of the pattern for lancers. For lower ranks these sword belts were of whitened deerskin [losinnyi], while for officers they were black leather trimmed on the upper side with gold galloon (Illus. 1671 and 1672) (132).

In 1814, it was ordered that the cockades on officers’ hats have white tape around them, later replaced by silver (Illus. 1673) (133).

20 January 1816Cuffs on combatant ranks’ coats were ordered to have dark-green flaps, in the style of the infantry (Illus. 1673) (134).

10 February 1816– Combatant lower ranks of the Horse Artillery were ordered to have shako chinstraps [podvyaznye remni u kiverov] with brass scales (135).

16 November 1816– The order of 28 August 1809 for officers in the Horse Artillery to have red piping all around the collar was extended to lower ranks (Illus 1673) (136).

19 March 1817– Noncommissioned officers of the Horse Artillery were ordered to have gloves without cuffs (137).

22 September 1817– All combatant ranks of Horse-Artillery companies were ordered to have coats of the pattern confirmed on 28 February 1817 for Dragoon regiments, i.e. with slit cuffs without flaps. When wearing the sash, officers were to have the coat with short tails and wear the same pouches as in Dragoon regiments, except with two gold crossed cannons and a gold single-flame grenade, instead of an eagle (Illus. 1674 and 1675) (138).

27 November 1817– The pale yellow cloth [palevoe sukno] of horse-artillery shabracks was ordered to be replaced by yellow [zheltoe] (139).

5 October 1818– Horse-Artillery companies of the Separate Lithuania Corps (Nos. 13 and 14) were given coats with black lapels (cloth for lower ranks, velvet for officers) piped red, and on the shakos, instead of plumes, there were to be pyramidal pompons [piramidal’nye pompony] the same color as the cords (Illus. 1676) (140).

16 February 1819– Horse-Artillery companies were ordered to have covers on the shakos, identical to those established at this time for Dragoon, Horse-Jäger, and Hussar regiments (141).

20 February 1819– In place of their hair plumes, these companies were given pompons of the pattern of 5 October 1818 for Horse-Artillery companies of the Separate Lithuania Corps (142).

18 April 1820– These pompons were discontinued (143).

7 August 1820– Generals assigned to the Horse-Artillery branch, and field and company-grade officers of the Horse Artillery, were allowed to wear mustaches (144).

1 November 1820– All combatant ranks of the Horse Arillery were ordered to have red double stripes on their riding trousers instead of black, as on the dark-green pants (Illus. 1677) (145). In this same year Horse-Artillery trumpeters began to sew their coats with chevrons placed more closely together than previously, as related above regarding musicians and drummers of the Foot Artillery (Illus. 1677) (146).

27 January 1822– Field and company-grade officers of the Horse Artillery were given epaulettes of a new pattern, identical to those received at this time by field and company-grade officers of the Foot Artillery (147).

29 March 1825- For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (148).

 

 

 

Chapter X.

Garrison Artillery [Garnizonnaya artilleriya].

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9 April 1801- Lower ranks of the Garrison Artillery were ordered to cut off their curls and have queues only 7 inches long, tying them midway down the collar (149).

10 May 1801Officers of Garrison Artillery were ordered to have the same uniforms as officers of Field Artillery except their hats did not have plumes or gold button-hole lace (Illus. 1678) (150).

11 June 1801Small clothes for all combatant ranks of the Garrison Artillery, and in addition the gloves of officer candidates [yunkera] and fireworkers, were to be white instead of the previous light pale yellow [svetlopalevyi] (151).

27 March 1802– Personnel of the Garrison Artillery were prescribed the same uniforms as established on this date for the Field Foot Artillery but with white buttons instead of yellow (Illus 1679) and with different colored shoulder straps, which were:

    a) In the Rochensalm Company – red.
    b) In the Nikolaev, Akhtiar, and Kamenets-Podol’skii companies- white.
    c) In the Novodvinsk, Nyslott, Villmanstrand, Fredrikshamn, Kexholm, Viborg, St.-Petersburg, Kronstadt, Narva, Pskov, Velikie Luki, Shlüsselburg, Moscow, Kazan, Orenburg, Gurev, Tsaritsyn, Chernyi-Yar, Astrakhan, Yenotaevsk, Krasnyi-Yar, Kizlyar, and Mozdok commands – yellow.
    d) In the Kiev, Yelisavetgrad, Samara, Dmitrievsk, Ochakov, Kinburn, Tiraspol, Kherson, Taganrog, Azov, Yeisk, Petropavlovsk, (on the Sea of Azov), Aleksandrovsk, and Odessa commands – light raspberry.
    e) In the Riga Citadel, Riga Town, Dünamünde, Pernau, Arensburg, Reval, Balic Port, Smolensk, and Tobolsk commands – pink.
    f) In the Selenginsk, Nerchinsk, Irkutsk, Zhelezinsk, Petropavlovsk (St. Peter Fortress), Omsk, Yamyshevsk, Biisk, Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, and Petropavlovsk (in Kamchatka) commands – turquoise (152).

Arsenal wardensand junior arsenal wardens [tseikhvartera i unter-tseikhvartera] of the Garrison Artillery were also prescribed coats of the pattern established for the Foot Artillery but with dark-green cuffs and white buttons instead of yellow metal, the number of which on the cuff flaps was not three as for field artillerymen, but only two. They were authorized high sturdy boots [botforty] with spurs and officers’ hats with a silver buttonhole loop, without a plume (Illus. 1680) (158).

19 August 1803– Instead of hats, lower ranks of the Garrison Artillery were given cloth shakos of the pattern introduced at this time in musketeer regiments and the Field Foot Artillery (Illus. 1681) (154).

1 October 1806 – The sheepskin warm coats [ovchinnyya fufaiki] authorized for lower ranks were withdrawn (155).

2 December 1806– These same ranks were ordered to cut their hair short; generals, though, and field and company-grade officers, were in this regard allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (156).
     In this same year personnel in Garrison Artillery companies and commands were ordered to have shoulder straps according to the inspectorate to which they were assigned:

    a) In the St.-Petersburg and Finland Inspectorates – pale yellow.
    b) In the Lifland and Lithuania Inspectorates – white.
    c) In the Kiev and Taurica Inspectorates – red.
    d) On the Caucasian Line – raspberry.
    e) In the Siberia Inspectorate – pink.
    f) In all Arsenals – yellow.
    g) In powder works and laboratories [porokhovye zavody i laboratorii] – black (157).

     For privates the pompons and tufts on shakos were to be white with the center the same color as the shoulder strap, and white with black and orange for noncommissioned officers.
     For privates in Garrison companies and commands and at Arsenals, the acorn of the sword knot was to be the same color as the shoulder strap while all the rest of it was white; For noncommissioned officers the strap, fringe and loop were white, the acorn pale yellow, and the ring of three mixed colors: white, black, and orange.
     For privates in powder works and laboratories, the strap and acorn were black, and the loop and ring red. For noncommissioned officers the ring was white, black, and orange (158).
     Master craftsmen[masterovye] at all Arsenals, power works, and laboratories were prescribed the same uniforms as noncombatants in the Foot Field Artillery, except their frock coats [sertuki] were a little longer and the skirts not turned back (Illus. 1682). For work, they had a coat that was even longer, of gray cloth, with two rows of covered buttons and a turned down collar (Illus. 1683).
     Powder workers[porokhovshchiki], when processing gunpowder, were ordered to be in leather jackets [kurtki] and pants, tied at the wrists, waist, and under the calves with cords. On the head was to be worn a leather headdress [shapka] into which were inserted clear glass goggles [belye stekla] in a brass frame. This head covering, like the jacket, was tied in back with narrow leather thongs (Illus. 1684) (159).

10 March 1807Canes were withdrawn for officers and noncommissioned officers (160).

17 January 1808– Generals, field and company-grade officers, and lower ranks of Garrison Artillery companies and commands were ordered to have black shoulder straps, while personnel at Arsenals, powder works, and laboratories were to have yellow (161).

12 August 1808 – Officers and lower ranks of the newly established Mobile arsenals [Podvizhnye arsenaly] were prescribed all the same uniform clothing, accouterments, and weaponry as laid down for Permanent arsenals, except buttons and galloon lace were to be yellow (162).

15 August 1808Fireworkers [Feierverkery, i.e. sergeants] at all Arsenals were ordered to have coats with a single row of buttons (163).

In this same yearthere were the following innovations for lower ranks throughout the Garrison Artillery:

    a) In place of the the shakos established in 1803 – kiver shakos similar to those described above for the Field Foot Artillery, with a red pompon (Illus. 1685).
    b) Winterpants with leather leggings and seven white (tin) buttons, and for summer—pants with integral spats (Illus. 1685).
    c) Sword belts over the shoulder, with straight short swords [tesaki] (Illus. 1685) (164).

12 November 1808– When not on duty, field and company-grade officers were allowed to wear dark-green cloth pants instead of white ones (165).

22 November 1808– Generals and field and company-grade officers of the Garrison Artillery (including Arsenals, powder works, and laboratories) were given epaulettes in place of shoulder straps, of the pattern established on 3 January of this year for the Field Artillery, except with a black or yellow cloth field, according to the color of the lower ranks’ shoulder straps (Illus. 1686) (166).

8 June 1809–The plumage on generals' hats was discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole was replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones were intertwined with each other as if in a plait (Illus. 1686) (167).

17 October 1809– Combatant lower ranks throughout the Garrison Artillery were ordered to have yellow buttons on the leggings on the lower part of their pants, instead of white (168).

25 December 1809– Generals and officers of this same Artillery branch were allowed to wear frock coats [sertuki] when off duty, of the same style as used at this time by Generals and officers of the Field Foot Artillery (169).

25 October 1811– Lower ranks of the Garrison Artillery were given new forage caps [furazhnyya shapki] of dark-green cloth with a black band, of the same pattern as the caps on 23 October [sic – should be September – M.C.] of this year in Grenadier and other Army Infantry regiments and in the Field Artillery, but with the following differences in color:

    In Garrison companies – black piping around the top of the cap, and the company number in red cord on the front of the band (Illus. 1687, a).
    In Laboratory companies – black piping around the top of the cap, and a number on the band in yellow cord (Illus. 1687, b).
    In fortress commands – without piping and without a number (Illus. 1687, c).
    In powder works detachments – yellow piping on the upper edge of the band and a yellow letter on the band (Cyrillic O for Okhtensk, Cyrillic SH for Shostensk, and Cyrillic K for Kazan) (Illus. 1687, d).
    In detachments at Permanent arsenals – yellow piping around the top of the cap and a yellow letter on the band (Cyrillic P for St. Petersburg, Cyrillic M for Moscow, Cyrillic B for Bryansk, and Cyrillic K for Kiev) (Illus. 1687, e).
    In detachments at Mobile arsenals – yellow piping around the top of the cap (Illus. 1687, f).
    In Replacement parks [Zapasnye parki] – gray piping around the top of the cap (Illus. 1687, g) (170).

11 December 1811– Combatant lower ranks [sic – should be noncombatant – M.C.] throughout the Garrison Artillery, except laboratory companies (who kept their frock coats with a single row of buttons), were given new uniforms in place of the ones in use since 1802. These were identical to those established at this time for noncombatant lower ranks of the Field Foot Artillery (171).

10 February 1812– These ranks were ordered to have shoulder straps on their caftan coats [kaftany] and greatcoats of the same color and pattern as the shoulder straps of combatant ranks (172), and about this time there were the following changes in the uniforms of combatant ranks of the Garrison Artillery:

    1) New-pattern shakos were issued, lower than before, with a big indentation or widening upwards, and sloping upwards at the sides. They lacked the sewn-on neck or ear flaps which from this time on were worn separately (Illus. 1688).
    2) The high collars which opened diagonally upwards were replaced by lower ones closed with small hooks (Illus. 1688).
    3) Lower combatant ranks were given gaiters and officers high boots reaching up to the knees, the first having nine buttons (Illus. 1688).
    4) Noncombatant lower ranks of laboratory companies were ordered to have collars on their frock coats and greatcoats of the same pattern as for combatant ranks (173).

24 January 1816Scabbards for short swords [tesaki] and officers’ swords [shpagi] were ordered to be black throughout the Garrison Artillery, and about this time officers of this branch were began to wear hats with white (later silver) ribbon around the cockade, after the example of officers in the Field Artillery and other arms (174).

8 August 1817- The size of the forage cap was fixed as established at this time for forage caps in Army infantry regiments (175).

26 September 1817 – The description confirmed on this day for shakosand accoutermentsin the army infantry and the rules for wearing them were also adopted in the Garrison Artillery (176).

8 December 1817- The leather gaiters or leggings [kragi] on the cloth pants were ordered to have integral spats [kozyrki] of a pattern similar to the gaiter spats [shtibletnye kozyrki] of summer pants (177).

17 February 1818– The Garrison Artillery was ordered to have red piping all around the collar (Illus. 1689) (178).

March 1819– Lower ranks of the Garrison Artillery were ordered to have company numbers and initial letters of arsenal and powder works on the shoulder strap, in red cord on black shoulder straps and in black cord on yellow straps. For officers the epaulette field was left without numbers (179).

20 April 1820– The following uniforms were confirmed for lower ranks in the Garrison Artillery:

    a) In Garrison Artillery companies – dark-green coat with two rows of buttons, red piping, dark-green pants, black shoulder straps piped red and with a yellow nuber, kiver shako of the previous pattern, white buttons (Illus. 1690).
    b) In Mobile arsenals – dark-green coat with a single row of buttons, red piping, dark-green pants, yellow shoulder straps, kiver shako of the previous pattern, yellow buttons (Illus. 1691).
    c) In Permanent arsenals - dark-green frock coat with a single row of buttons, red piping, dark-green pants, yellow shoulder straps, dark-green forage cap with black band, visor, red piping, and yellow initial letter; white buttons (Illus. 1692).
    d) In Laboratory companies - dark-green coat with a single row of buttons, without piping, dark-green pants, dark-green forage cap with black band, visor, red piping, and a yellow number; white buttons (Illus. 1693) (180).

2 May 1822– Officers of the Garrison Artillery were given gray riding trousers with black double stripes and red piping, which were ordered to be worn on the same basis as related above for 16 April 1816 regarding officers of the Field Foot Artillery (Illus. 1694) (181).

14 May 1824– Combatant lower ranks of Artillery garrisons were ordered to have on their shakos, instead of a cockade, the same plate as in the Field Artillery, but of of white tin. Officers were given a shako of the same pattern but with silver cords and pompon (Illus. 1695 and 1696) (182).

29 March 1825- For combatant lower ranks who had been transferred to the Garrison Artillery from the Guards or Army because of wounds or other disabilities, there were established stripes [nashivki] for faultless service, of yellow tape, identical to, and worn on the same basis as, those described above for the Field Artillery (183).

 

 

 

Chapter XI.

Army Sappers and Pioneers [Armeiskie sapery i pionery].

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9 April 1801- Lower ranks of the Pioneer Regiment were ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 7 inches long [4 vershka], tying them midway down the collar (184).

27 March 1802– The Pioneer Regiment was given the same uniform as that established at this time for Foot Field Artillery, except with white buttons and gray shoulder straps and, for lower ranks, gray breeches (Illus. 1697 and 1698) (185).

27 October 1802- While on the march with troops or on detached duties, Pioneer Generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to wear, instead of white pants [pantalony], gray riding trousers [reituzy], with bright buttons the same color as those on the coat, and leather lining, as was established at this time for officers of Army Infantry and Cavalry (186).

6 September 1803– The 1st Pioneer Regiment was ordered to have red shoulder straps, and the 2nd Regiment—white (187).

17 December 1803– A new table of uniforms, accouterments, and weaponry forPioneer regiments was confirmed, based on which private miners, sappers, and pioneers [ryadovye minery, sapery i pionery], kept the same uniforms as laid down on 27 March 1802 and 6 September 1803, except that the tricorn hat was replaced by a black cloth shako with a leather visor, similar to the shakos introduced in this same year in Musketeer regiments and the Foot Field Artillery, but with white buttons. The lower tuft or pompon and small upper plume for miners and sappers was red, and white for pioneers (Illus. 1699). Weapons and accouterments included: short sword [tesak] of the same pattern as used during the previous tsar’s reign; sword knot in company colors, as in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments; whitened infantry sword belt; pistol with brass mountings; black leather pouch [podsumka] with a round brass plate on which was the raised image of a two-headed eagle (Illus. 1699). All these ranks were prescribed the same round knapsacks and water flasks as in the infantry (Illus. 1699), but for entrenching work they were issued raven’s duck smocks [ravenduchnye kiteli] with covered buttons.
     Noncommissioned officers, including first sergeants [fel’dfebeli], did not carry pistols or wear pouches and smocks. On their coats’ collars and cuffs, as well as along the upper edge of the shako, they had silver galloon lace. Following the example of noncommissioned officers in the Army Infantry and Foot Artillery, they were authorized gloves, canes, and the same colored rings [trinchiki] on the sword knot and the tuft [kist’] on shakos that these ranks had (Illus. 1700).
     Company drummershad the exact same chevrons sewn onto the coat and drums as prescribed for drummers in the Army Infantry and Foot Artillery, but with black drumsticks (Illus. 1700).
     Battalion drummersalso had chevrons and drums of the same patterns as used by battalion drummers in the Army Infantry and Foot Artillery, as well as the same noncommissioned-officer gloves, canes, shako tufts, sword knots, and galloon lace as they had, except the lace was silver (Illus. 1701).
     Field and company-grade officerskept the uniforms they had received on 27 March and 27 October 1801, except the hats were ordered to be worn with a tall plume and a button loop of narrow silver galloon (Illus. 1702). Shabracks and holsters were authorized for them as in the Foot Field Artillery, but with silver galloon.
     Generalswere distinguished from field-grade officers only by their hats with white plumage (Illus. 1702).
     Noncombatant lower ranks—namely wagon masters, medical assistants, clerks, barbers, lazarette orderlies, master craftsmen, and train personnel—had all the same uniforms, accouterments, and weaponry as corresponding ranks in the Foot Artillery, with just the gold galloon (used by noncommissioned officer ranks) changed to silver, and yellow metal buttons to white.
     Doctors[lekarya] were uniformed exactly as doctors in other branches (188).

1 July 1806– There were the same changes in uniforms of doctors as described in detail above for Grenadier regiments (189).

1 October 1806 – The sheepskin warm coats [ovchinnyya fufaiki] authorized for lower ranks up to now were withdrawn (190).

2 December 1806– Lower ranks were ordered to cut their hair short. Generals, though, and field and company-grade officers, were in this regard allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (191).

10 March 1807Canes were withdrawn for officers and noncommissioned officers (192).

23 December 1807– Lower ranks were given new pattern summer and winter pants of the pattern confirmed at this same time for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, i.e. with spats for the first, and for the second—leather trim or leggings [kragi], with seven brass buttons. Along with this, privates were directed to exchange their small pouches [podsumki] for pouches [sumy] on a crossbelt over the left shoulder, as established for Army Infantry regiments (193).

3 January 1808– Generals and field and company-grade officers of Pioneer regiments were ordered to have epaulettes on their coats of the same pattern as that established at this same time for generals and officers of the Foot Field Artillery, except with silver trim instead of gold (Illus. 1703). Lower ranks were told to have worsted cord numbers sewn onto their shoulder straps, in yellow for the 1st Regiment and in red for the 2nd (Illus. 1703) (194).

26 January 1808– Generals of Pioneer regiments were ordered to wear the newly established standard pattern general officer’s coat during parades, on official holidays [tabel’nye dni], and at all gatherings of troops, in peacetime as well as during war. With the regimental uniform off duty, they were to have dark-green pants instead of white (195).

7 March 1808Sword belts [portupei] in Pioneer regiments were ordered to be worn not around the waist but over the right shoulder, as described for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments (196). From this same time the cloth shakos introduced in 1803 began to be lined with black leather to make them stronger, and the visors for them were sewn on. After this they received the name of kiver (Illus. 1703) (197).

14 July 1808 – For lower ranks of Pioneer regiments the round knapsacks were exchanged for rectangular ones of the same pattern as those established at this time for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments. Along with it was set forth as a rule for these personnel to carry the greatcoat, when it was not being worn, in accordance with the rules set forth above for Grenadiers (Illus. 1703) coat (198).

2 November 1808- The pants authorized on 23 December 1807, with leggings in the winter and spats in the summer, were kept only for combatant lower ranks, while for noncombatants the pants as well as the boots were directed to be of the patterns established on 17 December 1803 (199).

5 November 1808- Company-grade officers of Pioneer regiments, when the troops were wearing knapsacks, were ordered to also have them, of the same pattern in all respects as was established for lower ranks (200).

12 November 1808– Field and company-grade officers, when not on duty, were allowed to wear dark-green cloth pants instead of white ones (201).

11 February 1809– All noncombatant lower ranks except those holding noncommissioned officer status were given a new pattern cap [shapka] in place of the shako and forage cap with tassel, identical to those which were introduced at this time in Army Infantry regiments, but with a black band and red piping around its edges (202).

4 April 1809- Noncommissioned officers were ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar, but on the upper and side edges (Illus. 1704) (203).

20 April 1809 – The change in the manner of wearing the knapsack, introduced at this time for Army Infantry, i.e. with the addition of a third strap running crossways over the chest, was also adopted for Pioneer regiments (Illus. 1704) (204).

8 June 1809–The plumage on generals' hats was discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole was replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones were intertwined with each other as if in a plait (205).

17 October 1809– Lower ranks were ordered to have yellow (brass) buttons at the bottom of their pants on the leather leggings, instead of white (Illus. 1704) (206).

18 November 1809– Lower ranks were ordered to have a small bomb and cords on their shakos: the first of the pattern used by musketeers except in white, and the latter of the style for artillery, i.e. red for privates and drummers, and white with black and orange for noncommissioned officers and musicians (Illus. 1704). Miners’ pompons [repeiki] were red, sappers’ were white, and pioneer’s were white with a dark-green center (Illus. 1705) (207).

6 December 1809– Field and company-grade officers of Pioneer regiments were ordered to wear a shako [kiver] instead of the hat when in formation, of the same pattern as established at this time for Musketeer officers, only with white fittings (Illus. 1706), but when not in formation the hat was kept as before except now with a shortened plume (208).

     In this same year the powdering of the hair was completely discontinued for officers, and it was permitted for them when off duty to wear frock coats like the officers’ frock coats in the Army infantry, except with black collar and cuffs piped red, black lining, and white buttons (209).

24 September 1810- Knapsack straps were ordered to be stitched on the edges, in the manner of crossbelts and sword belts, and have a bend at each shoulder so that they do wear away the coat and constrict a man under his arms (210).

17 January 1811– Instead of the multicolored cords on their shakos, noncommissioned officers and musicians were ordered to have white ones, with only the tassels beint tricolored: white, black, and orange (211).

5 February 1811– Company-grade officers were ordered to wear dark-green pants on all occasions (212).

22 February 1811 – Instead of white shako cords, noncommissioned officers and musicians were ordered to have red ones with multicolored tassels (213).

25 October 1811– Lower ranks were given dark-green forage caps of a new pattern, with red piping and a black band on which was to be sewn the company number in white cord(214).

3 November 1811- Gloves were abolished for noncommissioned officers, and to replace them in cold weather they were allowed to wear cloth mittens sewn from old dress coats, as done at this time by privates (215).

17 December 1811- Noncombatant lower ranks were given new uniforms identical to those received at this time by noncombatant lower ranks of the Foot Field Artillery, but with white buttons for privates and silver galloon lace for noncommissioned officers(216).

10 February 1812- Noncombatant lower ranks were ordered to have shoulder straps of the same color and pattern as the shoulder straps of combatant lower ranks (217), and about this time there were the following changes in the uniforms of combatant ranks:

    1) New-pattern shakos were issued, with a big indentation or widening upwards, and sloping upwards at the sides. They now lacked the sewn-on neck flaps or ear flaps, which from this time on were worn separately (Illus. 1707).
    2) The high collars which opened diagonally upwards were replaced by lower ones closed with small hooks (Illus. 1707).
    3) Lower combatant ranks were given gaiters [kragi] and officers high boots reaching up to the knees, the first having nine buttons (Illus. 1707).
    4) In order to lessen their expenditures, officers were allowed to have white shako cords, sashes, andsword knots instead of silver ones, and stamped white fittings to the epaulettes (218).

27 December 1812– The newly formed Sapper Regiment was ordered to have the exact same uniform as Pioneer regiments, but with a three-flamed grenade on the shako, and silver buttonhole lace on the collars and cuff flaps of officers’ coats. Shoulder straps were red (Illus. 1708) (219).

29 December 1812– Sappers and pioneers were given muskets like those of dragoons in place of pistols (Illus. 1709) (220).

20 May 1814– The gray campaign riding trousers with buttons used by officers of Sapper and Pioneer regiments were replaced by similarly gray ones with black double stripes with red piping (both stripes and piping being of cloth), and without leather lining (221).

31 July 1814Pistols, retained at this time only by miners, were withdrawn from them and replaced with dragoon muskets (222).

In 1814, it was ordered that the cockades on officers’ hats have white tape around them, which was later replaced by silver. In 1815 the placement of chevrons sewn on drummers’ coats was changed, these coats being from this time on single-breasted with small hooks instead of buttons, and with tape or lace on both sides of the opening, following the example, as stated above, of drummers of in the Army Infantry and Foot Artillery (223).

11 January 1816– With the separation of the Sapper and two Pioneer regiments into two Sapper and seven Pioneer battalions, lower ranks in all of these were ordered to have redshoulder straps. Pioneers were to have a small single-flame grenade [grenadka] on shakos and pouches, and sappers and miners were to have three-flame grenades (224).

24 January 1816– In all battalions scabbards for short swords [tesaki] and officers’ swords [shpagi] were ordered to be black throughout the Foot Field Artillery, the first being polished, and the second lacquered (225).

27 January 1816 – The red shako cords used in these battalions were replaced by white ones, and Sapper officers were ordered to keep the buttonhole lace on their coats (226).

9 March 1816– Highest confirmation was given to a new authorization table of uniforms, accounterments, and weaponry for Sapper and Pioneer battalions, based on which all personnel in these battalions kept their previous uniforms and weapons with only the following small changes and additions:

    1) Shakos were given that were taller than before, with a flat top that was no longer concave (Illus. 1710 and 1711).
    2) Dark-green pants were prescribed for combatant lower ranks instead of white.
    3) Apart from the battalion number on shoulder straps and epaulettes, it was ordered to also have the initial letters of the unit title, namely: in the 1st Sapper Battalion – Cyrillic 1 S.B., in the 7th Pioneer Battalion – Cyrillic 7 P.B., and so on. These numbers, as before, were of yellow cord for lower ranks and of silver cord for officers.
    4) The musicians introduced in the tables of authorized personnel [shtaty] for all these battalions were prescribed the same uniform distinctions as these ranks had in the Army Infantry and Foot Artillery (Illus. 1710).
    5) Sword-knot tassels in the first companies were designated to be white, in the second companies – orange, in the third – yellow, and in the fouth – sky blue.
    6) In each sapper company (for use during practice and exercises), black iron helmets and cuirasses were authorized for one officer, one noncommissioned officer, and four sappers (Illus. 1712). For miners, in case of mining work during wartime, it was ordered that one pistol be held for each man (227).

13 April 1816 - Field and company-grade officers were ordered to wear cloth pants with high boots only during reviews and parades, and during the rest of the time to have the riding trousers with stripes prescribed in 1814, with the exception of officers in the capitals, where they were prescribed to be in dark-green pants and high boots (228).

23 May 1816 – Field and company-grade officers of Sapper and Pioneer battalions were given gorgets of the same pattern as in Army Infantry regiments (Illus. 1713) (229).

16 November 1816– All combatant ranks of these same battalions were ordered to have red piping all around the collar (230).

8 August 1817- The size of the forage cap was fixed as established at this time for forage caps in Army infantry regiments (231).

26 September 1817 – The description confirmed on this day of shakosand accoutermentsand the rules for wearing them were adopted in Sapper and Pioneer battalions. Along with this, it was ordered that shakos in Sapper battalions have the exact same plate as in Grenadier and Carabinier regiments, except made of white tin and with the addition of two crossed axes beneath (Illus. 1713 and 1714). Sapper companies of Pioneer battalions kept the previous small grenades with three flames (Illus. 1715), while Pioneer companies had them with one flame (Illus. 1716 and 1717). On pouches in Sapper battalions and the Sapper companies of Pioneer battalions the grenades remained with three flames, but in the Pioneer companies they had one flame, both kinds being of yellow brass (Illus. 1715 and 1717). The grenades on drummers’ crossbelts followed those on the pouches in regard to the number of flames (Illus. 1718)(232).

8 December 1817- The leather leggings [kragi] on the cloth pants were ordered to have integral spats [kozyrki] of a pattern similar to the gaiter spats [shtibletnye kozyrki] of summer pants(233).

23 August 1818- Combatant lower ranks of Sapper and Pioneer battalions were ordered to have shoulder straps on coats and greatcoats that were as long as the shoulder and 2 1/8 inches wide, of the previous red color, with the battalion number 1 3/4 inches in size, cut out 7/8 inch from the lower edge of shoulder strap and backed with yellow cloth stiched around the edges of the cutout. The flaps or wings [klapany ili kryltsa] on  musicians' and drummers' coats were prescribed to be of black cloth with red piping, while the tape for sewn-on trim, 7/8 inch wide, was white with a red stripe in Sapper battalions and all white in Pioneer battalions (Illus. 1718) (234).

22 January 1819– In all Sapper battalions it was ordered that the pompons or small plumes [repeiki ili kordonchiki] on privates’ shakos be red, while in Pioneer battalions they were to be likewise red for privates in Sapper platoons but yellow for privates in Miner platoons (235).

25 January 1819- Drumsticks and entrenching tool handles in all Sapper and Pioneer battalions were directed to be yellow (236).

31 March 1819– In Sapper battalions lower ranks’ shoulder straps were ordered to have the battalion number and the lettter C [Cyrillic S], while in Pioneer battalions the battalion number was accompanied by the letter  (Cyrllic P]. Colors were left as before, i.e. red shoulder straps with yellow numbers, letters, and periods (237).

12 October 1820- Field and company-grade officers of Sapper and Pioneer battalions were given a new pattern of gorget [znak], flatter and narrower than before, without a ribbon, of the same shape and with the same rank distinctions as were established in this year for field and company-grade officers of Grenadier, Infantry, and Jäger regiments (Illus. 1719) (238).

     In this same year of 1820 there were changes in musicians' and drummers' coats when the chevrons on the sleeves began to be sewn on almost touching each other, and on the wings the tape was already not straight down to the lower edge, as before, but slanted; it also began to be sewn around all four edges of the collar (Illus. 1719). This style was also extended to the buglers introduced into Sapper and Pioneer battalions on 11 January 1820 (239).

17 January 1822– It was ordered that shakos in Army Sapper battalions have round pompons [pompony]: of red wool for lower ranks, silver for officers (Illus. 1720). Sapper platoons in Pioneer battalions were given the same pompons in red, but in yellow for Miner platoons (Illus. 1722). Along with this, all combatant lower ranks of Sapper and Pioneer battalions were directed to have red skirt turnbacks, with the skirt lining for officers also being red (240).

23 January 1822– In Pioneer battalions, it was ordered that there be two crossed axes under the grenade on the shako (Illus. 1721 and 1722)(241).

21 April 1822– The Sapper Battalion, being renamed from 1st Sapper Battalion, was ordered to have the letter C [Cyrillic S] on epaulettes and shoulder straps, without a number (242).

14 August 1823– The 9th Pioneer Battalion, newly formed for the Separate Lithuania Corps, was ordered to have the same uniform as other Pioneer battalions except with the addition of black lapels trimmed with a red cloth edge, with red cuff flaps instead of dark green. The uniform had black cloth gaiters [shtiblety] instead of leggings [krag], and epaulettes and shoulder straps had the number 9 on them (Illus. 1723 and 1724). The collar, lapels, and cuffs of lower ranks were of cloth, but of velvet for officers. Besides these distinctions pioneers of this battalion had shakos with white pompons, which were not authorized for other pioneers (243).

19 September 1823– With the renaming of this battalion as the Lithuania Pioneer Battalion, it was ordered that epaulettes and shoulder straps have the Cyrillic letters L and P instead of the number 9 and the letter P (244).

24 November 1823– Following the example of the Lithuania Pioneer Battalion, white pompons were ordered for the shakos of Pioneer platoons in other Pioneer battalions (245).

26 November 1823– All musicians of Sapper and Pioneer battalions, even though they might not hold noncommissioned officer ranks, were ordered to have coats with silver galloon and noncommissioned officers’ pompons on the shako. However, this was not extended to drummers who did not hold noncommissioned officer rank (246).

16 January 1824 - The following changes were ordered to be carried out in the uniforms and accouterments of combatant lower ranks:

    1.) Coattails, which up to this had one covering the other, were to be cut so that their inner edges came together, and sewn together so they touched.
    2.) The decorative end [trinchik] of the shako cords, which was to be level with the right shoulder, was to have another special loop of white cord attached to the button on the right shoulder strap, so that the shako cords stayed in place when the soldier moved about (Illus. 1725).
    3.) The cartridge pouch was to be worn so that when the soldier bent his elbow, the distance between it and the line of the top edge of the pouch was equal to 5 1/4 inches [3 vershka].
    4.) Knapsack chest straps were to be fitted so that they were between the fourth and fifth buttons of the coat, as counted from the collar.
    5) On the musket sling [ruzheinyi pogon], opposite the cocking piece, there was to be a band of the same kind of leather as the sling, for stowing the firing cover [ognivnyi chekhol] when it needed to be taken off (247).

29 March 1825- For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (248).

 

 

Chapter XII.

Army Horse Pioneers [Armeiskie konno-pionery].

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2 August 1822– Privates of the 1st Horse-Pioneer Squadron were ordered to have a single-breasted dark-green coat with black collar and cuffs, red piping, shoulder straps, skirt turnbacks, and lining, with white buttons and a yellow number 1 on the shoulder straps, dark-green pants with red double-stripes and piping and leather trim at the bottom, a shako with a yellow lower pompon [repeek] and pyramid-shaped upper pompon [pompon piramidal’nyi], with white shako cords and a grenadier-pattern plate on which were two crossed axes beneath the star, and above them a small grenade with a single flame. A saber, sword belt with frog for the bayonet scabbard, carbine with bayonet, pouch [lyadunka], pistols, and complete set of horse furniture—prescribed as that in use at the time by Army Horse Jägers, except that piping on the shabrack was red while the edging, monogram, and crown were yellow, the last two being trimmed with black cord (Illus. 1726 and 1727) (249).
     Noncommissioned officershad the same distinctions in respect to private Horse Pioneers as used in other branches of Army Cavalry (Illus. 1728) (250).
     Trumpeters’uniforms were distinguished by red swallows’ wings on the shoulders and white chevrons with a red center stripe [reika], of the exact same appearance as had been established for trumpeters in other Army Cavalry branches (Illus. 1729) (251).
     Officers, with uniforms of the same color scheme as for lower ranks, had two gilt crossed axes on the lids of their pouches with a flaming grenade beneath, a gold number 1 on the silver field of their epaulettes, silver mountings to their pouches, silver monograms and crowns on the shabrack, and silver galloon trim to the shabrack with red piping along the edges (Illus. 1730 and 1731). When not on duty they were allowed to be in undress coats [vitse-mundiry] with long skirts and in the same frock coats [sertuki] used by officers of Sapper battalions, except with white lining instead of red (252).

1 May 1824– For officers and lower ranks the elongated pompons on the shakos were replaced by round ones (Illus. 1732) (253).

29 March 1825- For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (254).

 

   

Chapter XIII. 

Field and Garrison Engineers.[Polevye i garnizonnye inzhenery.]

 

9 April 1801- Lower ranks of the Corps of Engineers were ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 7 inches long, tying them midway down the collar (225).

8 May 1801– Generals and field and company-grade officers of the Corps of Engineers were ordered to keep their previous white buttons but in other regards have the same uniforms as established on 13 May and 16 June of this year for generals and field-grade officers of the Artillery, i.e. dark-green coat with similarly colored cuff flaps and pocket flaps; collar, cuffs, and skirt turnbacks all of black cloth; piping along three sides of the collar, the cuff flaps, and skirt turnbacks; shoulder straps of red cloth; lining of black stamin; white small clothes and gloves; hat with embroidered buttonhole and a black plume; boots up to the knee, with silver spurs (Illus. 1733) (256).

27 March 1802– All Engineer ranks were prescribed the same uniforms as those used at this time in the Foot Artillery, except with white buttons and red skirt turnbacks and lining (Illus. 1734) (257).

9 March 1803– It was ordered that officers’ coats in the Corps of Engineers have silver embroidered buttonholes, two on each side of the collar and three on each cuff flap. Also, starting in this year officers began to wear hats with high plumes and narrow buttonhole lace of silver galloon instead of the previous embroidered style (Illus. 1735) (258).

1 October 1806- The warm coats [fufaiki] authorized for lower ranks up to this time were discontinued (259).

2 December 1806- Lower ranks were ordered to cut their hair short; generals, though, and field and company-grade officers, were in this case allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (260).

10 March 1807 - Canes were abolished for officers and noncommissioned officers, i.e. officer candidates [yunkera, from German Junker], draftsmen-artists [konduktory; historically, these men were more or less on a track to become commissioned officers – M.C.], clerks, wardens [vakhtery,from German Wächter], and ordnance personnel [tseikhdinery, from German Zeugdiener] (261).

31 January 1808– In place of their previous shoulder straps, generals and field and company-grade officers were given epaulettes of the pattern used at this time in the Army Infantry, except completely silver and lined with red cloth (Illus. 1736) (262).

4 April 1809- Noncommissioned officers were ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar as was the case up to this time, but on the upper and side edges (263).

8 June 1809- The plumage around the sides of generals' hats was discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole was replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones were intertwined with each other as if in a plait (264). In this same year powdering of hair was completely abolished for Generals and officers, and they were allowed to wear frock coats when off duty. These frock coats were like those introduced at this time for the Army Artillery except with silver buttons and red lining (265).

23 January 1810– Confirmation was given to an authorization table for uniforms and accouterments for lower ranks of the Corps of Engineers, based on which they were prescribed:

     Officer candidates and draftsmen-artists[yunkera i konduktory] – uniforms like those used at this time by combatant noncommissioned officers in Pioneer regiments, including the pioneer short sword [tesak] on a white sword belt over the shoulder, with a black loop on the sword knot [chernaya gaechka u temlyaka] (Illus. 1737).
     Clerks, wardens, and ordnance personnel– uniforms like those used by noncombatant noncommissioned offices in Pioneer regiments, but with dark-green lining to the frock coat [sertuk] instead of black, and instead of high cloth caps, kiver shakos like those of konduktor draftsmen-artists except without cords and the grenade, but with a bow (cockade), buttonhole loop, button, and red tuft or pompon [kist’ ili repeek] (Illus. 1738). The loop and ring of the sword knot were black.
     Barbers– as clerks, wardens, and ordnance personnel but instead of shakos—the same headdress as in Pioneer regiments (266).

17 January 1811- Instead of the multicolored cords on their shakos, Engineer officer candidates and draftsmen-artists were ordered to have white ones with the tassels [kisti] having black and orange mixed together (267).

5 February 1811– Engineer field and company-grade officers were directed to wear dark-green pants on all occasions and never use white ones (268).

22 February 1811 Shako cords for officer candidates and draftsmen-artists were ordered to be red instead of white, with multicolored tassels as before (269).

25 October 1811– Lower ranks of the Corps of Engineers were given a new pattern dark-green forage cap with a black band and red piping on top and around the edges of the band. In shape and form these caps were completely identical to the forage caps introduced on 23 September of this year in Army Infantry regiments (270).

3 November 1811- Gloves were abolished for lower ranks holding noncommissioned officer status in the Corps of Engineers (271).

1812– Lower ranks in the Corps of Engineers were ordered to have: collars lower than previously, closed by small hooks; leggings up to the knee, with nine buttons; shakos lower than before, with a greater spread or widening toward the top and indented sides (Illus. 1739). Officers were given collars of the same pattern as for lower ranks, with buttonhole lace as before (Illus. 1739) (272).

1814– When on campaign or engaged in construction work, Engineer officers were allowed to wear gray cloth riding trousers with black double stripes piped in red down the middle. Hats were ordered to have white tape around the cockade ribbon, this later being changed to silver (273).

24 January 1816- In the Corps of Engineers the scabbards for swords [tesaki] and officers' rapiers [shpagi], were ordered to be black, the former being polished and the latter – lacquered. In this same year the Corps began to wear collars with red piping not only along the top and sides, but also along the bottom edge, and dark-green pants replaced gray ones for officer candidates and draftsmen-artists (274).

4 July 1817– Engineer generals and field and company-grade officers, as well as the troops and konduktor draftsmen-artists, were given single-breasted coats in place of double-breasted, with nine buttons, red piping around the collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps, and down the front opening and along the lower edge of the coat to the skirts (Illus. 1740) (275).

26 September 1817– The description confirmed on this day of army infantry shakos and accouterments was extended to Engineer officer candidates and draftsmen-artists, who from this time began to wear white shako cords instead of red (Illus. 1741) (276).

8 December 1817- The leather leggings [kragi] on the cloth pants of officer candidates and draftsmen-artists were ordered to have integral spats [kozyrki] of a pattern similar to the gaiter spats [shtibletnye kozyrki] of summer pants (Illus. 1741)(277).

23 August 1818- Lower Engineer ranks were ordered to have shoulder straps on coats and greatcoats that were as long as the shoulder and 2 1/8 inches wide, of the previous red color (278).

1 January 1819 – With the separation of Engineers into Field and Garrison, the first of these were left with their previous uniforms, while Garrison officers were ordered to have a coat without buttonhole lace, with black lining, and epaulettes trimmed in silver with a black field (Illus. 1742) (279).

4 April 1819- The spats on the leggings established on 8 December 1817 were abolished (280).

22 September 1819– Generals on the Engineering establishment, when wearing engineer coats, were ordered to wear the hat “fore-and-aft” [s-polya], as were field and company-grade officers (Illus. 1743) (281).

16 January 1824 – Engineer draftsmen-artists were ordered to have the skirts on their coats sewn together, and a loop of white cord sewn to the decorative end [trinchik] of the shako cords and fastened to the button of the right shoulder strap, as related in detail above for Army Infantry and Artillery (282).

29 March 1825- For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (283).

 

 

 

Chapter XIV.

Military-Labor Battalions and Companies [Voenno-rabochie bataliony i roty].

---------

  25 November 1807Military laborers [voennye rabochie] drawn from members [ratniki] of the Land Militia [Zemskaya Militsiya] for construction work in fortresses were ordered to have the same uniforms as train personnel [furleity] in Infantry regiments, with every color of cloth being permitted, such as: dark or light green, dark blue, gray, and even plain peasant cloth, as long as it was not black (284).

2 May 1816 – Privates, or military laborers, of the 1st and 2nd Labor Battalions established to work for the Moscow Commission for Construction [Moskovskaya Kommissiya stroenii] were ordered to wear: gray jackets of peasant cloth with covered buttons: pants, forage cap, and greatcoat of the same material; black cloth neckcloth; blackened boots (Illus. 1744). In addition, a sheepskin coat [polushubok] was authorized for winter, and for summer—a smock [kitel’] and pants of raven’s-duck (285).

11 April 1817– The newly established Military-Labor battalions of the Lines of Communications administration were prescribed the following uniforms and weaponry:

     Master craftsmen privates and laborers– dark-green single-breasted coat with black collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps, with piping (around the collar, cuffs, cuff flaps, and on the skirt turnbacks), the battalion number on the shoulder straps which were backed with light-green, and tin buttons. Winter pants were dark green with light green pipin and spats attached to the leggings, while summer pants were of Flemish linen. The shako had no cords, but its pompon was white with a black center; chinscales were of white tin, as was a badge [armatura] depicting two crossed spades. The greatcoat was gray with collar and shoulder straps as on the dress coat. A knife for cutting fascines [fashinnyi nozh], without a sword knot, had a black handle and scabbard with iron mountings. The black sword belt was lacquered and had a yellow brass buckle. The knapsack and water flask were as for infantry, with black straps (Illus. 1745).
     Noncommissioned officers– everything as for privates, but with their rank’s prescribed galloon of the same color as the buttons and their shako pompon (Illus. 1746).
     Company drummers– everything as for privates, with only the addition of black swallow’s nests with light green piping and chevrons of tape made from white thread. Drum hoops, drumsticks, straps, and crossbelt were black (Illus. 1747).
     Battalion drummers– everything as for company drummers, with only the addition of noncommissioned-officer distinctions (Illus. 1747).
     Officers– coat and pants of the same colors as prescribed for privates; boots of the pattern used by officers in the rest of the infantry; silver epaulettes; the same shako as for lower ranks but with silver cords and pompon; sword [shpaga] and sash the same as for other infantry officers (Illus. 1748).
     Noncombatants– everything as for noncombatants in Sapper and Pioneer battalions, with just the lining of the shoulder straps being light green.
     Besides the uniforms described here for wear when in formation, master craftsmen and laborers were prescribed work clothing: for summer – canvas jacket [parusinnaya kurtka] with covered buttons and pants [bryuki] of the same material (Illus. 1749); for winter – a knee-length sheepskin coat [polushubok], gray cap of peasant cloth with ear flaps of the same material and a leather rear piece; gray pants of Russian flannelette [russkaya baika]; white leather mittens with woolen inserts [varegi], and warm overshoes [ken’gi, from Finnish kenkä], later replaced by loose boots with high shanks.
     Lower ranks were not issued with forage caps, but they were made from coats that had passed their wearout time and had light-green piping, with the company number on the band in yellow cord (286).

29 June 1818– With a change in the numbering of Military-Labor battalions whereby the first two numbers were assigned to the two battalions located in Moscow, the shoulder straps of the former 1st Battalion received No. 3 and those of the former 2nd Battalion—No. 4 (287).

21 August 1818– Laborer privates, master craftsmen noncommissioned officers, and drummers, as well as officers and noncombatants, of Military-Labor companies under theCorps of Engineers were ordered to have the same uniform as Military-Labor battalions under the Lines of Communications administration, with everything light green being changed to red and the silver field of officers’ epaulettes changing to black cloth trimmed with silver galloon and with the company number in silver (Illus. 1751, 1752, and 1753) (288).

10 March 1819– All Military-Labor battalions were ordered to have the same uniform clothing, accouterments, weapons, and other items as the Lines of Communications battalions referred to above (289).

4 April 1819– The spats that were part of the leggings of lower ranks’ winter pants were removed (290).

2 February 1820– The two Military-Labor Companies Nos. 37 and 38, established at the Tula Arms Factory and belonging to the Garrison Artillery branch (later, on 23 March 1822, transferred to the Engineer administration)), were prescribed the same uniforms and weaponry as the Engineer Military-Labor companies referred to above (291). In this same year the tape on drummers’ coats in Military-Labor battalions and companies was ordered to be sewn on closer together than before, as related above regarding the uniforms of other troops (Illus. 1754) (292).

16 January 1824 - The following changes were ordered to be carried out in the uniforms and accouterments of combatant lower ranks:

     1.) Coattails, which up to this time had one covering the other, were to be cut so that their inner edges came together, and sewn together so they touched.
     2.) Knapsack chest straps were to be fitted so that they passed between the fourth and fifth buttons on the coat, as counted from the collar (Illus. 1755) (293).

29 March 1825- For combatant lower ranks, for faultless service, there were established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (294).

 

 

   

Chapter XV. 

HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs.

[Svita EGO IMPERATORSKAGO VELICHESTVA po kvartirmeisterskoi chasti.]

   

9 April 1801– Column leaders [kolonnovozhatye] of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs were ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 7 inches long, tying them midway down the collar (295).
[Note by M.C. – “Column leaders” were cadets holding noncommissioned officer status in H.I.M.'s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs. The "suite for quartermaster affairs" itself was a precurser to a general staff.]

20 May 1801– Generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to have a double-breasted dark-green coat, with a collar and slit cuffs both of black velvet. Red piping was along three sides of the collar and on the cuffs, and skirt turnbacks were also red, as was the coat lining. Buttons, aiguillette, and embroidery on the collar and cuffs were all gold (Illus. 1756 and 1757). Pants were left as before—of white cloth or whitened deerskin. Boots reached to the knees and had silver spurs, while hats, sashes, and swords were prescribed to be the same as in the Army Infantry (Illus. 1756). Column leaders were given the same uniform but the coat lacked the embroidery and aiguillette; the hat had a black buttonhole loop but no plume. The sword belt was of whitened deerskin with a gilded buckle, and worn over the coat. A sword and sword knot were as for officers (Illus. 1758). All ranks had white gloves and canes (made from cane reeds) (296).

15 January 1802– It was ordered to have black velvet piping along the turnbacks of officer’s coattails, and the collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps of column leaders’ coats were to be made from black velveteen [plis], all three having red piping (297).

In 1804– High plumes and buttonhole loops of narrow gold galloon (instead of the previous embroidery kind) were introduced for generals’ and officers’ hats (Illus. 1759) (298).

2 December 1806– Column leaders were ordered to cut their hair short. However, Generals and field and company-grade officers, were in this case allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (299).

10 March 1807 - Canes were abolished for officers and column leaders (300).

16 September 1807– Generals and field and company-grade officers were ordered to have a gold epaulette on the right shoulder of the coat, with rank distinctions as in other branches (Illus. 1760) (301).

12 November 1808– Generals and field and company-grade officers were allowed to use dark-green pants for everyday wear, an in this same year there were introduced for their use English saddles and dark-green shabracks and holsters with black velvet trim, gold galloon, red piping, and silver stars (Illus .1761). It was also permitted for these ranks to wear dark-green frock coats with the same colored cuffs, black velvet collar, piping on the edges of the collar and cuffs, red lining, and gilt buttons (302).

8 June 1809- The plumage around the sides of generals' hats was discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole was replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones were intertwined with each other as if in a plait (303).

In 1810– Instead of short white pants, column leaders were ordered to have dark-green ones with leather leggings with seven brass buttons; instead of high boots with spurs driven in—short ones with screw-in spurs; instead of hats—kiver shakos of the pattern used at this time by noncommissioned officers in Grenadier regiments, except with white decorations and without a plume; instead of rapier swords [shpagi]—lancer sabers [sabli] with an officer’s sword knot, and instead of white sword belts worn over the coat—black ones worn under the coat (Illus. 1762) For mounted service they were prescribed dark-green shabracks with black velveteen trim, three red lines of cloth piping, and monograms and crowns of black velveteen lined with black cord (Illus. 1762). They were authorized officer-pattern greatcoats, gray with a black velveteen collar with the edges piped in red cloth (Illus. 1762). In this same year the plumes on officers’ hats were shortened (304).

1812– All ranks were ordered to have: collars lower than previously, closed by small hooks. When on campaign, Generals and officers were allowed to wear gray riding trousers with brass buttons (Illus. 1763). Column leaders were given new shakos, lower than before, with an indented top (Illus. 1763) (305).

20 May 1814– Generals and officers were ordered to wear riding trousers without buttons, with red double stripes with red piping in between (Illus. 1764) (306). In this same year the cockades on generals’ and officers’ hats were ordered to have white tape around them, this later being changed to silver (307).

24 January 1816– The previously unblackened sword scabbards of generals and officers were ordered to be black and lacquered (308).

10 July 1816– Instead of the double-breasted coat, all ranks were ordered to wear single-breasted ones with nine buttons and red cloth piping around the entire collar, on the cuffs, down the front, and on the pocket flaps. Instead of one epaulette, Generals and officers were to have two, keeping the aiguillette, and also wear the hat “fore-and-aft” [s-polya]. Along with these changes column leaders were given cavalry pants with red double stripes and leather leggings (Illus. 1766 and 1767) (310).

26 September 1817– The pattern for army infantry shakos confirmed on this day was also accepted for column leaders (Illus. 1767) (311).

21 May 1825– Field and company-grade officers and column leaders of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’s Suite for Quartermaster Affairs who belonged to the Separate Lithuania Corps or the Reserve Guards Corps subordinate to TSESAREVICHANDGRANDDUKECONSTANTINEPAVLOVICHwere ordered to have all red piping, cuff flaps, double stripes on pants, and trim on shabracks and saddle cloths changed from red to raspberry (Illus. 1768) (312).

 

   

Chapter XVI. 

Topographers [Topografy].

10 July 1816 – The Haapaniemi Topographic Depot [Gaapan’emskoe Topograficheskoe Depo], being like the quartermaster section under the control of the Chief of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’s Main Staff, was ordered to have the exact same uniforms as this section, but with yellow piping, cuff flaps, and double stripes on the pants instead of red. Officers were to dress as officers, and cadets as column leaders (Illus. 1769) (313).

7 May 1817– Instead of the previous double-breasted coat, these personnel were ordered to have a single-breasted one with nine buttons and yellow piping around the entire collar, on the cuffs, down the front, and on the pocket flaps. Instead of a single epaulette, officers were to wear two, retaining the aiguillette, and wear their hats “fore-and-aft” [s polya] (Illus. 1770) (314).

28 January 1822– The Corps of Topographers [Korpus Topografov], established as part of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’s Main Staff, was prescribed the same uniform as His Majesty’s Suite except with blue [svetlosinii] piping, cuff flaps, and double stripes on the pants. Officers were to dress as officers of the Suite, and topographers as column leaders. With this, topographers had a sword knot with a black strap and tri-colored tassel: white, black, and orange (Illus. 1771 and 1772) (315).

 

 

 

END OF VOLUME TWELVE.

 

 

 


 

NOTES

——

 

  (1) Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire [Polnoe Sobranie Zakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii, hereafter PSZ], Vol. XXVI, pg. 609. No. 19,826.

  (2) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, Pt. II, Directives on uniforms, pg. 28, No. 19,863.

  (3) Ibid., No. 19,867; information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; statements by contemporaries.

  (4) Correspondence from the Commissariat Office to the Inspector of All Artillery, dated 11 June 1801.

  (5) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 25, No. 20,201, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

  (6) Ibid., pg. 30, No. 20,485, and information received from the same Department.

  (7) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 28, No. 20,201.

  (8) Ibid., Vol. XXVIII, pg. 415, No. 21,377, information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

  (9) Ibid., pg. 67, No. 20,987.

(10) Highest confirmed table of uniform items and accouterments: a Field Artillery regiment and musicians authorized for the 1st Field Artillery Regiment, 27 December 1803; issued in 1807: drawings depicting various views of clothing and other accouterments for artillery crews under the control of the Inspector of All Artillery, Graf Arakcheev, and actual items preserved in various Arsenals and at the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(11) Information received from the same Department, and contemporary drawings and coats.

(12) See above, in the entry for 16 June 1803.

(13) Table for a Field Artillery regiment, referenced above in Note 10.

(14) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 29, No 20,109.

(15) Ibid., pg. 25, No 20,201, and description accompanying the drawings referenced above in Note 10.

(16) Highest confirmed table: number of tools to be kept in one Field Artillery regiment, 17 December 1803.

(17) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; the drawings referenced above in Note 10; the description accompanying these drawings, pg. 5, and actual pouches preserved in Arsenals.

(18) Highest confirmed table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons of an Artillery Pontoon regiment, 16 March 1805; and PSZ Vol. XLIV, Pt. II, addendum of Section One, pg. 29, No 21,665.

(19) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No. 21,969.

(20) Ibid., pg. 28, No. 22,009.

(21) Ibid., pg. 31, No. 22,197.

(22) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(23) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 201, No. 22,382.

(24) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and the drawings referenced above in Note 10, and the description accompanying these drawings, pgs. 2, 3, and 8.

(25) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(26) Information received from that same place and correspondence from the Government Military Collegium to the Commissariat Office, 22 September 1807.

(27) Information received from that Department.

(28) Ibid.

(29) Information received from that same place, and PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No. 22,727.

(30) Information received from that Department; PSZ, XLIV, pg. 27, No. 22,740; actual epaulettes preserved up to now.

(31) Ibid.

(32) Ibid.

(33) War Ministry’s Chancellery Archive, in the collection of orders signed by the Sovereign, Book 156, pg. 627.

(34) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(35) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 27, No. 22,881.

(36) Archive of the War Ministry’s Inspection Department, material relating to the Minister of War’s proposal, with drawings and description, of the manner in which to wear knapsacks and greatcoats, 1808, No. 13786/654, and statements by contemporaries.

(37) War Ministry’s Chancellery Archive, in a collection of Highest directives, Book 157, pg. 940.

(38) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 27, No. 23,303.

(39) Ibid., pg. 67, No. 23,335.

(40) Ibid., Vol. , pg. 663, No. 23,343.

(41) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(42) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 781, No. 23,478, and model shako preserved at the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(43) Information received from that Department.

(44) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 950, No. 23,625; information received from that Department, and an actual model knapsack preserved there.

(45) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 965, No. 23,654.

(46) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 1006, No. 25,695.

(47) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 31, No. 2373, and model shako cords preserved by the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(48) Information received from that Department..

(49) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 27, No. 23,810.

(50) Ibid., No. 23,897.

(51) Ibid., Vol. , pg. 1362, No. 24,019, and actual shakos from that time, preserved up to now.

(52) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; evidence from contemporaries and hats and frock coats preserved up to now.

(53) Ditto.

(54) PSZ, Vol. I, pg. 362, No. 24,367.

(55) Ibid., pg. 517, No. 24,488, and model shako cords preserved by the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(56) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 217, No. 24,829.

(57) Ditto.

(58) Ditto.

(59) Ditto.

(60) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 31, No.No. 24,911 and 24,912, and model uniforms preserved by the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(61) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 70, No. 24,991.

(62) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry and model items preserved there, and items preserved in various Arsenals and by private persons.

(63) PSZ, Vol. II, pg. 555, No. 25,370, a.

(64) Ibid.

(65) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry and evidence from contemporaries.

(66) Ditto.

(67) PSZ, Vol. III, pg. 450, No. 20,095, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry;.

(68) Information received from that same Department.

(69) Highest resolution on a report by the head of the War Ministry, 13 April 1814.

(70) PSZ, Vol. III, pg. 907, No. 26,322.

(71) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(72) Ditto.

(73) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 104, No. 26, 992, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(74) Ibid., No. 27,067, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(75) Information received from that same Department.

(76) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 117, No. 27,275.

(77) Ibid., pg. 137, No. 27,392, and model uniforms preserved by the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(78) Ibid., pg. 121, No. 27,504, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(79) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 108, No. 27,653.

(80) Ibid., pg. 120, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(81) Order of the Chief of H.I.M.’s Main Staff, 4 April 1819, No. 21.

(82)Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(83) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 118, No. 27,971, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(84) Information received from the same Department.

(85) Order of the Chief of H.I.M.’s Main Staff, 4 June 1820, No. 32.

(86) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(87) Ditto.

(88) Ditto.

(89) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 119, No. 28,895.

(90) Ibid., pg. 122, No. 26,658.

(91) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 16 January 1824, No. 22, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(92) PSZ, Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(93) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 609, No. 19,826.

(94) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 28, No. 19,863.

(95) Ibid., No. 19,867.

(96) Ibid., No. 19898.

(97) Correspondence of the Commissariat Office to the Inspector of All Artillery.

(98) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 25, No. 20,201.

(99) Ibid., pg. 30, No. 20,485.

(100) Ibid., pg. 28, No. 20,201.

(101) Memorandum from the Government Military Collegium to the Military Commission, dated 22 June 1803.

(102) PSZ, Vol., XVII, pg. 834, No. 20,989.

(103) Highest confirmed table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons for a Horse-Artillery battalion, 27 December 1803; also, the drawings and actual items referenced above in Note 10.

(104) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and contemporary drawings and coats.

(105) See above in the entry for 16 June 1803.

(106) Table, op.cit., Note 103.

(107) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 29, No. 20,109.

(108) Highest confirmed tables: one referenced above in Note 103, and another, confirmed by Highest authority on 27 December 1803, on how many implements to be kept in one Horse-Artillery battalion.

(109) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 31, No. 22, 197.

(110) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(111) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 201, No. 22,382.

(112) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; the drawings referenced above in Note 10, and the description accompanying these drawings, pgs. 9-14.

(113) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(114) Ditto.

(115) Information received from the same Department, and PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 27, No. 22,740.

(116) Ibid., pg. 28, No. 22,832.

(117) Ibid., Vol. XX, pg. 263, No. 23,029.

(118) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 54, No. 23,373.

(119) Ibid., Vol. , pg. 781, No. 23,478.

(120) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(121) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 1006, No. 23,695.

(122) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 27, No. 23,810.

(123) Ibid., pg. 28, No. 23,925.

(124) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and evidence from contemporaries.

(125) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 27, No. 24,829.

(126) Ibid., pg. 31, No.No. 24,911 and 24,912, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(127) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 70, No. 24,991.

(128) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(129) PSZ, Vol. XLLIV, pg. 50, No. 25,278.

(130) Highest Order, 13 April 1813, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(131) Information received from the same Department.

(132) Information received from the same Department, and PSZ, Vol. XLII, Pt. II, addendum to Section One, pg. 2, No. 25,607. Shako plumes, prescribed by the table to be black, did not follow that and were directly issued white.

(133) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and evidence from contemporaries.

(134) Ditto.

(135) Ditto.

(136) Ditto.

(137) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 102, No. 26,739.

(138) Ibid., pg. 119, No. 27061.

(139) Ibid., No. 27,166.

(140) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 137, No. 27,592, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(141) Ibid., No. 27,554.

(142) Ibid., pg. 134, No. 28,153.

(143) Ibid., pg. 122, No. 28,240.

(144) Ibid., Vol. VII, pg. 409, No. 28,374.

(145) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 119, No. 28,459.

(146) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(147) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 119, No. 28,895.

(148) Ibid., Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(149) Ibid., Vol.. XLIV, pg. 609, No. 19,826.

(150) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 28, No. 19,863.

(151) Memorandum from the Commissariat Office to the Inspector of All Artillery, 11 June 1801.

(152) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pgs. 25 and 26, No. 20,201.

(153) Ibid., pg. 26.

(154) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(155) Ditto.

(156) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 201, No. 22,382.

(157) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and the drawings referenced above in Note 10, and the the description accompanying them, pg. 16.

(158) Ditto.

(159) Ditto.

(160) Information received from the same Department.

(161) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 29, No. 22,759.

(162) Ibid., Vol. XLIII, Pt. II, book of authorization tables from 1801 through 1805, pg. 96, No. 23,218.

(163) Ibid., Vol. , pg. 525, No. 23,225.

(164) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(165) Ditto.

(166) Information received from the same Department, and PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 29, No. 23,367.

(167) Ibid., Vol. , pg. 1006, No. 23,695.

(168) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 24, No. 23,914.

(169) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(170) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 27, No. 24,829.

(171) Ibid., pg. 31, No.No. 24,911 and 24,912, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(172) Ibid., pg. 70, No. 24,991.

(173) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(174) Ditto.

(175) Ditto.

(176) Ditto.

(177) Ditto.

(178) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 117, No. 27,275.

(179) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(180) Ditto.

(181) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 119, No. 29,626.

(182) Ibid., pg. 139, No. 29,912.

(183) Ibid., Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(184) Ibid., Vol. XXVI, pg. 609, No. 19,826.

(185) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 25, No. 20,201.

(186) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 28, No. 20,201.

(187) Ibid., pg. 53, No. 23,205.

(188) For the uniforms of combatant and noncombatant lower ranks see the table of 27 December 1803. The description of officers’ uniforms is taken from information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry and statements by contemporaries. For doctors, see PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 29, No. 20,109.

(189) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 31, No. 22,197.

(190) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(191) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 201, No. 22,382.

(192) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(193) Information received from that place, and PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No. 22,727.

(194) Ibid., pg. 27, No. 22,740, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(195) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, Pt. II, pg. 67, No. 23,335.

(196) War Ministry’s Chancellery Archive, in the collection of directives signed by the Sovereign, Book 156, pg. 627, and received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry

(197) Ditto.

(198) Archive of the War Ministry’s Inspection Department, in material regarding a proposal of the Minister of War’s, with drawings and descritions, entitled: the manner of wearing knapsacks and greatcoats, 1808, No. 13,786/654; evidence from contemporaries.

(199) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No. 23,335.

(200) Ibid., Vol. , pg. 663, No. 23,345.

(201) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(202) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 781, No. 23,478, and a model headdress preserved by the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(203) Information received from that Department.

(204) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 950, No. 23,625; information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and an actual model knapsack preserved there.

(205) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 1006, No. 23,695.

(206) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 24, No. 23,914.

(207) Ibid., pg. 25, No. 23,992, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(208) Ibid., Vol. , pg. 1632, No. 24,019.

(209) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; statements from contemporaries, and hats and frock coats preserved up to now.

(210) PSZ, Vol. I, pg. 362, No. 24,376.

(211) Ibid., Vol. I, pg. 517, No. 24,488.

(212) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 25, No. 24,511.

(213) Ibid., pg. 27, No. 24,528.

(214) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(215) PSZ, Vol.. XLIV, Pg. 27, No.24,829.

(216) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(217) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 70, No. 24,991.

(218) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; model examples preserved there, and items in various Arsenals or held by private individuals.

(219) PSZ, Vol. II, pg. 488, No. 25,297; information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; Collection of Laws and Directives relating to the Military Administration, 1816, Pt. 1, pg. 81.

(220) PSZ, Vol. II, pg. 497, No. 25,307.

(221) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and statements by contemporaries.

(222) PSZ, Vol., pg. 844, No. 25,627.

(223) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and statements by contemporaries.

(224) Highest confirmed listing of Sapper and Pioneer battalions, 11 January 1816.

(225) PSZ, Vol. XXIII, pg. 450, No. 26,095, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(226) Collection of Laws and Directives relating to the Military Administration, 1816, Bk. 1, pgs. 81 and 82.

(227) Highest confirmed table of 9 March 1816 and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry

(228) Highest resolution regarding a report by the chief of the War Ministry, 13 April 1814.

(229) PSZ, Vol. III, pg. 854, No. 26,281.

(230) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 16, No. 26,518.

(231) Ibid., pg. 104, No. 26,992, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(232) PSZ, Vol.. XLIV, pgs. 104-108, No. 26,840.

(233) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(234) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 121, No. 27,504, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(235) Ibid., pg. 116, No. 27,649.

(236) Ibid., pg. 108, No. 27,653.

(237) Ibid., pg. 116, No. 25,748.

(238) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(239) Information received from that same place.

(240) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 103, No. 28,874.

(241) Ibid., pg. 117, No. 28,883.

(242) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(243) Information received from that same place, and memorandum of HISIMPERIALHIGHNESSthe Inspector-General for Engineer Matters to the acting Chief of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’s Main Staff, 14 August 1823, No. 1345.

(244) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and PSZ, Vol. VIII, pg. 1220, No. 29,612.

(245) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 117, No. 29,654.

(246) Ibid., pg. 122, No. 26,658.

(247) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 16 January 1824, No. 22, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(248) PSZ, Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(249) Highest confirmed uniforms for the Army Horse-Pioneer Squadron, 6 July, preserved at the Commissariat Department of the Warm Ministry; PSZ, Vol. VIII, pgs. 581 and 582, No. 29,155, and Vol. XLIV, pg. 102, No. 28,992; insignia [armatura] of the Corps of Engineers, issued in 1822, and statements from contemporaries.

(250) Ditto.

(251) Ditto.

(252) Ditto.

(253) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 103, No. 29,888.

(254) PSZ, Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(255) PSZ, Vol. XXVI, pg. 609, No. 19,826.

(256) PSZ, Vol. XLIV,, pg. 25, No. 19,861, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(257) Ibid., pg. 25, No. 20,201.

(258) Ibid., No. 20,658.

(259) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(260) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 201, No. 22,382.

(261) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(262) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 25, No. 22,797.

(263) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(264) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 1006, No. 2369.

(265) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; evidence from contemporaries, and hats and frocks preserved up to now.

(266) Collection of Laws and Directives relating to the Military Administration, 1819, Bk. 1, pgs. 315-330.

(267) PSZ, Vol. I, pg. 517, No. 24,488, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(268) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 25, No. 24,511.

(269) Ibid., pg. 27, No. 24,528, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(270) Information received from that Department.

(271) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 898, No. 24,848.

(272) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(273) Statements from contemporaries.

(274) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(275) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 116, No. 26,956.

(276) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(277) Information received from that same Department.

(278) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 121, No. 27,504, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(279) Ibid., Vol. VI, pg. 3, No. 27,617, § 4, and Vol. XLIV, pg. 137, No. 28,072.

(280) Order of the Chief of H.I.M.’s Main Staff, 4 April 1819, No. 21.

(281) PSZ, Vol. VI, pg. 346, No. 27,933.

(282) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 16 January 1824, No. 22, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(283) PSZ, Vol. XL,, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(284) Ibid., Vol. XXIX, pg. 1329, No. 22,696.

(285) Ibid., Vol. III, pg. 626, No. 26,252, § 7.

(286) Ibid., Vol. XXIV, pg. 187, No. 26,785, § 5; Vol. XVIII, pg. 324, No. 27,713, and contemporary drawings of the uniforms of these battalions.

(287) Ibid., Vol. V, pg. 361, No. 27,435.

(288) Ibid., V, pg. 518, § 9; Vol. XLIV, pg. 117, No. 28,072; Vol. XLIII, Pt. II, book of authorization tables, addendum to Section One, pgs. 99 and 324 [sic], Vol.. 27,713, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(289) Ibid., Vol. XLIII, Pt. II, book of authorization tables, addendum to Section One, pgs. 99 and 234 [sic – see Note 288], No. 27,713, and Vol. VI, pg. 385, No. 27,991, § 3.

(290) Order of the Chief of H.I.M.’s Main Staff, 4 April 1819, No. 21.

(291) PSZ, Vol. VII, pg. 40, No. 28,125, § 8.

(292) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(293) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 16 January 1824, No. 22, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(294) PSZ, Vol. XL, pg. 188, No. 30,309.

(295) Ibid., Vol. XXVI, pg. 609, No. 19,826.

(296) Ibid., Vol. XLIV, pg. 29, No. 19,879; information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and evidence from contemporaries.

(297) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(298) Ditto.

(299) PSZ, Vol. XXIX, pg. 201, No. 22,382.

(300) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(301) Ditto.

(302) Ditto.

(303) PSZ, Vol. , pg. 1006, No. 23,695.

(304) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry, and evidence from contemporaries.

(305) Ditto.

(306) Ditto.

(307) Ditto.

(308) PSZ, Vol. II, pg. 450, No. 26,095, and information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(309) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(310) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 120, No. 26,838, § 3; information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry; statements by contemporaries and contemporary drawings.

(311) Information taken from the files of the General Staff Department’s Archive.

(312) PSZ, Vol. XLIV, pg. 137, No. 30,353.

(313) Information received from the Commissariat Department of the War Ministry.

(314) Ditto.

(315) PSZ, Vol. VIII, pg. 49, No. 28,901, §§ 19, 20, and 21.

 

 

[Several Errata noted in the text by the original publishers were incorporated during this translation – M.C.]

 

 

END

OF NOTES TO VOLUME TWELVE.

 

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Translated by Mark Conrad, 2005.