HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION

OF THE CLOTHING AND ARMS

OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY

 

 

A.V. VISKOVATOV

 

Compiled by Highest direction

Saint Petersburg, Military Typography Office, 1851

 

[TRANSLATED BY MARK CONRAD, 1993]

 

VOLUME 10b

Grenadiers, Musketeers, Jägers, Marines, and Carabiniers

1801-1825

 

 

Aleksandr Vasilevich Viskovatov(pronounced vi-sko-VA-tof), born 22 April (4 May New Style) 1804, died 24 February (11 March) 1858 in St. Petersburg, Russian military historian. He graduated from the 1st Cadet Corps and served in the artillery, the hydrographic depot of the Naval Ministry, and then in the Department of Military Educational Institu­tions. He mainly studied historical artifacts and the histories of military units. Viskovatov’s greatest work was the Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army (Vols. 1-30, St. Petersburg, 1841-62; 2nd ed. Vols. 1-34, St. Petersburg - Novosibirsk - Leningrad, 1899-1948). This work is based on a great quantity of archival documents and contains four thousand colored illustrations. Viskovatov was the author of Chronicles of the Russian Army (Books 1-20, St. Petersburg, 1834-42) and Chronicles of the Russian Imperial Army (Parts 1-7, St. Petersburg, 1852). He collected valuable material on the history of the Russian navy which went into A Short Overview of Russian Naval Campaigns and General Voyages to the End of the XVII Century (St. Petersburg, 1864; 2nd edition Moscow, 1946). Together with A.I. Mikhailovskii-Danilevskii he helped prepare and create the Military Gallery in the Winter Palace. He wrote the historical military inscriptions for the walls of the Hall of St. George in the Great Palace of the Kremlin. (From the article in the Soviet Military Encyclopedia.)

 

Translator’s note: These are full and complete translations of Viskovatov’s greatest work, and as such follow the original style and organization. I used microfilm made from volumes held by the New York Public Library, the Anne S.K. Brown Collection of Brown University, and the Library of Congress. All these have monochrome plates, and I know of no colored versions outside Russia. Underneath each plate are the words “Imp Lemercier Paris” and often the names of the artist and engraver for that particular illustration. I have no reason to think that Viskovatov himself created any of the individual plates or was in any way an artist. Indeed, variations in style and the ways of depicting finer details like lace and insignia are explained by the fact that a least half a dozen illustrators worked on this project. Dates in the text are Old Style, lagging western Europe by 12 days.

Changes in the Clothing and Weapons of Army Infantry, from 1801 to 1825:

I. Grenadier Regiments.
II. Musketeer Regiments.
III.Marine Regiments.
IV.Jäger Regiments.
V.Grenadier Jäger, or Carabinier, Regiments
.

Notes by the translator.
Source notes.

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

EMPEROR ALEXANDER I

1274. Grenadiers. Leib-Grenadier Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate. 1802.

1275. Grenadier Cap. Pavlov Grenadier Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate. 1802-1813.

1276. Grenadiers. St.-Petersburg Grenadier Regiment of the Liflyand Inspectorate. 1802-1805.

1277. Grenadiers. Taurica Grenadier Regiment of the Liflyand Inspectorate. 1802-1805.

1278. Noncommissioned Officers. Yekaterinoslav Grenadier Regiment of the Lithuanian Inspectorate. 1802-1805.

1279. Fifer and Drummer of Grenadier Companies. Little Russia Grenadier Regiment of the Ukraine Inspectorate. 1802-1805.

1280. Battalion Drummers. Kiev Grenadier Regiment of the Ukraine Inspectorate. 1802-1805.

1281. Fusilier Caps. Kherson Grenadier Regiment of the Dniester Inspectorate. 1802-1804.

1282. Fusiliers. Kherson Grenadier Regiment of the Dniester Inspectorate. 1802-1804.

1283. Company-grade Officers. Siberia Grenadier Regiment of the Ukraine Inspectorate. 1802-1804.

1284. Hat for Field and Company-grade Officers. 1802-1804.

1285. Field-grade Officer and Adjutant. Caucasus Grenadier Regiment of the Caucasus Inspectorate. 1802-1804.

1286. General. Moscow Grenadier Regiment of the Smolensk Inspectorate. 1802-1804.

1287. Clerk, Barber, and Driver. Phanagoria and Astrakhan Grenadier Regiments of the Smolensk and Moscow Inspectorates. 1802-1803.

1288. Doctor and Auditor. 1802-1804.

1289. Grenadier. Leib-Grenadier Regiment. 1802-1805.

1290. Officers. Leib-Grenadier Regiment. 1802-1804. (In campaign uniform.)

1291-2. Officers’ Shabrack and Holsters for Grenadier Regiments. From 1802 on.

1293-4. Shako for Noncombatant Lower Ranks. 1803-1809.

1295-6. Fusilier Noncommissioned Officers. Kherson and Siberia Grenadier Regiments of the Dniester Inspectorate. 1804-1805.

1297-8. Officers’ Hat. 1804-1816.

1299. Grenadier Shako. 1805-1807.

1300-1. Noncommissioned Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1805-1807.

1302. Company Drummer and Musician. Grenadier Regiments. 1805-1807.

1303. Staff-Doctor and Doctor. 1806-1811.

1304. Doctors. 1806-1811.

1305. Company-grade Officers’ Epaulette, confirmed in 1807.

1306. Company-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1807-1811.

1307. Field-grade Officer and General. Grenadier Regiments. 1807-1811.

1308. Grenadiers. 1807-1808.

1309. Grenadier. 1808.

1310. Grenadiers. 1808.

1311. Officers’ Gorgets. 1808-1820.

1312. Train Personnel. 1809-1811.

1313. Hat for Noncombatant Lower Ranks. 1809-1811.

1314. Grenadier. 1809.

1315. Grenadier Shako for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates. 1809-1811.

1316. Generals’ Hat. 1809-1815.

1317. Officers’ Shako for Grenadier Regiments. 1809-1811.

1318. Field-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1809 and 1810.

1319. Noncommissioned Officers’ Shako for Grenadier Regiments. 1811.

1320. Infantry Pompons and Swordknots for Lower Ranks. 1811-1833.

1321. Forage Caps of Combatant Lower Ranks. From 1811 on.

1322. Noncombatants. 1811-1824.

1323. Grenadiers’ Shakos. 1812-1816.

1324. Company-grade Officer and Noncommissioned Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1812-1816.

1325. Shako Badge for Distinction, confirmed in 1813.

1326. Company-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1814-1816.

1327. Officers’ Hat. From 1815 on.

1328. Drum Major. Grenadier Regiments. 1815-1817.

1329. Grenadiers’ Shako Plate. 1817-1828.

1330. Grenadiers. 1817-1824.

1331. Grenadier. 1817-1824.

1332. Grenadiers’ and Noncommissioned Officers’ Shakos. 1817-1828.

1333. Grenadiers. Grenadier Regiments. 1817-1824.

1334. Grenadier. Grenadier Regiments. 1817-1824.

1335. Drummer. Grenadier Regiments. 1817 and 1818.

1336. Company-grade Officer. H.M. the Emperor of Austria’s and H.M. the King of Prussia’s Grenadier Regiments. 1817-1826.

1337. Grenadier. Grenadier Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1818-1826.

1338. Field-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1818-1826.

1339. Fifers. Grenadier Regiments. 1818-1820.

1340. Hornists. Grenadier Regiments. 1819-1820.

1341. Officers’ Gorget, confirmed 1820.

1342. Drummer. Grenadier Regiments. 1820-1826.

1343. Noncommissioned Officer. Marksmen Platoons of Grenadier Regiments. 1824-1826.

1344. Musketeer. Velikie-Luki Musketeer Regiment of the Finland Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.

1345. Musketeer. Yelets Musketeer Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate. 1802-1803.

1346. Musketeer. Sevsk Musketeer Regiment of the Livonia Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.

1347. Musketeer. Tula Musketeer Regiment of the Lithuania Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.

1348. Musketeer Noncommissioned Officer. Old-Ingermanland Musketeer Regiment of the Brest Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.

1349. Musketeer Noncommissioned Officers. Smolensk and Ladoga Musketeer Regiments of the Ukraine and Dniester Inspectorates. 1802 and 1803.

1350. Musketeer Drummer. Belev Musketeer Regiment of the Crimea Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.

1351. Musketeer Drummers. Polotsk and Suzdal Musketeer Regiments of the Smolensk and Caucasus Inspectorates. 1802 and 1803.

1352. Regimental Drummer. Moscow Musketeer Regiment of the Kiev Inspectorate. 1802-1803.

1353. Musician. Penza Musketeer Regiment of the Moscow Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.

1354. Company-grade Officer. Rylsk Musketeer Regiment of the Orenburg Inspectorate. 1802-1804.

1355. Noncombatant of Noncommissioned Officer Rank. Shirvan Musketeer Regiment of the Siberia Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.

1356. Musketeer Noncommissioned Officer. 1803-1805.

1357. Musketeer Shako. 1805-1807.

1358. Musketeer. 1809.

1359. Musketeer. 1812-1817.

1360. Drummer. Musketeer Regiments. 1817-1820.

1361. Noncommissioned Officer and Field-grade Officer. Infantry Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1823.

1362. Musketeer. Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1825-1828.

1363. Private and Company-grade Officer. Marine Regiments. 1812-1817.

1364. Forage Caps for Marine Regiments, from 1812.

1365. Officers’ Shabrack and Holsters for Marine Regiments. 1812.

1366. Grenadier. Marine Regiments. 1817-1826.

1367. Privates. 1st and 2nd Jäger Regiments. 1802-1807.

1368. Privates. 3rd and 4th Jäger Regiments. 1802.

1369. Privates. 5th, 6th, and 7th Jäger Regiments. 1802.

1370. Noncommissioned Officers. 8th and 9th Jäger Regiments. 1802.

1371. Company Drummer. 10th Jäger Regiment. 1802.

1372. Battalion and Regimental Drummers. 11th and 12th Jäger Regiments. 1802.

1373. Waldhornists. 13th and 14th Jäger Regiments. 1802.

1374. Company-grade Officers. 15th and 16th Jäger Regiments. 1802-1804.

1375. Field-grade Officer. 17th Jäger Regiment. 1802-1804.

1376. Generals. 18th and 19th Jäger Regiments. 1802-1804.

1377. Jäger Hat. 1802-1807.

1378. Company-grade Officer. 20th Jäger Regiment. 1803 and 1804.

1379. Company-grade Officer and Private. 21st and 22nd Jäger Regiments. 1805-1807.

1380. Battalion Drummer. 23rd Jäger Regiment. 1806 and 1807.

1381. Noncommissioned Officer and Privates. 24th, 25th, and 26th Jäger Regiments. 1806 and 1807.

1382. Private. 27th Jäger Regiment. 1806 and 1807.

1383. Privates. 28th and 29th Jäger Regiments. 1806 and 1807.

1384. Noncommissioned Officer. 30th Jäger Regiment. 1806-1807.

1385. Company-grade Officers. 31st and 32nd Jäger Regiments. 1806-1808.

1386. Private. Jäger Regiments. 1807.

1387. Officers’ Shabrack for Jäger Regiments. From 1807 on.

1388. Private. Jäger Regiments. 1808 and 1809.

1389. Private. Jäger Regiments. 1809-1811.

1390. Company-grade Officers. Jäger Regiments. 1809-1811.

1391. Noncommissioned Officer. Jäger Regiments. 1812-1816.

1392. Company-grade Officer. Jäger Regiments. 1817-1824.

1393. Carabinier. Jäger Regiments. 1817-1826.

1394. Drummer. Jäger Regiments. 1817-1826.

1395. Carabinier. Jäger Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1828.

1396. Company-grade Officer. Jäger Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1828.

1397. Officers’ Shabrack for Jäger Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1830.

1398. Cartridge-pouch Plate for Carabinier Regiments, confirmed in 1817.

1399. Musician. Carabinier Regiments. 1817-1820.

1400. Marksman. Nesvizh Carabinier Regiment of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1818-1828.

 

CHANGES

IN

THE CLOTHING AND WEAPONS

OF ARMY INFANTRY

FROM 1801 TO 1825.

----------

 

I.  GRENADIER REGIMENTS. 

9 April 1801— Lower ranks are ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 7 inches long, tying them midway down the collar (665).

[14 April 1801— All infantry and Artillery regiments are to wear black neckclothes, but lower ranks are not to begin before the wear-out period of the old neckclothes (Highest Order). - M.C.]

24 June 1801— Generals and field and company-grade officers of the St.-Petersburg garrison, i.e. the troops located in St. Petersburg, including the Leib-Grenadier and Pavlovsk Grenadier regiments, are ordered to wear hats of the new pattern, the same as described below in the description of Grenadier uniforms according to the table of 30 April 1802 (666).

15 January 1802— New rules are confirmed regarding the cutting and sewing of uniforms for combatant and noncombatant, or lower-staff [unter-shtabnye] personel (667).

17 March 1802— Supplementary regulations are confirmed regarding the pattern for coats, by which, among other things, it is ordered that: in all regiments which have Princes of the Blood [Printsy Krovi] as Honorary Colonels [Shefi], officer’s coats are to have gold or silver (according to the color of the buttons) embroidered buttonholes [petlitsy]; on each side of the collar - two, and on the cuffs - according to the number of buttons. Additionally, for officers and combatant lower ranks of the Leib-Grenadiers aiguillettes [akselbanty] are kept as before, on the right shoulder: for the first - gold, and for the latter - of yellow worsted [garus] (668).

30 April 1802— Confirmation is given to the new table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons of Grenadier regiments. Based upon this table, as well as on the four directives presented above, privates [ryadovye] of the the first, or Honorary Colonels’ [Shefskie], Grenadier battalions are prescribed: coat [mundir] or caftan [kaftan], pants [pantalony]; boots [sapogi]; neckcloth [galstuk]; forage and grenadier caps [furazhnaya i grenaderskaya shapki]; greatcoat [shinel], warm coat [fufaika]; sword [shpaga] with sword­knot [temlyak]; swordbelt [portupeya], musket [ruzhe] with bayonet [shtyk], sling [remen], lock cover [ognivnyi chekhol] and frizzen protector [polunagalishche]; cartridge pouch [patronnaya suma] with crossbelt [perevyaz];knapsack [ranets], and water flask [vodonosnaya flyazha].

The coat was to be double-breasted, of dark-green cloth, with a standing collar of a special color for each Inspectorate; with cuffs the same color as the collar; with dark-green flaps on the cuffs; with red kersey lining, with brass buttons and two shoulder straps [pogony], of a special color for each regiment in an Inspectorate. The lower edge or lining of the collar and shoulder straps were dark green (Illus. 1274). This coat was to have all but­tons fastened in summer as well as winter, and the sizes of its parts, assuming a man of 6 feet in height, were prescribed to be as follows:

Collar height, in front, at the edges - 3 1/2 inches, behind, at the middle - 4 3/8 inches; the upper edge shorter than the lower by 3 1/2 inches.

Length of the caftan, from the collar to the waist - 17 1/2 inches, and from the waist to the end of the tails - 15 3/4 inches; width of the turnover - 3 inches; the distance of the first button from the collar - 7/8 inch; between the first and second buttons and so on - 2 5/8 inches; between the buttonholes and the edge of the turnover - 7/8 inch.

Turnbacks on the tails, along the straight edge - 17 inches, along the other edge - 14 7/8 inches, on the upper edge - 1 1/3 inches; width below - 4 7/8 inches.

Width of the cuffs - 3 inches, and of the flap - 1 3/4 inches; length of the flap - 6 1/8 inches.

Length of the shoulder strap - 5 3/4 inches; its width at the shoulder - 1 3/4 inches, width at the button - 1 1/4 inches.

Buttonswere flat, 25 in number, namely: on the right side of the turn­over - 7; on the left - 6; on the cuffs opposite the buttonholes - 2 each; on the upper buttonhole of the flaps - 1 each; at the lower edge of the collar, for the shoulder straps - 2; on the waist - 2; at the joining of the turnbacks on the tails - 1 each (Illus. 1274).

Pants, of white wool cloth but in summer of Flemish linen - 37 5/8 inches long from the edge of the swordbelt, i.e. reaching to within 8 3/4 inches of the heels, and having a panel [latsbant] in front of such a width that it is covered by the coat skirts. In front under the panel, and behind on the waist hem, 1 3/4 inches from the top edge of the pants, were sewn two covered buttons each, for suspenders [pomochi], arranged so that they could be fastened and unfastened easily without removing the swordbelt.

Boots, polished, with round toes - 14 inches high from the heels, i.e. 5 1/4 inches above the lower edge of the pants - made with a 1 3/4 inch cut-out in back and 7/8-inch heels. There were also small leather ears with buttonholes sewn inside the tops of the boots, which fastened to small leather buttons fixed to the side seams of the pants.

Neckcloth, with a small dicky, made from black cloth on a linen lining and fastened behind by four small ribbons. Its height and width were not fixed, and there was only a rule in regard to the dicky which said that if a man had loosened the top button of his coat then the dicky was not to be visible when he raised his head up.

Forage cap- of dark-green cloth, with a band the same color as the col­lar or with no band at all, and with piping on the seams the same color as the shoulder straps. It kept almost the same form as it had during the previ­ous reign. Its height from the lower edge to where it bent over was prescribed to be 8 3/4 inches; the distance from where it bent over to the tassel and knot - 10 1/2 inches; width where it bent over - 10 1/2 inches; width at the knot at the end - 1 1/4 inches; tassel - 2 5/8 inches; width of the band - 3 1/2 inches (Illus. 1274). The tassel was to be of two colors: green and the color of the shoulder straps. The knot was according to the company: in the first companies of battalions - white, in the second - red, in the third - sky blue, and in the fourth - orange. In regard to the coiffure, care was taken that the front hair, or laverzhet as it was called then, and hair at the temples was cropped smooth and short, while the hair at the rear was tied into a thick, flat queue intertwined with a black, woolen ribbon so that the end of the hair protruded just a bit. Powder was only used at big parades and holidays.

Grenadier cap- of almost the same form and size as under Emperor Paul I, namely: with a brass plate in front; with three grenades - also of brass - behind and on the sides. On the first, i.e. the plate, there was almost over its entire height a raised image of the double-headed Russian eagle with St. George on the breast. The top part [verkhushka] was according the the color of the collar and cuffs, while the rear piece or band [zadnik ili okolysh] was according to the color of the shoulder straps. The edging around the plate and below the band was black, as before. The trim on the top part was white cotton tape, while the pompons were according to the special list located below (Illus. 1275).

Greatcoat- of undyed cloth, dark or light grey, only being the same shade for the whole regiment; with a collar and shoulder straps the same color and pattern as on the coat, and with round grey cuffs. It was made so that it not only could be worn over the coat, but additionally over the warm coat or half-length fur coat. In front it was fastened with seven flat brass buttons, sewn on with such a distance between one and the next that when the swordbelt was worn over the greatcoat, the very bottom button was under the swordbelt, while the top button of the rear flaps was over the swordbelt (Illus. 1276).

The warm coat, or half-length fur coat [polushubok], was of sheepskin as before.

Sword, with a cutlass-like [tesachnyi] blade, brass hilt [yefes], a similar brass hook and endpiece, and with a scabbard of unblackened leather. It was unchanged from before (Illus. 1277).

The swordbelt was, as before, of deerskin, whitened, and 2 inches wide; with an adjustable brass buckle; with two frogs [lopasti] for the sword and the bayonet scabbard, and with welts near the edges. At its front edge, the frog was prescribed to be 6 1/8 inches long from the swordbelt to the slit into which the sword was placed, and the distance along the lower edge of the swordbelt, between both ends of the frog and depending on the individual body size, was about 5 to 7 inches. As a rule, when the swordbelt was worn it had to be adjusted so that when the rear end of the frog was between both waist buttons and pulled flat against the left one of these, then the sword was not to project forward and the left hand of a man standing upright was to lie above and alongside the hilt. The lower edge of the swordbelt had to lie above and right next to the waist buttons (Illus. 1277).

The swordknot consisted of a strap, small loop [gaechka], acorn [derevyashaka], trinchik, or colored ring, and the fringe. The length of the strap was prescribed to be 19 3/4 inches long and its width 7/8 inch; the distance from the top of the loop to the colored ring was 1 3/4 inches, the colored ring was 1/2 inch; the fringe was 7/8 inch. The swordknot was tied to the sword with an opening or loop under the knob on the hilt and wrapped around the whole length of the guard, leaving the tassel free for 3 1/2 inches (Illus. 1277). For all privates the strap and fringe of the swordknot remained white cotton; acorns - the same color as the collar and cuffs, and the loops and color rings: in the 1st company - white, in the 2nd - red, in the 3rd - sky blue, and in the 4th - orange.

Musket, along with its sling, lock cover, and frizzen cover; cartridge pouch, with brass plate and four grenades also of brass, and crossbelt, 3 3/4 inches wide, with welts along the edges. All these remain as previously laid down in the table of 5 January 1798 (Illus. 1277).

Knapsack, of black, dried leather, lined with linen, made round, 15 3/4 inches long and 8 1/4 inches across, and having a cover 8 3/4 inches wide that was closed by three iron buckles and, over them, two leather buttons. Inside it was a divider of doubled linen for putting three days worth of rusk into one half, and in the other - baggage, as follows: two shirts, foot wraps, wool kerchiefs, half-length fur coat, summer or winter (depending on the time of year) pants, brush, polish, soap, chalk, etc. The knapsack was put on over the right shoulder with the help of a whitened, deerskin belt 1 1/8 inches wide, fastened by two iron buckles at the sides of the knapsack so that it lay close to the shoulders, somewhat at a slant, with the right side upward (Illus. 1277).

Waterflask, made from double thickness iron and keeping the previous shape and size, i.e. height, without the cap - 6 3/8 inches, with the cap - 7 7/8 inches, breadth - 6 1/2 inches, and width - 3 inches. It was strapped to middle of the knapsack with white deerskin straps 5/8 inch wide (Illus. 1277).

Noncommissionedofficers [unter-ofitsery] of Grenadier battalions were uniformed the same as private grenadiers but with only one shoulder strap, on the right shoulder, and with the additional distinction that along the lower and side edges of the collar and along the upper edge of the cuffs they had gold galloon [galun], 5/8 inch wide. and the pompon on the grenadier cap and the trinchik or colored ring of the swordknot were white with black and orange mixed in. Also, as before, they wore white chamois gloves with rounded cuffs 2 5/8 inches wide and carried a cane stick [trost] with a knob made of white bone and a brass endpiece, of such a length that if a person holds it in his right hand under the knob and lets its end point to the toe of the right foot, it then would reach the floor. In formation, the stick, by means of a leather strap passed through it below the knob, hung on the right side from the second coat button from the top, and then was put through a double black leather strap, 5/8 inch wide, fastened to the right waist button. When out of formation, when the stick was held in the hand, this strap was unfastened and put away.

Of the six junior noncommissioned officers [mladshchie unter-ofitsery] in each company of a Grenadier battalion, four were to have rifled muskets and black leather front pouches [podsumki] with a brass plate and four grenades, also of brass. As it was under Emperor Paul I, the other two noncommissioned officers, as well as the supply sergeant [kaptenarmus] and first sergeant [feldfebel] kept the halberds [alebardy] of the previous pattern, whose hafts were specially colored according to the list appended below. Officer candidates [podpraporshchiki] and distinguished officer candidates [portupei-praporshchiki] did not have muskets or halberds, but just the stick (Illus. 1278). Noncommissioned officers had knapsacks like the privates but wore them across the left shoulder instead of the right.

Company drummers [rotnye barabanshchiki] of Grenadier battalions were uniformed the same as grenadiers but were distinguished from them by wings or shoulder pieces [kryltsy ili naplechniki] of dark-green cloth with white cotton tape 5/8 inch wide. This tape was sewn on along the round or bottom edges of the wings and along the side of the left coat edge, but in half width so that half of it was above and half underneath. Tape was on the wings - four rows in full width; on the upper halves of the sleeves - six rows in full width with points up; and on the left coat side of the coat and on the cuff flaps, opposite buttonholes and buttons, laid double in the shape of the buttonhole (Illus. 1279). The drum was prescribed to be of brass without a badge, with dark-green and white triangles painted on the hoops, ropes to tighten the frame or hoops, and white deerskin ears or looseners.

Drumstickswere according to the color of the flagstaffs and halberd shafts. The crossbelt for the drum was 4 3/8 inches wide, deerskin, whitened, with two holders of that same material for the drumsticks, a small strap to suspend the drum from, and without any metal appointments. An apron [zanaveska] for protecting the pants was of calfskin, made with the hair on the outside (Illus. 1279).

Fifers [fleishchiki] of Grenadier battalions were uniformed like company drummers of these battalions and kept their brass cases of the previous pattern to hold the fife, worn on a white deerskin belt (Illus. 1279).

Battalion drummers [batalionnye barabanshchiki] of Grenadier battalions differed from company drummers in that they had seven rows of tape sewn on their coat sleeves instead of six, and also in having this on all seams, on the edge of the left side of the coat, and on the tails along the turnbacks. Like noncommissioned officers, they had gold galloon on the collar and cuffs; the pompon of the grenadier cap and the trinchik of the swordknot were white with black and orange; they had gloves and a cane (Illus. 1280).

Privates of Fusilier battalions [ryadovye fuzelernykh batalionov], except for the cap worn in formation and the cartridge pouch, had entirely the same uniform, accouterments, and armaments as privates of Grenadier battalions. Their formation caps [stroevyya shapki], or fusilier caps [fuzelernyya shapki], had almost the same appearance as they had under Emperor Paul I, only a little taller, namely: 10 inches tall with the plate, this having exactly the same image on it as the plate for grenadier caps (Illus. 1281). And fusilier pouches had only the badge without the grenades in the corners (Illus. 1282).

Junior noncommissioned officers, supply sergeants, and sergeants [mladshie unter-ofitsery, kaptenarmusy i feldfebeli] of Fusilier battalions were uniformed and armed like these ranks in Grenadier battalions with only the grenadier cap being replaced by the fusilier cap described above, and with the additional difference that all without exception had halberds. Officer candidates and distinguished officer candidates were not prescribed these last items.

Company and battalion drummers of Fusilier battalions were uniformed and armed as in Grenadier battalions except the grenadier cap was replaced by the fusilier cap.

The regimental drummer and musicians  [polkovyi barabanshchik i muzykanty] (two each for bassoons, waldhorns, clarinets, and fifes, and one for a drum) were uniformed and armed like battalion drummers in Grenadier battalions, without any difference.

Apart from the equipment and weapons described here, each Grenadier and Fusilier company was issued entrenching tools [shantsovye instrumenty]: 20 axes, 10 iron spades, and 5 picks and mattocks [5 of each? — M.C.], with covers made from worn-out pouches and with 1 1/2 inch straps for them made from similarly worn-out crossbelts and swordbelts. The ax handle was prescribed to be 2 feet 5 inches long; the length of the spade handle - exactly 2 feet 4 inches; the width of the ax cover: top - 10 inches, bottom - 10 1/2 inches; its length - 9 1/8 inches; width of the spade cover - 9 1/8 inches; its length - 11 3/8 inches.

Company-grade officers [ober-ofitsery]of Grenadier regiments had a coat, pants, and boots of the same colors and patterns as prescribed for private grenadiers, except that the first did not have a seventh button under the right side of the front of the coat, it had horizontal pocket flaps on the coattails with three buttons, the tails being of a little greater length, namely such that their lower ends were only a hand’s breadth higher than the knees, and there was narrow gold galloon around the edges of the shoulder straps. Instead of the previous neckcloths which were black in some regiments and white in others, it was ordered to wear black silk kerchiefs [platki], tied in the back. Gloves were ordered to be without cuffs. Canes remained as before, while new hats were authorized, with black plumes of cock feathers. The bow or cockade was of the same ribbon as under the previous reign, with an embroidered gold buttonhole, and with two small silver tassels in the corners, fastened to the ends of a silver cord or length of lace in which, as in the tassels themselves, was intermixed black and orange silk. The hat was prescribed to be 9 5/8 inches tall in front, 10 1/2 inches in back, and the distance from the crown to the corners - 5 1/4 inches (Illus. 1283 and 1284). The swordknot, sash [sharf], gorget [znak], and spontoon [esponton] remain of the previous patterns, except that the last of these had the monogram of Emperor Alexander I, the next to last did not have the cross of St. John of Jerusalem on the eagle’s breast, and the swordknot and sash did not have raspberry-colored silk. The color of the spontoon’s shaft corresponded to the color of the halberd’s shaft. The greatcoat was of grey cloth, with a similar hanging cape and also a standing collar of the pattern and color of the coat’s (Illus. 1283).

Adjutants [adyutanty], of battalions and of honorary colonels, supposed to be of company-grade officer rank, had their entire uniform as well as armament the same as company-grade officers, except for spontoons, which they were not authorized. In formation, when they had to be mounted, they wore deerskin or chamois pants, using ochre to keep them white, and jack boots [botforty] with bell-shaped openings and iron spurs (Illus. 1285).

Field-grade officers [shtab-ofitsery] were uniformed and armed like adjutants, but they had gilded gorgets (Illus. 1285).

Generals [generaly] were distinguished from field-grade officers only by the white plumage around the sides of the hat (Illus. 1286).

Shabracks [chepraki] and holsters [chushki] were the same as before for adjutants, field-grade officers, and generals, of dark-green cloth with one row of gold galloon all around.

Company: barbers [tsiryulniki], hospital orderlies [lazaretnye sluzhiteli], gunstock craftsman [lozhnik], and carpenter [plotnik]; battalion clerks [pisarya], medics [fel'dshera], gunsmith apprentices [oruzheinye ucheniki], blacksmiths [kuznetsy], and provosts [profosy]; regimental wagonmaster [vagenmeister], supervisor of the sick [nadziratel dlya bolnykh], clerk, chaplainsassistants [tserkovniki], gunstock craftsman, and farrier [konoval]; and company, battalion, and regimental train personnel [furleity], i.e. all noncombatant [nestroevye] lower ranks of Grenadier regiments, wore cloth frock coats [sertuki] reaching to the knees, with turned-back skirts, a collar and shoulder straps of the same pattern and color as on the coats of combatant personnel, red kersey lining, and flat brass buttons which were prescribed to be: in front on the right turnover, down the very center of the chest - 6, for the shoulder straps - 1 each, on the cuffs and flaps - 3 each, at the ends of the skirts - 1 each, at the waist - 2; 18 total. The spacing of the buttons down the front was the same as on greatcoats, while the cut and dimensions of the collar, cuffs, flaps, and shoulder straps were as for the coats of combatant lower ranks (Illus. 1287). Pants were prescribed to be of grey cloth, but of Flemish linen in summer. Boots, neckcloth, forage cap, greatcoat, warm coat orhalf-length fur coat, knapsack, andwater flask were the same as for combatant lower ranks, while hats were of the same pattern and size as described above for officers except without any decoration or trim besides a flat brass button and, serving as binding, a black woolen cord. The wagonmaster, supervisor of the sick, medical orderlies, and all clerks, since they held noncommissioned officer ranks, had gold galloon on the coat’s collar and cuffs, gloves with cuffs, cane, and a hanger [tesak] with a noncommissioned officer swordknot and a swordbelt (Illus. 1287). Barbers were also authorized swordbelts and hangers, but without swordknots, and on a 1 1/2 inch wide strap over the left shoulder they wore a black leather bag for razors and other items (Illus. 1287). All the rest of the noncombatant lower ranks had no weapons at all (Illus. 1287).

Battalion and Regimental Doctors [lekarya] received a uniform similar to officers’, except that the coat did not have shoulder straps. Collar, cuffs, turnbacks of the coattails, and lining were dark green, with red piping along the edges of the collar, cuffs, flaps on the sleeves and pockets, and turnbacks of the coattails. Silver buttons were located: in front on the right turnover - 6, on the sleeve flaps - 2 each, on the pockets - 3 each, on the ends of the coattails - 1 each, and at the waist - 2. Hat, epee, and swordknot were to be the same as for officers, except without a plume (Illus. 1288).

Auditors [auditory] were uniformed similar to doctors, but they had two rows of buttons down the front of the coat; turnbacks of the coattails and lining were red; pants were chamois or deerskin; jackboots with iron spurs; and a hat with the same plume as for officers (Illus. 1288).

6 June 1802— [N.B. See the notes at the end of this volume regarding Grenadiersdistinctive colors - M.C.] Confirmation is given to a list of colors for the pompons on grenadier caps (669), based upon which the colors in the directive of 17 March and the table of 30 April, laid out above, which distinguished Grenadier regiments from one another were as follows:

    Leib-Grenadier Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate:
    Red collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1274); the crowns and bands of grenadier and fusilier caps were red; white pompons with a red center on grenadier caps; pale-yellow [palevyi] drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Pavlovsk Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
    Red collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were red and the bands white; white pompons on grenadier caps (Illus. 1275); pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    St.-Petersburg Grenadier Regiment of the Livonia  [Livland, Liflyandskaya] Inspectorate:
    Turquoise collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were turquoise and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center (Illus. 1276); pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Taurica Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
    Turquoise collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were turquoise and the bands white; white pompons on grenadier caps (Illus. 1277); pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Yekaterinoslav Grenadier Regiment of the Lithuania Inspectorate:
    Light-green collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were light green and the bands red (Illus. 1278); pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Little Russia (Malorossiiskii) Grenadier Regiment of the UkraineInspectorate:
    Rose collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were rose and the bands red; white pompons on grenadier caps; black drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons (Illus. 1279).

    Kiev Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
    Rose collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were rose and the bands white; pompons on grenadier caps were white; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons (Illus. 1280).

    Kherson Grenadier Regiment of the Dniester Inspectorate:
    Lilac collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were lilac and the bands red (Illus. 1281 and 1282); pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; black drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Siberia Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
    Lilac collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were lilac and the bands white; pompons on grenadier caps were white; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons (Illus. 1280).

    Caucasus Grenadier Regiment of the Caucasus Inspectorate:
    Blue collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus 1285); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were blue and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Moscow Grenadier Regiment of the Smolensk Inspectorate:
    White collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1286); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were white and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Phanagoria Grenadier Regiment of the Smolensk Inspectorate:
    White collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1287); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were white and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

    Astrakhan Grenadier Regiment of the Moscow Inspectorate:
    Orange collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1287); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were orange and the bands red; pompons on the grenadier caps were white with a red center; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.

18 September 1802 — Lower ranks’ aiguilettes in the Leib-Grenadier Regiment are abolished, and to replace them they are ordered to have white lace buttonholes on the collar and cuffs (Illus. 1289) (670).

27 October 1802— While on the march with troops or on detached duties, generals and field and company-grade officers are ordered to wear, instead of white pants, overalls [shirovary (sic, more commonly sharovary - M.C.)] or riding trousers [reituzy]; of grey cloth with flat brass buttons on the side seams, and with black leather lining along down the inner seams and around the lower ends (Illus. 1290) (671).

29 June 1803— New patterns for the shabrack and holster are designated for generals, field-grade officers, and adjutants of Grenadier regiments, dark-green as before but with red piping all around, two rows of gold galloon instead of the previous one, and red cloth between these galloon rows (Illus. 1291-2) (672).

19 August 1803— Noncombatant lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are given round shakos [shapki] in place of the tricorn hat. These are 7 7/8 inches high, of black cloth, with two flaps of similar material sewn inside and used to protect the ears and cheeks during freezing weather. They have a lacquered visor of black leather fastened in three places by small iron hooks and eyes, and a similar black leather chin strap. A black cockade with a surrounding orange stripe and a brass button in the middle is sewn on the front of the shako, and above the cockade are two woolen pompons [kisti] of the same colors as were prescribed on 6 June 1802. Between the lower pompon and the cockade button is fastened a loop of black woolen tape (Illus. 1293-4). These shakos are lined upright with straw, quilted through the whole height, while the lower [sic, should be upper? — M.C.] edge is trimmed with black leather. Those holding noncommissioned officer ranks have gold galloon around the upper edge, 7/8 inch wide, and the lower pompon is divided crosswise into four parts, two of which are white and two black with orange, as on grenadier caps for noncommissioned officers (673).

19 October 1803— All noncommissioned officers of Grenadier regiments are to have two shoulder straps on their coats and greatcoats as for privates, instead of one (674).

15 November 1804— The Kherson and Siberia Grenadier regiments of the Dniester Inspectorate are ordered to have: dark-green collars and sleeve flaps with red piping; red cuffs; dark-green crowns to the caps, while the band and shoulder straps remain the same colors as before: in the first regiment - red, in the second - white (Illus. 1295-6) (675).

In the same year of 1804, there were introduced for generals and field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments hats [shlyapy] with a buttonhole loop of narrow gold galloon, of the pattern used by them on shoulder straps, and with a tall plume (Illus. 1297-8) (676).

26 January 1805— Of the noncommissioned officer strength of second and third battalions of Grenadier regiments, who by the table of 30 April 1802 were supposed to have halberds, four men of each company are ordered to have muskets and cartridge pouches, following the example of the situation in the companies of honorary colonels’ battalions [shefskie bataliony] (677).

13 February 1805— In all Grenadier regiments, the former grenadier and fusilier caps of combatant lower ranks are replaced by new ones based on the pattern established in 1803 for noncombatants, except not quilted. There is a brass grenade above the cockade; with a brass button on the chin strap and with a thick horsehair plume. 19 1/4 inches high and about 8 inches wide (Illus. 1299). For privates this plume is completely black and the shako is without any other decoration besides the grenade, cockade, and small pompon (Illus. 1299). For noncommissioned officers the plumes have a white top with a yellow stripe in its middle and the shakos have gold galloon around the top edge of the crown (Illus. 1300-1); for company drummers and for fifers the plumes are red and the shakos are as for privates (Illus. 1302); for battalion and regimental drummers and for musicians the plumes are red with the tops and the shakos as for noncommissioned officers (Illus. 1302) (678).

12 June 1805— For Fusilier battalions of Grenadier regiments, the previously described shakos are ordered not to have grenades (679).

23 December 1805— To obviate the inconveniences often met with when in battle with the enemy, generals and field and company-grade officers of regiments of the Caucasus Inspectorate, including the Caucasus Grenadier Regiment, are permitted, instead of hats, to wear shakos, similar throughout to those of the soldiers except with a silver pompon with a mix of black and orange silk instead of a woolen one. These shakos are to be only for campaigns and military operations, and during other times the above-mentioned ranks are to wear hats (680).

1 July 1806— The flaps over the cuffs are abolished on the coats of regimental and battalion doctors, and the cuffs themselves are ordered to be slit instead of round, with two buttons on each, and which as everywhere on the coat are prescribed to be white and flat. Likewise the short boots are replaced by jackboots with spurs. Those holding the rank of staff-doctor [shtab-lekar] are given silver embroidered buttonholes, two on each side of the collar and on each cuff (Illus. 1303). Together with this, while on campaign and during operations doctors are permitted to wear grey pants and grey frock coats that are a little below the knees, with dark-green collars and white metal buttons, and sewn so that one coattail goes behind the other. Greatcoats are authorized, likewise grey, with a collar of the same color, having green piping around its edges (Illus. 1304) (681).

1 October 1806— The warm coats [fufaiki] of lower ranks are discontinued (682).

2 December 1806— Lower ranks are ordered to cut their hair short; generals, though, and field and company-grade officers, are in this case allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (683).

10 March 1807 — Officers’ spontoons and canes are abolished, and it is ordered that they use swords [shpagi] while in formation (684).

17 September 1807 — Generals and field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments, instead of shoulder straps, are ordered to wear epaulettes [epolety] with a cloth field the same color as these shoulder straps. One half of the the field, that closest to the collar, is trimmed with narrow gold galloon, and around the edges of the other half are laid two gold cords (Illus. 1305 and 1306). For field-grade officers the epaulettes have a narrow, and for generals a thick, fringe of gold threads (Illus. 1307), and for everyone the epaulettes are passed through a small shoulder strap [pogonchik] or counter-epaulette [kontr-epolet] of the same galloon as on the epaulettes, and are fastened by a button sewn to the coat at the collar (685). Only in the Leib-Grenadier Regiment is it ordered to wear the epaulette only on the left shoulder, as the officers of this regiment have aiguilettes on the right (686).

7 November 1807— For all Army regiments of heavy infantry, collars and cuffs of coats, as well as collars of greatcoats, are directed to be of red cloth, while shoulder straps are according to the regiment: in the first regiments of each division - red, in the second - white, in the third - yellow, in the fourth - dark green with red piping, and in the fifth - sky blue. In consequence of this, of the Grenadier regiments the Siberia receives white shoulder straps, the St.-Petersburg - yellow, and all the rest - red (687).

15 December 1807— Lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are to have on their shoulder straps, and generals and officers on their epaulettes, the number of their division: in gold for the latter and of wool cord for the former: on white and yellow fields - in red, on others - in yellow (688).

19 December 1807 — Lower ranks with swordbelts are ordered to wear these not at the waist, but over the right shoulder, under the crossbelt for the pouch, crossing these crossbelts and being of the same width. In consequence of this the former seventh button at the bottom of the coat’s front is abolished. Along with this, the swordbelt as well as the crossbelt are to be stitched along their edges and constructed with a small bend so that the upper edges of both one and the other come closer to the collar. The former swords [shpagi] which have been in use since the time of Empress Anna Ioannovna, with broad blades [tesachnye klinki], are replaced by swords [tesaki] having a hilt with a large, cupped guard, almost the same as for officers’ swords [shpagi]. With the new swordbelts, bayonet scabbards are fitted into an opening left in the frog to the right of the sword and are parallel to it (Illus. 1308). Beginning at this time, to make them more sturdy, the shakos introduced in 1805 were trimmed at the top and on the sides with black leather, and the visor was sewn on, and subsequently they received the name kiver(689).

23 December 1807— Lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are ordered to have winter pants with leather trim [obshivka] on the lower part, in almost the same style as there used to be from 1786 to 1796 (Illus. 1308), while summer pants are of Flemish linen, with spats [kozyrki] and covered buttons (Illus. 1309). Following this change, the boots introduced in 1802 were exchanged for others with soft tops (690).

26 January 1808— Generals of Grenadier regiments at parades, on designated calendar days [tabelnye dni], and at troop formations in general, in peacetime as well as during wartime, are ordered to wear the newly introduced standard generals’ coat [obshchii generalskii mundir]. And with the regimental coat when not on duty, they have dark-green pants instead of white (691).

(Note: The description of the standard generals’ coat is found later, at the end of the survey of Emperor Alexander I’s reign, in the section about general officers’ uniforms.)

14 July 1808 — The round knapsacks used by lower ranks since 1802 are exchanged for rectangular ones similar to those used during the reign of Emperor Paul I, but of black leather and not made with woolen interiors. They were prescribed to be worn on two soft, whitened deerskin straps, 2 5/8 inches wide, stitched on firmly at the top edge of the back side [of the knapsack - M.C.] and fastened to two large wooden buttons at the bottom edge. A canteen [manerka] or water flask was strapped to the top of the knapsack, in the middle, with white straps, as previously (Illus. 1310). The knapsack was supposed to contain: 2 shirts, 1 pair of pants, 1 foot wrap, 1 forage cap, material for 1 pair of boots, 1 frizzen cover, 12 flints, 3 brushes, 2 scrapers, 1 small board for cleaning buttons, a small quantity of chalk and polish, a small valise with threads, soap, glue, needlecase with needles, moustache dye, dye comb, sand and a brick, and rusks for three days, so that the valise with the canteen and summer trousers weighed 25 pounds, but with the winter pants (instead of the summer) - 26 1/4 pounds. At the same time it was set forth as a rule that when wearing the knapsack in warm or good weather, the soldier was to have his greatcoat rolled over his left shoulder, with the ends low on his right side being tied with a whitened deerskin strap (Illus. 1310). In cold or inclement weather it was ordered to wear the greatcoat with all its buttons fastened and to take off the coat and place it behind the back above the waist, between the shirt and greatcoat. But in frosts, the coat was to be worn in addition to the greatcoat (622).

Along with this change, the grenadier shakos’ former ribbons or cockades were replaced: in Grenadier companies - by a brass grenade with three flames, but in Fusilier companies - with one flame. The same grenades were ordered to be on the pouches, which from this time began to be made of black, polished leather and smaller than the previous dimensions, the cover being set down as 10 inches long (top) and 7 1/2 inches wide (in the middle) (Illus. 1310) (693).

2 November 1808— The pants authorized on 23 December 1807, with leggings [kragi] in the winter and spats in the summer, are kept only for combatant lower ranks, while for noncombatants the pants, as well as the boots, are directed to be of the pattern introduced in 1802 (694).

5 November 1808— Company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments, when the troops are wearing knapsacks, are ordered to also have them, of the same pattern in all details as was established for lower ranks (695).

12 November 1808— When not on duty, field and company-grade officers are allowed to wear dark-green cloth pants instead of white ones (696).

In November 1808Officers’ gorgets of a new pattern are confirmed, twice as short as the previous ones, with a raised rim all around and an affixed two-headed eagle in the center. These, as before, are worn on a black ribbon with orange borders, right up against the collar. These gorgets were prescribed for each rank: for an Ensign [Praporshchik] - all silver; for a Sublieutenant [Podporuchik] - silver with a gold rim; for a Lieutenant [Poruchik]- silver with a gold eagle; for a Staff-Captain [Shtabs-Kapitan] - silver with a gold rim and a gold eagle; for a Captain [Kapitan] - gold with a silver eagle; for field-grade officers - all gold (Illus. 1311) (697).

5 December 1808Halberd shafts, and likewise drumsticks, are designated to be yellow in the first regiment of each division, black in the second, white in the third, yellow again in the fourth, and black in the fifth (698).

11 February 1809— Noncombatant lower ranks not holding noncommissioned officer ranks, such as: chaplains’ assistants, barbers, hospital orderlies, master craftsmen of every kind, train personnel, and provosts, are all given a new pattern cap [shapka] in place of the shako [kiver], of dark-green cloth, with a red band, also of cloth, a leather chinstrap, two dark-green cloth flaps to cover the ears in winter, and one leather flap to protect the back of the head in inclement weather (Illus. 1312 and 1313) (699).

27 March 1809— Instead of one epaulette, officers of the Leib-Grenadier Regiment are ordered to wear two each; aiguilettes, however, which have been in use since the reign of Empress Catherine II, are abolished (700).

4 April 1809Noncommissioned officers are ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar, but on the upper and side edges .(701)

8 April 1809— There was issued the following order regarding the shoulder slings on muskets:

    1.) The lower bracket on the stock, for the sling, is to be moved higher up to the brass trigger guard.
    2.) The button on the sling is to be located two fingers from the upper sling bracket.
    3.) A buckle with prong is to be fixed to the middle of the ramrod’s brass lower band or tube.
    4.) The upper side, i.e. the side colored red, of the sling is to be lacquered so that it does not stain the pouch crossbelt (702).

20 April 1809— To supplement the directive issued in 1808 concerning new knapsacks, the following changes and additions are made:

    1.) The greatcoat is to be rolled 6 1/2 inches wide and worn over the left shoulder so that the soldier can freely hold the musket behind it.
    2.) The lower ends of the greatcoat are to be tied with a strap and buckle 3 1/2 inches from the end.
    3.) Greatcoat, knapsack, and canteen straps are not to be whitened.
    4.) The left knapsack strap is to be worn over the left shoulder on top of the greatcoat.
    5.) To hold both knapsack side-straps, there is another, third, strap with one end sewn to the left side-strap and the other passed through an iron buckle, with a narrow leather loop. The buckle is sewn to the right strap which is bent back under the buckle.
    6.) The third, chest, strap is positioned between the first and second top buttons of the coat or greatcoat (Illus. 1314) (703).

30 May 1809 — Noncommissioned officers’ front pouches [podsumki] are replaced with pouches [sumy] of the same pattern as prescribed for privates (704).

11 June 1809Cords [etishkety] are added to the shakos for lower ranks: all white for privates, but for noncommissioned officers and musicians - white with a mixture of black and orange (Illus. 1315) (705).

8 June 1809[sic] — The plumage around the sides of generals’ hats is discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole is replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones are intertwined with each other as if in a plait (Illus. 1316) (706).

29 August 1809— Only sergeants [feldfebeli] retain the halberd, while all other noncommissioned officers are given muskets identical to soldiers’(707).

23 November 1809— Colors are assigned for shako pompons [repeiki] or tufts of combatant lower ranks: in the 1st battalion - white around, green center; in the 2nd - green around, white center; in the 3rd - red around, yellow center; the colors for noncommissioned officers’ pompons are left as before (708).

6 December 1809— Company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments are ordered to wear a shako [kiver] instead of the hat when in formation, of the same pattern and size as those established for lower ranks, but with silver cords with a mixture of black and orange silk, only the tassel and ring being wholly silver. The pompon is silver with an embroidered, silver Imperial monogram in the center surrounded by black and orange small, toothed strips. Flat gilt scales are on the chinstraps, and there is also a small, gilt, six-pointed star behind, which has a small hook attached that during the march or while on campaign is used to take up the long cords and tassels that hang down on the right side of the shako (Illus. 1317). Field-grade officers are given the exact same shakos, but with three rows of thick, silver spangles on the pompon, sewn on around the monogram. These shakos are prescribed to have the exact same three-flamed grenades and the same black hair plumes as privates had, except that the first are gilt. Shakos are not prescribed for generals (709).

In this same year the powdering of the hair was completely discontinued for officers, and for them as well as general officers it was permitted to wear, over the coat [mundir], double-breasted frock coats [sertuki] of dark-green cloth, with red cloth collars, red stamin lining, and gilt buttons (Illus. 1318) (710).

9 January 1810— Grenadier regiments are ordered to have shoulder straps as follows:

       1st Division, Leib-Grenadiersred.
       2nd    ”          St.-Petersburg     — red.
 
     3rd     ”         Taurica                  — red.
       7th    ”          Yekaterinoslav     — red.
       8th    ”          Moscow                 — red.
       9th    ”          Astrakhan              red.
     10th    ”          Kiev                         red.
     11th    ”          Siberia                    — red.
     12th    ”          Phanagoria             — red.
     20th    ”          Kherson                 — red.
        ”       ”          Caucasus               — white(711).

[Pavlovsk (2nd Div.) and Little Russia (11th Div.) are omitted by Viskovatov. — M.C.]

24 September 1810Knapsack straps are ordered to be stitched on the edges, in the manner of crossbelts and swordbelts, and have a bend at each shoulder so that they do not wear away the coat or constrict a man under his arms (712).

17 January 1811— Instead of the multicolored cords on their shakos, noncommissioned officers and musicians of Grenadier regiments are to have white ones with only their tassels having black and orange mixed in (Illus. 1319); officers’, though, are completely silver (713).

29 January 1811— Officers’ frock coats are to have red cuffs instead of dark green (714).

3 February 1811 — Shoulder straps are ordered to be the same color in all Grenadier regiments - red, with the cursive initial letter of the regiment’s name in yellow cord except for the Leib-Grenadier, St.-Petersburg, Graf Arakcheev’s, and Little Russia regiments, of which the first is assigned the two Cyrillic letters L.G. the second - S.P., the third - G.A., and the fourth - M.R . (715).

4 February 1811— Grenadiers, Marksmen [strelki], and Fusiliers, and in general all combatant ranks including officers, have the shakos’ former thick plumes replaced with new ones 16 1/2 inches high, 5 3/4 inches wide at the top, and 1 3/4 inches wide at the bottom (Illus. 1319) (716).

22 February 1811— Consequent to the organizational changes of Grenadier regiments, the colors of the pompons and swordknots are also changed, as follows:

           a.) Pompons.
    1st battalion, in the 1st Grenadier company - red for Grenadiers, yellow for Marksmen; in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Fusilier companies - white with a green center (Illus. 1320).
     2nd battalion, in the 2nd Grenadier company -  red with green below for Grenadiers, yellow with green below for Marksmen; in the 4th, 5th and 6th Fusilier companies - green with a white center (Illus. 1320).
     3rd battalion, in the 3rd Grenadier company -  red with sky blue below for Grenadiers, yellow with sky blue below for Marksmen; in the 7th, 8th and 9th Fusilier companies - sky blue with a white center (Illus. 1320).

           b.) Swordknots.
     1st battalion, in the 1st Grenadier company - for Grenadiers, red acorns [derevyashki], loops [gaiki], and bands [okolyshi] or trinchiki, yellow for Marksmen; in the Fusilier comapnies - white acorns with the loops and bands according to the company: in the 1st company - white, in the 2nd - sky blue, and in the 3rd - orange (Illus. 1320).
     2nd battalion, in the 2nd Grenadier company - for Grenadiers, red acorns and green loops and bands; for Marksmen, yellow acorns and green loops and bands; in the Fusilier companies - green acorns with the loops and bands according to the company: in the 4th company - white, in the 5th - sky blue, and in the 6th - orange (Illus. 1320).
     3rd battalion, in the 3rd Grenadier company - for Grenadiers, red acorns and sky blue loops and bands; for Marskmen, yellow acorns and sky blue loops and bands; in the Fusilier companies - sky blue acorns with the loops and bands according to the company: in the 7th company - white, in the 8th - sky blue, and in the 9th - orange (Illus. 1320).

The lace and fringe of swordknots are left white, as before, with black and orange bands for noncommissioned officers (717).

23 September 1811— Combatant lower ranks are ordered to have forage caps shaped like shakos, but almost twice as low and without visors, with a red band and the following distinctions:

     1st battalion, in the 1st Grenadier company: for Grenadiers - red piping on top; for Marksmen - yellow piping on top and around the band (Illus. 1321).

     2nd battalion, in the 2nd Grenadier company: for Grenadiers - green piping on top; for Marksmen - green piping on top and yellow around the band (Illus. 1321).

     3rd battalion, in the 3rd Grenadier company: for Grenadiers - sky-blue piping on top; for Marksmen - sky-blue piping on top and yellow around the band (Illus. 1321).

     1st battalion, in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Fusilier companies - white piping on top and around the band, with the respective number of each company on the front of the band (Illus. 1321).

     2nd battalion, in the 4th, 5th, and 6th Fusilier companies - green piping on top and around the band, with the respective number of each company on the front of the band (Illus. 1321).

     3rd battalion, in the 7th, 8th, and 9th Fusilier comapnies - sky-blue piping on top and around the band, with the respective number of each company on the front of the band (Illus. 1321) (719).

     Officers are given the same caps except with the addition of a sewn-on visor of black, lacquered leather (719).

Note by M.C. - the actual decree went as follows:

PSZ No. 24,789. Forage caps for lower ranks are to be like a shako without a visor, with red bands in Grenadier and infantry regiments and with green bands in Jäger and Marine regiments, in accordance with the models provided to regiments along with their cutters. Different piping on the forage caps, in Grenadier and infantry as well as in Jager and Marine regiments, is to be as follows: Grenadier companies: 1st Grenadier Company, in the grenadier platoon - red piping on the top of the cap, and in the marksmen platoon - yellow piping on the top of the cap and around the band; 2nd Grenadier Company, in the grenadier platoon - green piping on the top of the cap, and in the marksmen platoon - likewise green piping on the top of the cap but yellow around the band; 3rd Grenadier Company, in the grenadier platoon - sky-blue piping on the top of the cap, and in the marksmen platoon - likewise sky-blue piping on the top of the cap but yellow around the band; in the other companies the piping differs by battalion: in the 1st Battalion white piping on the top of the cap and around the band; in the 2nd Battalion green piping on the top of the cap and around the band; in the 3rd Battalion sky-blue piping on the top of the cap and around the band. All these companies, that is to say except for the Grenadier companies, have their company number on the front of the cap band. In Jäger regiments the Grenadier platoons in Grenadier companies are to have red piping around the green band.

9 October 1811Halberds are withdrawn from all Grenadier regiments, and those sergeants and noncommissioned officers who had them are given soldiers’ muskets with bayonets and, consequently, cartridge pouches with crossbelts (720).

3 November 1811Gloves are abolished for noncommissioned officers, and to replace them in winter they are allowed to wear mittens of the same pattern as used at this time by privates (721).

17 December 1811— Noncombatant lower ranks, in place of the frock coats they had since 1802, are given singlebreasted, grey-cloth caftans [kaftany] or coats [mundiry] with collar, cuffs, and turnbacks on the tails all that same color, with red piping on them. The existing grey pants of these ranks are to also have red piping, in five rows, and leather lining, and are to be worn over the boots. Summer pants are abolished altogether, and grey forage caps are to be issued, with earflaps and red piping. Noncombatants holding noncommissioned officer ranks are to keep the gold galloon on their collars and cuffs (Illus. 1322)(722).

1 January 1812— All combatant ranks are given a new pattern shako [kiver], lower than before, with a greater spread or widening toward the top and indented sides, with flat brass scales on chinstraps; as was already the case for officers, the shako no longer has the sewn-on earflaps and neckflaps (Illus. 1323). Along with this, the previous high, open collars are changed to low ones closed in front with small hooks and eyes. The soldiers’ integral leggings [kragi] and the officers’ boots are to be high and up to the knees (Illus. 1324), while officers, in order to reduce their expenses, are permitted to have white shako cords, sashes, andswordknots instead of silver ones, and forged brass appointments on the epaulettes instead of gold (723).

10 February 1812— Noncombatant lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are ordered to have shoulder straps on their caftans and greatcoats of the same color and pattern as the shoulder straps of combatant ranks (724).

13 April 1813— The Kexholm and Pernau Grenadier regiments, renamed from infantry and assigned to the 1st Division, are authorized grenadier uniform (725).

30 November 1813— For their actions in battle against the enemy, the Yekaterinoslav and Graf Arakcheev Grenadier regiments are granted badges [znaki] for the shako, of yellow copper or brass, with the raised inscription “For Distinction” [“Za otlichie”] (Illus. 1325). This pattern was accepted as standard for all Grenadier regiments which received this award in the subsequent years of Emperor Alexander I’s reign (726). (Note: a detailed listing of all regiments which received shako badges with the inscription “Za otlichie” will be found later, in a separate paragraph about badges for distinction.)

22 August 1814Shoulder straps in all Grenadier regiments are ordered to be yellow with red letters (727).

In the same year of 1814, during the return of the forces from France, officers of Grenadier regiments were given a new pattern of riding trousers [reituzy] without leather or buttons, with two wide stripes [lampasy] of red cloth along the outer side seams, and on the seam itself — piping of the same material (Illus. 1326). In the following year of 1815, on the cockades of officers’ hats, along the edges of the black tape with orange teeth, it was ordered to have another white tape of the same width (either of cotton or silk), which in later years became silver (Illus. 1327).

At the same time, drum majors [tambur-mazhory], or the former regimental drummers, were ordered to have shako cords and all lace on the coat in silver or gold, according to the regimental commander’s choice, and instead of shoulder straps—epaulettes. These last were authorized to be of the pattern for generals with the only difference being that the galloon around the edges of the cloth field was not entirely silver or gold, but had a red silk stripe down the center. In this uniform, drum majors in formation were authorized a staff [trost] with a gilt top in the form of a mace, and with a similar gilt endpiece and silver galloon winding around the staff, ending at the lower end in two silver tassels (Illus. 1328). With the introduction of the new uniform, all musicians, fifers, and drummers, as well as drum majors, were given singlebreasted coats in place of the previous double-breasted ones, these being buttoned in front with small hooks and eyes and having lace not on just one side of the front of the coat, but on both sides (Illus. 1328) (728).

16 August 1815— The embroidered buttonholes or bars of lace [petlitsy] established in 1802 for officers’ coats in those regiments which had Princes of the Blood as Honorary Colonels are to be in only two regiments: His Majesty the Emperor of Austria’s Grenadiers and His Majesty the King of Prussia’s Grenadiers(729).

7 January 1816— All combatant ranks are forbidden to have the collar of a shirt [rubashka] or dicky [manishka] protruding from behind the neckcloth (730).

24 January 1816— In all Grenadier regiments the scabbards for swords [tesaki] and bayonets, and consequently those for officers’ rapiers [shpagi], are ordered to be black, the former being polished and the latter — lacquered (731).

13 April 1816 — Field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments are ordered to wear white pants (of wool cloth in the winter and linen in the summer) only during reviews and parades, and during the rest of the time to have the riding trousers with stripes prescribed in 1814, with the exception of officers in the capitals, where they are prescribed to be in dark-green pants and high boots (732).

16 April 1817— Instead of grenades, the shakos in Grenadier regiments are to have plates of yellow brass with the raised image of an eight-pointed star in the center, with the Imperial Crown on top (Illus. 1329) (733).

7 May 1817Drum majors are ordered to wear coats with silver galloon (734).

13 May 1817— In order to relieve the soldier while on campaign and to protect his accouterments, it is laid down that during this time they are always to be in greatcoats and their shako, plume, pouch, and coat with leggings are to have covers [chekhly] of raven’s-duck or Flemish linen painted with black oil paint in the manner of oilcloth so that they do not allow water to penetrate (Illus. 1330 and 1331). Detailed instructions concerning this subject are included in the following:

     1.) For the shako cover. — The plume, cord, and pompon are removed from the shako; the first is considered below and the rest are stowed in the knapsack. The cover is put on over the shako with visor, it being tailored to fit close, with an overlap on the left side and fastening with small hooks. On the top of the cover where the pompon would be is sewn a piece of cloth the same color as the pompon, and into this pompon cover is inserted a piece of wood. To distinguish companies, company numbers made of yellow cloth are sewn onto the front of the shako covers, designating the first Grenadier company by the letters.1 .P. [Cyrillic R for rota]; the second Fusilier company with 1 P.; the second Fusilier company with 2 P., etc. The size of these numbers and letters is 2 1/4 inches. To protect the back of the soldier’s head and his ears, an oilcloth, painted on both sides, is to be sewn to the lower edge of the cover in back, its length being determined by the ends of the visor and its width by the height of the shako. In good weather this oilcloth is raised up and its side edges fastened to the cover by small hooks; but in rainy weather it is let down and thus protects the soldier from wetness.

     2.) For the plume cover. — The plume in its cover is to be worn underneath the sword scabbard with the top pointing down. This cover is to be 21 inches long, i.e. 1 3/4 inches longer than the plume, and its width is according to the plume, with both of its ends having openings tied by drawstrings. The plume in its cover is fastened to the sword by leather loops sewn to the middle and ends of the cover; additionally, the base of the plume is fitted into a hole under the swordbelt frog and tied with a cord to the back of the buckle located on this frog. In order to protect the cover from rubbing on the sword scabbard, both of the cover’s ends have a 7/8-inch wide black leather strap lashed to it.

     3.) For the cover for the pouch lid. — The whole lid of the pouch is to have a cover fitting it closely, going over each edge to the back side for 1 inch, and attached to the pouch by cords: two inside the lid running along it, and two sewn to middle of the upper edge of the cover. On the middle of the lid’s cover is to be sewn the company number in yellow cloth.

     4.) For the cover for the coat and leggings. — The coat must be rolled and wrapped in the leggings [kragi] so that it is as long as the knapsack and its diameter is 6 inches in thickness. It is placed into a round oilcloth cover made to these dimensions with an opening at one end that is closed with a drawstring. This case is to be carried on the knapsack with the opening to the left side and in the middle tied by the greatcoat strap to the strap that holds the canteen. And additionally, in the place where the knapsack’s shoulder straps pass through, two leather loops are sewn to the cover, through which the greatcoat strap is passed.

     All these covers are to be cleaned with a brush and rubbed with a rather strong wax boot polish, so that there is a shine to them; the cloth numbers and letters, on the other hand, are cleaned with ocher (735).

8 August 1817— The size of the forage cap is fixed as follows: diameter of the top of the crown - 9 1/2 inches; diameter at the bottom of the crown - according to the size of the head; width of the cap band - 1 1/3 inches; distance from the band to the top of the crown - 2 1/2 inches. Colors are left the same as were laid down on 23 September 1811 (736).

26 September 1817— Confirmed - a description of Grenadier accouterments and rules for wearing them, consisting of the following:

     1.) Shako. - The shako [kiver] is to be leather, lined with black cloth for its whole height, while the crown is lacquered. The shako is 7 inches high; the lower diameter is according to the size of the head, while the upper is 4 inches larger. Behind, in the middle, is a black, leather, lacquered strap which dresses the bottom of the shako and is fastened by a rectangular brass buckle stitched to its left end. The width of the leather on the crown, which dresses the top edge of the shako, is 1 1/3 inches, while the width of the four black, lacquered, leather side straps, as well as of the strap which finishes the bottom of the shako, is 7/8 inch. The side straps are stitched to the shako so that the lower, converging, ends are at the very middle of the sides, and between the top ends is a space of 3 1/2 inches. The length of the top edge of the black, leather, lacquered visor - 8 3/4 inches, and the width down its center - 2 1/2 inches. It is sewn to the lower edge of the shako in the center front, under the strap which edges the bottom of the shako (Illus. 1332).

     2.) Shako plate and badge for distinction. - The plate [blyakha] must be of yellow brass, fitted so that its top end is right under the stitching of the leather crown, touching the very middle of the badge for distinction [znak otlichiya]. But so that this last item cannot bend or break, it is seated on hard shoe-sole leather fixed to the badge for distinction by prongs attached to badge’s inner side for this purpose (Illus. 1332).

     3.) Shako pompon. - The pompon [repeek] is to be of wood, oval, and lined with cloth; colors are according to the battalion and company as laid down in 1811. It is 3 inches long, 1 3/4 inches wide in the middle, and swells to 7/8 inch high in the center. In regiments without a badge for distinction, the lower end of the shako pompon must be even with the stitching of the leather crown; in regiments with them, though, it is over the badge, covering its lower rim (Illus. 1332).

     4.) Shako cords. - The cords [etishkety] are to be made from white cords: for noncommissioned officers - with tassels of orange and black worsted and white silk, and for privates - all white. They hang on the shako in front and in back in half-circles, having the upper ends at the very middle of the shako’s sides, 1/2 inch from the top of the crown, while the lower plaits of the half-circles are over the upper stitching of the leather strap which finishes the bottom of the shako. The front plaits are 1 1/3 inches wide and the back ones 7/8 inch. The first tassel of the cord dropping from the right side hangs from four small cords level with the right shoulder, while the tassel on the left side cord hangs from two small cords even with the leather strap which dresses the top of the shako (Illus. 1332).

     5.) Shako scales. - Scales [cheshuya] on the shako are to consist of 18 pieces on each side, seated at equal intervals on a black leather strap that is not backed by any harder material. The upper end of the scales is to be between the shako’s side straps, 1 1/3 inches from the stitching of the bottom strap, and is fastened by a brass circlet with prongs pushed through the shako and bent over on the inside. Underneath the chin the scales are fastened together by a wooden toggle (Illus. 1332).

     6.) Shako plume. - The length of the hair plume [sultan], the black one of noncommissioned officers and soldiers as well as the red one of musicians, is to be 19 inches; their diameter: at the bottom - 1 3/4 inches, at the top - 3 1/2 inches, and the length of the white top part of a noncommissioned officer’s plume - 5 1/4 inches. The plume up the hair itself is stuck into a hollow fitting on the shako, and the fitting is stitched from black, lacquered leather to the middle of the front of the shako with the top end even with the top of the crown and the lower end under the plate, so that it is covered by it (Illus. 1332).

     7.) Swordbelt and crossbelt. - Swordbelts and crossbelts [portupei i pervyazi] are white deerskin and 3 1/2 inches wide between the edges and 2 1/4 inches wide between the stitchings. In order to keep them in the proper position when a soldier moves about, there is a leather button under the swordbelt at the point on the chest where the belts cross, and under the crossbelt - a buttonhole, through which this button is fastened. In the same manner, on the back of the left side of pouch on the upper edge there is a white leather loop with a cutout shaped like a single-flamed grenade, and on the swordbelt, to fasten to this loop, is fixed a leather button. The swordbelt frog is to be as wide as the sword scabbard. For bayonets, the swords have a small tube under the swordbelt and above the frog, stitched from soft leather, as wide as the bayonet scabbard. The distance of the rectangular brass swordbelt buckle from the frog is to be such that it is as close to the frog as possible and almost not visible. The buckle is to be of yellow brass (Illus. 1333).

     8.) Swords. - The hilts of the swords [tesaki] are to be of yellow brass, while the scabbards, just as the bayonet scabbards, are to be of black, polished leather (Illus. 1333).

     9.) Pouch. - Pouches [sumy] are to be be of black leather with the sides and lid lacquered. Its size is to be enough to freely hold sixty live cartridges laid in a cotton case. To the pouch’s box, under the lid, there is to be stitched a small pouch of soft black leather, with a small cover flap fastened by a small leather button. This is for keeping wadding, a screwdriver, priming wire, and a spare flint. The handle of the screwdriver must be made as flat as practicable so that the pouch lid can closely fastened. The lid of this pouch is to be semicircular and fastened to the box by a leather loop over a small leather button, and in its center is fixed a three-flamed grenade of yellow brass (Illus. 1333).

     10.) The wearing of the sword and pouch - The sword and pouch are to be worn so that if the soldier bends his left elbow then the top end of the sword and the top edge of the pouch would be 3 1/2 inches below this elbow. However, in a frontal formation this rule applies only to the two flank files, i.e. the first and the last, while the rest are aligned with them by a cord (Illus. 1333).

     11.) Swordknots. - Swordknots [temlyaki] are to be of the battalion and company colors defined in 1811, having linen lace with the rest of wool. The lace is 7/8 inch wide; its length is to be such that after it is wrapped around the hilt, there is left a distance of 1 3/4 inches from the hilt to the swordknot’s small button (Illus. 1333).

     12.) The rolled greatcoat. - The greatcoat is to be rolled over its whole width and worn over the left shoulder, its length to be determined by the length of the straightened right arm. But in this case, too, in a frontal formation a cord is used as in § 10. The end of the greatcoat is to be opposite the end of the right thigh; width: on the shoulder - 5 1/4 inches, on the chest - 4 1/2 inches, at the end - 3 1/2 inches; the distance from the lower end to the greatcoat strap - 1 3/4 inches; width of the this last item - 7/8 inch, with its buckle being rectangular and of iron (Illus. 1333 and 1334).

     13. Knapsack. - Knapsacks [rantsy] are to be of calfskin leather with the hair still on, with a linen lining. The length of the knapsack - 16 inches; height - 12 inches; thickness - 4 1/2 inches; length of the cover, from the upper edge - 10 1/2 inches. This last item is to be closed by three rectangular iron buckles 7/8 inch wide. The black leather strap which fastens the middle buckle is to be stitched onto the center of the knapsack cover so it can be attached to the canteen, while the other two straps are stitched onto the edges below this cover. A black leather loop is sewn above the middle buckle, through which is passed the strap for fastening. The knapsack shoulder straps are 7/8 inch wide while the chest strap is 1 1/3 inches; the chest buckle is rectangular and of iron. The knapsack is worn close to the back, having its upper edge level with the shoulders. The top ends of the knapsack shoulder straps must be fastened, with a distance of 1 3/4 inches from one to the other, to two leather loops sewn on the back of the knapsack at the middle of its upper edge, while the lower ends of these straps are fastened to oblong wooden toggles fixed to the lower corners of the knapsack. These straps are to be around the soldier’s shoulder in the shape of a half circle: on the left shoulder - over the rolled greatcoat, and on the right - over the shoulder strap. And to the centers of these half circles are sewn: on the left - the chest strap, and to the right - a leather loop with the chest buckle to which the strap is fastened, making sure that it is on the chest and even with the armpits (Illus. 1333 and 1334). Inside the knapsack, running along its whole length, is a linen divider separating it into two halves. In the first of these, on the side facing the canteen, are placed: rusks for three days and one pair of soles, upright; in the second - pants (winter ones during summer and summer ones during winter), wool socks and foot wraps; a small valise with a needlecase, scissors, penknife, thread, thimble, awls, wax-end, soap, polish, brick, comb for the head, dye and an iron dye comb, earmuffs, neckcloth, mittens (in summer); brushes for clothes, underclothes, and boots (upright next to the sides of the knapsack); flint case with 12 flints; two scrapers for cleaning the musket, a small board for cleaning buttons, boot material, two shirts, forage cap, and frizzen cover.

     14.) Canteen. - The canteen [manerka] is of white sheet iron, held to the knapsack by whitened deerskin straps, 7/8 inch wide, so that the lower edge of its lid is even with the top of the knapsack. To begin attaching the canteen, a loop is taken, made from a strap as long as the knapsack is thick, and is fastened behind this last item at the loop to which are tied the knapsack shoulder straps. After this, the canteen strap is passed through this loop and under the middle one of straps on the knapsack cover, and, passing through the canteen ear tabs, is fastened beneath it, again under the middle knapsack cover strap, with an iron, rectangular buckle. The canteen lid is also to be attached to a strap, the top end of which is slit to form a buttonhole and fastened to the lid’s ear tab on the right side with a small leather button, while the lower end reaches to the middle of the right side of the canteen and is stitched to a loop which freely moves along the canteen’s side strap (Illus. 1333 and 1334).

     15.) Entrenching tool. - The entrenching tool [shantsovyi instrument] is to be carried in a case of black, polished leather, on a whitened deerskin strap 1 1/3 inches wide, on top of the full accouterments, over the left shoulder (Illus. 1333 and 1334).

     16.) Stitching on belts. - Swordbelts, crossbelts, and all straps and belts in general, such as those for the greatcoat, the shoulder and chest straps of the knapsack, and the canteen and entrenching tool straps, are determined to have stitching [strochenie] (Illus. 1333 and 1334).

     17.) Drummers’ crossbelt. - Drummers’ crossbelts [barabannyya perevyazi] are to be white deerskin and under the right shoulder strap. Width: from one edge to the other - 4 3/8 inches; between stitchings - 3 inches. There is an elongated cutout at the shoulder, 7 inches long and 7/8 inch wide in the middle. 5 1/4 inches below this cutout is set a brass plate with two tubular holders for the drumsticks, its length to be 5 1/4 inches and its width 4 3/8 inches. Three grenades are set on the crossbelt 1/2 inch above the plate, single flamed, made of yellow brass, and placed so that the edges of the two lower ones are at the stitchings and the third is in the center of the crossbelt, 1/2 inch above the ends of the first two (Illus. 1335). So that they may better carry their drums during marches, drummers are to wear the knapsack behind the left shoulder on a strap going over the right one, so that the top edge of the end is 1 3/4 inches above the coat’s waistline, in back. This strap, 2 5/8 inches wide and long enough to fit the man’s size, is to be worn under the shoulder strap, fastened to the knapsack by two elongated wooden toggles which are to be attached to the sides of the knapsack 4 1/2 inches from its upper edge (737).

     The instructions about the shako pattern as set forth above are also extended to officers (Illus. 1336).

8 December 1817— The leather leggings [kragi] on the cloth pants in Grenadier regiments are ordered to have integral spats [kozyrki] of a pattern similar to the gaiter spats [shtibletnye kozyrki] of summer pants(738).

2 March 1818 — Uniforms, accouterments, and armament of the patterns in use at this time in other Grenadier regiments are given to the 1st and 2nd Grenadier regiments established in the Separate Lithuania Corps, except with white appointments instead of yellow, yellow cloth everywhere in place of red, yellow cuff flaps instead of dark green, and the addition of yellow lapels (Illus. 1337 and 1338). Shoulder straps are also yellow, with the number in red. For officers the buttons are flat and on their gorgets, instead of St. George the Bearer of Victory being on the eagle’s breast shield, there is an representation of a Lithuanian horseman (739).

20 June 1818— With the Pernau Grenadier Regiment being renamed the Crown Prince of Prussia’s, sholder straps and epaulettes in this regiment are ordered to have a monogram of the letters: K.P.F.W. (740).

23 August 1818— Combatant lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are to have shoulder straps on coats and greatcoats that are as long as the shoulder and 2 1/8 inches wide, of the previous yellow color, with a cursive initial letter of the regiment 1 3/4 inches in size, cut out 7/8 inch from the lower edge of shoulder strap and backed with red cloth stiched around the edges of the cutout. The flaps or wings [klapany ili kryltsa] over the shoulders of musicians’ and drummers’ coats are prescribed to be of red cloth, while the tape for sewn-on trim, 7/8 inch wide, is white with a red stripe down the center (Illus. 1339) (741).

25 January 1819Drumsticks and entrenching tool handles are directed to be: in the first regiments of a division - pale yellow; in the second regiments - black; in the third - white; and in the fourth - light brown (742).

4 April 1819— The spats on the leggings since 1817 are abolished (743).

10 April 1819— The hornists [gornisty] and signalers [signalisty] newly placed on the establishment of Grenadier regiments are authorized the same uniform as for drummers, and the signal horns [signalnye rozhki] are to be of yellow brass, with white straps, and painted inside with red paint, with a gold wreath around the edge (Illus. 1340) (744).

20 September 1820— Field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments are given new pattern gorgets [znaki], flatter and narrower than before, without a ribbon, this being replaced by two loops of gold cord, these being fixed at one end to two small gold buttons and passed through holes in the ends of the gorget, while the other end is held by the buttons on the epaulettes (Illus. 1341) (745).

In this same year of 1820 there were changes in musicians’ and drummers’ coats which consisted of the tape on them beginning to be sewn on almost touching each other, and on the wings it was already not straight to the lower edge, as before, but slanted; it also began to be sewn around all four edges of the collar (Illus. 1342) (746).

26 November 1823— In Grenadier regiments all musicians, even though they might not hold noncommissioned officer ranks, were ordered to have: gold galloon on the coat; plumes on the shakos with noncommissioned officers’s tops and noncommissioned officers’ pompons. This was not applied to hornists, fifers, or drummers who did not hold noncommissioned officer rank (747).

16 January 1824 — The following changes are ordered to be carried out in the uniforms and accouterments of combatant lower ranks:

     1.) Coattails, which up to this had one covering the other, are to be cut so that their inner edges come together, and sewn together so they touch.

     2.) The decorative end [trinchik] of the shako cords, which is to be level with the right shoulder, is to have another special loop of white cord attached to the button on the right shoulder strap, so that the shako cords stay in place when the soldier moves about.

     3.) The cartridge pouch is to be worn so that when the soldier bends his elbow, the distance between it and the line of the top edge of the pouch is equal to 5 1/4 inches.

     4.) Knapsack chest straps are to be fitted so that they are between the fourth and fifth buttons of the coat, as counted from the collar.

     5.) On the musket sling, opposite the cocking piece, there is to be a band of the same kind of leather as the sling, for stowing the firing cover [ognivnyi chekhol] when it needs to be taken off (Illus. 1343) (748).

29 March 1825— For noncombatant [sic – should be “combatant” – M.C.] lower ranks, for faultless service, are established stripes [nashivki] to be sewn on the left sleeve: for 10 years service - one, for 15 years - two, for 20 years - three; one over the other, all of yellow tape (749).

 

 

II.  MUSKETEER REGIMENTS.

   

The following directives, described above in regard to the uniform and armament of Grenadier regiments, were extended with equal force to Musketeer regiments: 9 April 1801 — about shortening queues; 21 June — about generals and field and company-grade officers of the St.-Petersburg garrison wearing new-pattern hats; 15 January and 17 March 1802 — in regard to the pattern, tailoring, and colors of coats; and 30 April 1802 — about coats, accouterments, and firearm items. The only difference was that in these last subjects all combatant lower ranks of Musketeer battalions and regimental drummers wore tricorn hats [treugolnyya shlyapy] instead of caps [shapki]. These hats were similar in all respects to those which at that time were given to noncombatants in Grenadier regiments, except with the addition of a cockade, two tassels at the corners, and one pompon above the cockade (Illus. 1344). For privates these pompons were colored according to the assignments set forth below, and those of noncommissioned officer ranks were white with a mix of black and orange (750).

6 July 1802 [sic, should be June — M.C.] — Confirmation is given to a listing of colors for pompons on grenadier caps and musketeer hats (751), based on which the colors for the above directive of 17 March and table of 30 April, which served to distinguish one Musketeer regiment from another, were as follows:

     Velikie-Luki Regiment of the Finland Inspectorate:
     Yellow collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; grendier caps with yellow crowns and red bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a red center; in the 2nd - yellow with a red center; in the 3rd - red; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black (Illus. 1344).

     Neva Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Yellow collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with yellow crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drum­sticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Ryazan Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Yellow collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps; grenadier caps with yellow crowns and bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white

     Yelets Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate:
Red collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with red crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquiose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black (Illus. 1345).

     Kexholm Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Red collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with red crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Belozersk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Red collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with red crowns and turquoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Tenginsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Red collar and cuffs; rose shoulder straps; grenadier caps with red crowns and rose bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a rose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a rose center; in the 3rd - red with a rose center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Lithuania Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Red collar and cuffs; light-green shoulder straps; grenadier caps with red crowns and light-green bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Sevsk Regiment of the Livonia [Livland, Liflyandskaya] Inspectorate:
     Turquoise collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with turquoise crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquoise; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black (Illus. 1346).

     Sofiya Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Turquoise collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with turquoise crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a grey center; in the 2nd - yellow with a grey center; in the 3rd - red with a grey center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Reval Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Turquoise collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps; grenadier caps with turquoise crowns and bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Tobolsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Turquoise collar and cuffs; rose shoulder straps; grenadier caps with turquoise crowns and rose bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Dnieper Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Turquoise collar and cuffs; light-green shoulder straps; grenadier caps with tur­quoise crowns and light-green bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a rose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a rose center; in the 3rd - red with a rose center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Chernigov Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Turquoise collar and cuffs; grey shoulder straps; grenadier caps with turquoise crowns and grey bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center, drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Tula Regiment of the Lithuania Inspectorate:
     Light-green collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-green crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored (Illus. 1347).

     Pskov Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Light-green collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-green crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st bat­talion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Murom Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-green collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-green crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of hal­berds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Rostov Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-green collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-green crowns and turquoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Nizovsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Light-green collar and cuffs; rose shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-green crowns and rose bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a rose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a rose center; in the 3rd - red with a rose center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Archangel Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-green collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-green crowns and bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turqoise center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Old-Ingermanland Regiment of the Brest Inspectorate:
     Pale-yellow collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; grenadier caps with pale-yellow crowns and red bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white (Illus. 1348).

     Ryazhsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Pale-yellow collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with pale-yellow crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquoise center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Viborg Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Pale-yellow collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with pale-yellow crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Apsheron Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Pale-yellow collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with pale-yellow crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of hal­berds and spontoons - black.

     Azov Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Pale-yellow collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with pale-yellow crowns and turqoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a red center; in the 2nd - yellow with a red center; in the 3rd - red; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Smolensk Regiment of the Ukraine Inspectorate:
     Rose collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with rose crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow (Illus. 1349).

     Bryansk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Rose collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with rose crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green cen­ter; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Ladoga Regiment of the Dniester Inspectorate:
     Lilac [lilovyi] collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with lilac crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a rose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a rose center; in the 3rd - red with a rose center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black (Illus. 1350).

     Vladimir Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Lilac green collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with lilac crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     New-Ingermanland Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Lilac collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-green crowns and turquoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battal­ion - white with a lilac center; in the 2nd - yellow with a lilac center; in the 3rd - red with a lilac center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Aleksopol Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Lilac collar and cuffs; rose shoulder straps; grenadier caps with lilac crowns and rose bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Kozlov Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Lilac collar and cuffs; light-green shoulder straps; grenadier caps with lilac crowns and light-green bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a grey center; in the 2nd - yellow with a grey center; in the 3rd - red with a grey center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Yaroslavl Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Lilac collar and cuffs; grey shoulder straps; grenadier caps with lilac crowns and grey bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquoise center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Nizhnii-Novgorod Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Lilac collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps; grenadier caps with lilac crowns and bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Belev Regiment of the Crimea Inspectorate:
     Blanched [planshevyi] collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; grenadier caps with blanched crowns and red bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored (Illus. 1350).

     Sevastopol Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Blanched collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with blanched crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Troitsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Blanched collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with blanched crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a red center; in the 2nd - yellow with a red center; in the 3rd - red; drum­sticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Vitebsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Blanched collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with blanched crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white, in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Suzdal Regiment of the Caucasus Inspectorate:
     Dark-blue [sinii] collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with dark-blue crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battal­ion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow, in the 3rd - red with a yellow cen­ter; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Tiflis Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Dark-blue collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with dark-blue crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Kabarda Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Dark-blue collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with dark-blue crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquoise center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Kazan Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Dark-blue collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with dark-blue crowns and turquoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Polotsk Regiment of the Smolensk Inspectorate:
     White collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with white crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black (Illus. 1351).

     Perm Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     White collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with white crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Uglich Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     White collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with white crowns and turquoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquoise center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Kursk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     White collar and cuffs; rose shoulder straps; grenadier caps with white crowns and rose bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a rose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a rose center; in the 3rd - red with a rose center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Voronezh Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     White collar and cuffs; light-green shoulder straps; grenadier caps with white crowns and light-green bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Moscow Regiment of the Kiev Inspectorate:
     Light-raspberry collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-raspberry crowns and red bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a red center; in the 2nd - yellow with a red center; in the 3rd - red; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white (Illus. 1352).

     Butyrsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-raspberry collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-raspberry crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquoise center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Kolyvan Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-raspberry collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-raspberry crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a rose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a rose center; in the 3rd - red with a rose center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Novgorod Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-raspberry collar, cuffs, and shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-rasp­berry crowns and bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Vyatka Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-raspberry collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-raspberry crowns and turquoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Narva Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-raspberry collar and cuffs; rose shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-raspberry crowns and rose bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Poltava Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Light-raspberry collar and cuffs; light-green shoulder straps; grenadier caps with light-raspberry crowns and light-green bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Navaginsk Regiment of the Moscow Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow (Illus. 1353).

     Tambov Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a light-green center; in the 2nd - yellow with a light-green center; in the 3rd - red with a light-green center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Ukraine Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; light-raspberry shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and light-raspberry bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a grey center; in the 2nd - yellow with a grey center; in the 3rd - red with a grey center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Schsselburg Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; turquoise shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and turquoise bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battal­ion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Nasheburg Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; rose shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and rose bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drum­sticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Orel Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; light-green shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and light-green bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a turquoise center; in the 2nd - yellow with a turquoise center; in the 3rd - red with a turquoise center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - pale yellow.

     Saratov Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Orange collar and cuffs; grey shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and grey bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a lilac center; in the 2nd - yellow with a lilac center; in the 3rd - red with a lilac center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Staryi-Oskol Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; lilac shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and lilac bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a rose center; in the 2nd - yellow with a rose center; in the 3rd - red with a rose center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Olonets Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Orange collar and cuffs; dark-blue shoulder straps; grenadier caps with orange crowns and dark-blue bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a dark-blue center; in the 2nd - yellow with a dark-blue center; in the 3rd - red with a dark-blue center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white.

     Rylsk Regiment of the Orenburg Inspectorate:
     Camel-colored [verblyuzhii] collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; grenadier caps with camel-colored crowns and red bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a red center; in the 2nd - yellow with a red center; in the 3rd - red; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored (Illus. 1354).

     Ufa Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Camel-colored collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with camel-colored crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black.

     Yekaterinburg Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Camel-colored collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with camel-colored crowns and yellos bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Shirvan Regiment of the Siberia Inspectorate:
     Grey collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; grenadier caps with grey crowns and red bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a red center; in the 2nd - yellow with a red center; in the 3rd - red; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - white (Illus. 1355).

     Tomsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Grey collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; grenadier caps with grey crowns and white bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white; in the 2nd - yellow with a white center; in the 3rd - red with a white center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - coffee colored.

     Seleginsk Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
     Grey collar and cuffs; yellow shoulder straps; grenadier caps with grey crowns and yellow bands; pompons on grenadier caps and hats: in the 1st battalion - white with a yellow center; in the 2nd - yellow; in the 3rd - red with a yellow center; drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons - black (752).

27 October 1802— Generals and field and company-grade officers of Musketeer regiments are permitted to wear riding trousers [reituzy] when on campaign, the same as described above for Grenadier regiments (753).

16 May 1803— For the Musketeer regiments authorized on this day: in the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate — the Petrovsk, in the Liflyand — the Kopore, in the Lithuania — the Volhynia, in the Brest — the Podolsk, in the Ukraine — the Galich, in the Dniester — the Crimea, and in the Caucasus — the Vologda, colors on the coats are prescribed in accordance with the Inspectorates to which they are assigned (754).

29 June 1803— Generals, field-grade officers, and adjutants of Musketeer regiments are given new-pattern shabracks and holsters, the same as authorized at this same time for Grenadier regiments (755).

19 August 1803— All lower ranks in Musketeer regiments who are authorized hats are given shakos [shapki] of the same pattern as received at this time by noncombatants in Grenadier regiments (Illus. 1356) (756).

19 October 1803— All noncommissioned officers of Musketeer regiments are to have two shoulder straps on their coats and greatcoats instead of one (757).

3 August 1804— The Saratov Musketeer Regiment is assigned lilac shoulder straps; the Sevastopol Regiment, instead of light raspberry - rose; the Vologda Regiment, instead of rose - light green (758).

15 November 1804— Musketeer regiments of the Dniester Inspectorate are ordered to have: dark-green collars and cuff flaps, with red piping; red cuffs; dark-green grenadier caps; the back of these caps are to be the same color as the shoulder straps, and the shoulder straps are to be according to the regiment:

     Nizhegorod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - red.
     Vladimir   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - white.
     Yaroslav  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- yellow.
     Aleksopol . . . . . . . . . . .- raspberry.
     Kozlov   . . . . . . . . . . . . .- turquoise.
     New-Ingermanland  . . . . . . . .- rose.
[Here Zvegintsov adds the Ladoga Regiment with light green — M.C.]
     Crimea   . . . . . . . . . . . . . - grey (759).

In the same year of 1804, generals and field and company-grade officers of Musketeer regiments were given hats with buttonhole loops of narrow gold galloon and high plumes, according to the pattern prescribed at this time for Grenadier generals and officers (760).

19 January 1805— For Musketeer regiments of the Caucasus Inspectorate, for greater distinction between personnel of different regiments when they are in forage caps, it is permitted to sew cloth tape in the regimental color onto the upper edge of the cap band, i.e. of that color prescribed for shoulder straps, 7/8 inch wide and leaving a bit of the band above as edging (761).

26 January 1805— Of the number of noncommissioned officers in the second and third battalions of Musketeer regiments, all of whom are prescribed halberds according to the table of 30 April 1802, four men of each company are ordered to have muskets and cartridge pouches, following the example of the companies in Grenadier regiments (762).

13 February 1805— The cloth shakos used in Musketeer regiments since 1803 are replaced by new ones of the same pattern as prescribed at this time for Grenadier regiments, but without the small grenade and without the plume, instead of which Musketeers keep the pompons they already have (Illus. 1357). Grenadiers are given the same shakos but with a grenade and plume (763).

23 December 1805— The directive concerning the field uniform of generals and field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments in the Caucasus Inspectorate are also extended with equal force to these ranks in its Musketeer regiments (764).

5 January 1806— The newly formed Musketeer regiments are assigned shoulder straps as follows: Kaluga - lilac, Mogilev - grey, Kostroma - lilac, Vilna - light green, Penza - grey, Estonia [Estland] - turquoise, and Odessa - grey (765).

The following orders, mentioned above for Grenadier regiments, were extended with equal force to Musketeer regiments: 1 July 1806 — about the new uniform for doctors, and 1 October of the same year — about the abolition of warm coats for lower ranks (766).

30 November 1806— The coats of newly formed Musketeer regiments are ordered to have:

     Libau- sky-blue collar; red cuffs, flaps (with 5 buttons), and shoulder straps.
     Kamchatka- red collar, cuffs, flaps (with 5 buttons), and shoulder straps.
            [For the Kamchatka Regiment, Zvegintsov gives white collar, cuffs, and flaps, and red straps — M.C.]
     Mingrelia- yellow collar and cuffs; red flaps (with 5 buttons) and shoulder straps.
     Villmanstrand- red collar, cuffs, and flaps (with 5 buttons); shoulder straps white with red piping.
     Brest- white collar; red cuffs and flaps (with 5 buttons); yellow shoulder straps.
     Kremenchug- yellow collar; red cuffs and flaps (with 5 buttons); yellow shoulder straps.
     Minsk- sky-blue collar; red cuffs and flaps (with 5 buttons); white shoulder straps.
     Nyslott- green collar; red cuffs and flaps (with 5 buttons); white shoulder straps.
     Okhotsk- sky-blue collar and cuffs; red flaps (with 5 buttons); yellow shoulder straps.
     Pernau- white collar; red cuffs; white flaps (with 5 buttons); sky-blue shoulder straps (767).

The following orders, mentioned above for Grenadier regiments, were extended with equal force to Musketeer regiments: 2 December 1806 — about cutting lower ranks’ queues; 10 March 1807 — about the abolition of spontoons and canes for officers; 17 September 1807 — about their wearing epaulettes; 7 November 1807 — about all regiments having red collars and cuffs; 15 December 1807 — about sewing divisional numbers onto shoulder straps and epaulettes; 19 December 1807 — about wearing swordbelts over the shoulder, changes to the swordknots, the removal of the seventh button on the coat’s lower front, etc.; 23 December 1807 — about the introduction of winter pants with integral leggings [kragi] and summer ones with integral spats [kozyrki]; 28 January 1808 — about generals being authorized a parade dress coat and dark-green pants for daily use; 14 July 1808 — about the introduction of a new pattern of rectangular knapsacks, the rolling of greatcoats, and grenadier shakos having grenades with three flames and others having them with one flame, along with which the upper pompons in use since 1802 were discontinued; 2 November 1808 — about only combatants keeping the winter pants with leggings and the summer ones with spats; 5 November 1808 — about officers wearing knapsacks while on campaign; 12 November 1808 — about their being allowed to wear dark-green pants when not on duty; November 1808 — about the new pattern of officers’ gorgets being confirmed; 5 December 1808 — the same for halberd shafts and drumsticks; 11 February 1809 — about noncombatant lower ranks’ forage caps being changed; 4 April 1809 — about noncommissioned officers having galloon not on the lower edge of the collar but on the upper; 8 April 1809 — about changes in the carrying of the greatcoat and knapsack (Illus. 1358); 30 May 1809 — about the replacement of noncommissioned officers’ front pouchs [podsumki] with ones [sumy] with crossbelts; 11 June 1809 — about cords for the shakos; 8 July 1809 — about the new pattern of generals’ hats; 29 August 1809 — about only sergeants retaining halberds; 23 November 1809 — about colors for shako pompons; and 6 December 1809 — about officers being prescribed shakos. All these were applied to Musketeer regiments except for the last one about shakos, which in Musketeer regiments had plumes only for Grenadiers, while others had no plumes (768).

9 Januray 1810Shoulder straps in Musketeer regiments are ordered to be:

      1st Division: Kexholm - yellow.
     2nd Division: Polotsk - dark green with red piping; Yelets - yellow; Lithuania - sky blue.
     3rd Division: Chernigov - white; Murom - yellow; Kopore - dark green with red piping.
     4th Division: Tobolsk - red; Vilna - yellow; Volhynia - white; Kremenchug - dark green with red piping; Minsk -sky blue.
     5th Division: Perm - red; Sevsk - white; Mogilev - yellow; Kaluga - dark green with red piping.
     6th Division: Azov - red; Nizovsk - yellow; Reval - dark green with red piping; Uglich - white; Sofiya - sky blue.
     7th Division: Pskov - white; Moscow - yellow: Vladimir - dark green with red piping; Podolia - sky blue.
     8th Division: Archangel - white; Schsselburg- yellow: Voronezh - dark green with red piping; Old-Ingermanland - sky blue.
     9th Division: Ryazhsk - white; Ukraine - yellow; Galich - dark green with red piping; Bialystok - sky blue.
     10th Division: Yaroslav - white; Bryansk - yellow; Kursk - dark green with red piping; Crimea - sky blue.
     11th Division: Nasheburg - yellow; Apsheron - dark green with red piping; Odessa - sky blue.
     12th Division: Smolensk - white; Narva - yellow; Orel - dark green with red piping; New-Ingermanland - sky blue.
     13th Division: Nizhnii-Novgorod - red; Ladoga - white; Aleksopol - yellow; Butyrsk - dark green with red piping; Poltava - sky blue; Estonia - blanched.
     14th Division: Graf Arakcheev’s Regiment - red; Tula - white; Tenginsk - yellow; Navaginsk - dark green with red piping.
     15th Divison: Vitebsk - red; Kozlov - white; Kolyvan - yellow; Kura - dark green with red piping.
     16th Division: Novgorod - red; Nyslott - white; Okhotsk - yellow; Kamchatka - dark green with red piping; Mingrelia - sky blue.
     17th Division: Brest - yellow; Ryazan - red; Belozersk - white; Villmanstrand - dark green with red piping.
     18th Division: Tambov - red; Dnieper - white; Kostroma - yellow; Yakutsk - dark green with red piping.
     19th Division: Kazan - red; Suzdal - white; Belev - yellow; Sevastopol - dark green with red piping; Vologda - sky blue.
     20th Division: Troitsk - yellow; Tiflis - dark green with red piping; Kabarda - sky blue; Saratov - blanched.
     21st Division: Velikie-Luki - red; Neva - white; Petrovsk - yellow; Libau - dark green with red piping; Pernau - sky blue.
     22nd Division: Viborg - red; Vyatka - white; Staryi-Oskol - yellow; Olonets- dark green with red piping; Penza - sky blue.
     23rd Division: Rylsk - white; Yekaterinburg - yellow.
     24th Division, Selenginsk - red.
     25th Division: Shirvan - red; Ufa - white; Tomsk - yellow (769).

The following directives, mentioned above for Grenadier regiments, extended with equal force to Musketeer regiments: 24 September 1810 — about having knapsack straps stitched and with bends at the shoulders; 17 January 1811 — about changes in the colors of shako cords; 29 January 1811 — about having officers’ frock coats with red cuffs; 4 February 1811 — about the change in shako plumes; 22 February 1811 — about colors for pompons and swordknots; 23 September 1811 — about changing lower ranks’ forage caps; 9 October 1811 — about the complete abolishment of halberds; and 3 November 1811 — about noncommissioned officers not having gloves. All these apply with equal force to Musketeer regiments, except that since 22 February 1811 plumes were authorized for Grenadiers alone, excluding Marksmen (770).

7 November 1811Shoulder straps are assigned for the newly established Infantry regiments of the 27th Division: Odessa - red; Vilna - white; Tarnopol - yellow; Simbirsk - dark green (Illus. 1359) (771).

The following directives, mentioned above for Grenadier regiments, extended with equal force to Infantry regiments: 17 December 1811 — about the new uniform for noncombatant ranks; 1 January 1812 — concerning the introduction of a new-pattern shakos [kivera], the changes in the style of collars, leggings, and officers’ boots (Illus. 1360), and officers having white appointments and brass, forged epaulettes; and 10 February 1812 — about noncombatant lower ranks wearing shoulder straps identical to those prescribed for combatants (772).

12 April 1812— Musketeer regiments are assigned shoulder straps of the following colors:

      3rd Division: Chernigov - red; Murom - white; Reval - yellow; Kopore - dark green with red piping.
      4th Division: Tobolsk - red; Volhynia - white; Kremenchug - yellow; Minsk - dark green with red piping.
      5th Division: Perm - red; Sevsk - white; Mogilev - yellow; Kaluga - dark green with red piping.
      6th Division: Azov - red; Uglich - white; Nizovsk - yellow; Bryansk - dark green with red piping.
      7th Division: Pskov - red; Moscow - white; Libau - yellow; Sofiya - dark green with red piping.
      8th Division: Archangel - red; Schlüsselburg - white; Old-Ingermanland - yellow; Ukraine - dark green with red piping.
      9th Division: Nasheburg - red; Apsheron - white; Ryazhsk - yellow; Yakutsk - dark green with red piping.
     10th Division: Yaroslavl- red; Kursk - white; Crimea - yellow; Bialystok - dark green with red piping.
     11th Division: Kexholm - red; Yelets - white; Polotsk - yellow; Pernau - dark green with red piping.
     12th Division: Smolensk - red; Narva - white; Aleksopol - yellow; New-Ingermanland - dark green with red piping.
     13th Division: Velikie-Luki - red; Saratov - white; Galich - yellow; Penza - dark green with red piping.
     14th Division: Tula - red; Tenginsk - white; Navaginsk - yellow; Estonia - dark green with red piping.
     15th Division: Vitebsk - red; Kozlov - white; Kolyvan - yellow; Kura - dark green with red piping.
     16th Division: Nyslott - red; Okhotsk - white; Kamchatka - yellow; Mingrelia - dark green with red piping.
     17th Division: Ryazan - red; Belozersk - white; Brest - yellow; Villmanstrand - dark green with red piping.
     18th Division: Vladimir - red; Tambovsk - white; Dnieper - yellow; Kostroma - dark green with red piping.
     19th Division: Kazan - red; Suzdal - white; Belev - yellow; Sevastopol - dark green with red piping; Vologda - sky blue.
     20th Division: Troitsk - red; Tiflis - white; Kabarda - yellow.
     21st Division: Neva - red; Petrovsk - white; Lithuania - yellow; Podolia - dark green with red piping.
     22nd Division: Viborg - red; Vyatka - white; Staryi-Oskol - yellow; Olonets - dark green with red piping.
     23nd Division: Rylsk - red; Yekaterinburg - white; Selenginsk - yellow.
     24th Division: Shirvan - red; Butyrsk - white; Ufa - yellow; Tomsk - dark green with red piping.
     25th Division: Voronezh - red.
     26th Division: Nizhegorod - red; Ladoga - white; Poltava - yellow; Orel - dark green with red piping.
     27th Division: Odessa - red; Vilna - white; Tarnopol - yellow; Simbirsk - dark green with red piping (773).

22 August 1814— The color yellow is discontinued for shoulder straps, and to replace it all the third regiments of Infantry divisions are to have blue [svetlosinie] shoulder straps (774).

The following directives mentioned above for Grenadier regiments were also applicable to Infantry regiments: 1814 and 1815 — concerning changes in the pattern for officers’ riding trousers and the cockade on officers’ hats; about the uniforms for drum majors, musicians, fifers, and drummers; about the pattern of the shako badge for distinction, etc. (775); 24 January 1816 — about having black scabbards for rapiers and swords; 13 April 1816 — about officers’ uniforms for wear in the capitals and outside them; 7 May 1816 — about drum majors wearing coats with silver galloon; 13 May 1816 — about the introduction of covers for shakos, plumes, coats, etc.; 8 August 1817 — about the size of forage caps; 26 September 1817 — about rules for making and wearing shakos and other soldiers’ accouterments. Only in the last point was there a difference from Grenadier regiments in that in Infantry regiments Grenadiers had shakos with a triple-flamed grenade and not with a plate as previously; and for Musketeers the grenade had only one flame and the shakos did not have scales, these being replaced by a black, stitched, leather strap sewn onto the right side where the two shako side straps came together and fastened with a brass coat button fixed onto the same place, but on the other side (Illus. 1360). Grenades on the pouches in Infantry regiments were the same as on the shakos, i.e. in Grenadier companies with three flames, and in Musketeer companies with one, and there was also the difference that drummers’ crossbelts in Musketeer companies did not have three grenades, but only one (776).

8 December 1817— Musketeer regiments are given leggings with spats (777). In this same year it was ordered that Infantry regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps be uniformed in the style of the 1st and 2nd Grenadiers, described above, except with the existing distinctions of Infantry regiments as opposed to Grenadier regiments (Illus. 1361) (778).

25 August 1818— Lower ranks of Infantry regiments are ordered to have shoulder straps on their coats and greatcoats: as long as the shoulder, 2 1/4 inches wide, with the number of division as before, 1 3/4 inches high, cut out 7/8 inch from the lower edge of the shoulder strap and backed with cloth stitched along the edges of the cutout: in the first regiments of a division, on their red shoulder straps - in yellow; in the second regiments, on their white shoulder straps - in red; in the third regiments, on their blue shoulder straps - in yellow; and in the fourth regiments, on green shoulder straps - in yellow. The flaps or wings over the shoulders of musicians’ and drummers’ coats are prescribed to be the same color as the shoulder straps, while the lace for the sewn-on stripes are completely white, 7/8 inch wide (779).

The following directives mentioned above for Grenadier regiments were also applied in equal measure to Infantry regiments: 25 January 1819 — about the colors of drumsticks and of the handles of entrenching tools; 4 April 1819 — about leggings not having spats; 10 April 1819 — about uniforms for signalers and the pattern for signal horns; 20 September 1820 — about changing officers’ gorgets; 26 September 1823 — about all musicians having noncommissioned officers’ distinctions; 16 January 1824 — about changes in shako cords, knapsack straps, and musket slings; and 29 March 1825 — about instituting stripes to be sewn onto the left sleeve in recognition of irreproachable service. To this must also be added that in 1825 Infantry regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps received round, woolen pompons [pompony] for their shakos, colored according to the battalions and companies: for Marksmen [strelki] of the first Grenadier companies - yellow; of the second Grenadier companies - top half yellow, lower half green; of the third Grenadier companies - top half yellow, lower half blue [svetlosinyaya]; for Musketeers of the first battalions - white; of the second battalions - top half white, lower half green; of the third battalions - top half white, lower half blue (Illus. 1362). Officers were given the same pompons except in silver (780).

 

III.  MARINE REGIMENTS.

16 March 1813When Marine regiments were reassigned to the Department of the Army [Voenno-sukhoputnoe vedomstvo, literally “Department of Military Land Forces”], they had exactly the same uniform and armament, as well as organization, as Musketeer regiments, with the only difference being that their their collars, cuffs, turnbacks on the tails, and coat lining, instead of being red, and their pants, instead of being white, were all dark green with white piping, this piping also being on the cuff flaps (Illus. 1363). Shoulder straps in the 1st Marine Regiment were red with the number 25; in the 2nd - white with the same number; in the 3rd - yellow with the same number; in the 4th - dark green with red piping and the number 28, i.e. in accordance with the numbers of the divisions to which the regiments were assigned. Forage caps were the same as in Grenadier and Infantry regiments but with dark-green bands (Illus. 1364), and officers’ shabracks were also like shabracks in these regiments except they were completely dark green with white piping along the edges (Illus. 1365) (781). Subsequently, all the changes concerning Infantry regiments which were already mentioned above were extended with equal force to Marine regiments (Illus. 1366) (782).

The Caspian Marine Battalion, consisting of four Musketeer companies, was uniformed and armed the same as Marine regiments, with red shoulder straps without any number (783).

   

IV.  JÄGER REGIMENTS.

9 April 1801— Lower ranks are ordered to cut off their curls and have queues 7 inches long, tying them at the middle of the collar (784).

18 May 1801— Instead of white cloth pants, Jäger regiments are to be issued with dark-green linen ones, these being white for summer, reaching below the calf to the instep (785).

21 June 1801— The directive concerning generals and field and company-grade officers of the St.-Petersburg garrison wearing hats of a new pattern, and the directives of 15 January and 17 March 1802 regulating the pattern and sewing of coats, are extended with equal force to Jäger regiments (786).

30 April 1802— Confirmation is given to a new table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons for Jäger regiments, based on which, along with the two preceeding directives, Jäger privates are prescribed: coat [mundir] or caftan [kaftan]; pants [pantalony]; boots; neckcloth; forage cap; hat [shlyapa]; greatcoat; warm coat [fufaika]; musket with bayonet, or rifle [shtutser]with sword-bayonet [kortik]; swordbelt; ammunition pouch [patrontash]; knapsack and water flask.

The coat was prescribed to be of the same pattern as was authorized at this time for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments except it was light green with similar lining and turnbacks on the tails, without shoulder straps; with a collar and cuffs in a special color for each regiment and with piping along the cuff flaps and tail turnbacks of the same color as the collar (Illus. 1367).

Pants, also of the same pattern as for grenadiers and musketeers but light green with piping of the same color as the collar (Illus. 1367), but of white linen in summer.

Boots, neckcloth, and forage cap- the same as in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments but the last being light green with the band and trim in the same color as the collar (Illus. 1367) or without any band at all.

Hat, height: 7 1/2 inches in front, 7 7/8 inches in back, with 4 3/8 inches be­tween the crown and ends, tied with a black cord and not having any other decoration except for a flat, brass button and three small woolen tassels [i.e. the two tassels in the corners and the main pompon — M.C.] colored according to the special list below (Illus. 1368).

Greatcoat, grey, with a collar of the same color as on the coat, differing from grenadier and musketeer greatcoats only in that it had no shoulder straps (Illus. 1368).

The warm coat was the same as in grenadier and musketeer regiments.

Musket with flat bayonet, but for twelve men in each companyrifle with sword-bayonet. These had slings and lock covers [ognivnye chekhly] of red Russian leather (Illus. 1369).

Swordbelt, with a small frog sewn to it for the scabbard (either for the bayonet or the sword-bayonet), and with a brass buckle for fastening on the left side of the body; made from black, polished leather, just like the scabbard (Illus. 1369).

Ammunition pouch, of black leather, long enough to wrap around the front of the Jäger, from the right side to the back (Illus. 1369).

Knapsack and water flask, of the same issue as in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments but with black straps, and worn by Jägers not over the right shoulder, but over the left.

Noncommissioned officershad gold galloon on the collar and cuffs; tassels on the hat were white with a mixture of black and orange; canes [trosti] were worn on the left side. They were authorized rifles, sword-bayonets, and all other armaments, as well as all accouterments, identical to those prescribed for private Jägers (Illus. 1370).

Company drummershad tape sewn onto the coat and drums, the same as in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, but drumsticks were black. Instead of sword-bayonets they were prescribed swords [tesaki] identical to those for Grenadier and Musketeer drummers, with company swordknots (Illus. 1371).

Battalionand regimental drummers and hornists [more exactly waldhornists [voltornisty] - M.C.] - all of noncommissioned-officer rank - were distinguished from company drummers in exactly the same way as in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments (Illus. 1372 and 1373).

Company-grade officershad uniforms as well as rapiers [shpagi], swordknots, swordbelts, sashes, and canes that were identical to those used at this time by Grenadier and Musketeer officers, except that the coats were light green with a collar, cuffs, and piping that were of the special regimental color. Their pants were also light green, with piping the same color as the collar; green plumes, but they were not authorized gorgets or spontoons (Illus. 1374).

Field-grade officerswere distinguished from company-grade officers only in having boots with spurs (Illus. 1376).

Generalswere similar to field-grade officers but they had additional white plumage on the hat [around the sides — M.C.] (Illus. 1376).

Noncombatant ranks- holding the same titles as in the previous regiments—were also uniformed the same, except the caftans had no shoulder straps (787).

6 June 1802— Confirmation is given to a listing of pompon colors on Jäger hats, which along with the above-mentioned directive of 17 March and table of 30 April is the basis of the following distinctions between the existing nineteen Jäger regiments:

 1st Regiment— pale-yellow collar, cuffs, and piping (Illus. 1367); the center of the hat pompon is dark green while the surrounding part is (as in all the other regiments): for the 1st battalion - white; for the 2nd - yellow; and for the 3rd - red.
 2nd Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - rose (Illus. 1367).
 3rd Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - red (Illus. 1368).
 4th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - grey (Illus. 1368).
 5th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon -turquoise (Illus. 1369).
 6th Regiment- collar, cuffs, and piping - fire colored [ognevye]; center of the pompon - light green (Illus. 1369).
 7th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - white (Illus. 1369).
 8th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - dark blue [sinie] (Illus. 1370).
 9th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - yellow (Illus. 1370).
10th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - black (Illus. 1371).
11th Regiment- collar, cuffs, and piping - apricot; center of the pompon - light green (Illus. 1372).
12th Regiment- collar, cuffs, and piping - light raspberry; center of the pompon - light green (Illus. 1372).
13th Regiment- collar, cuffs, and piping - blanched; center of the pompon - light green (Illus. 1373).
14th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - chestnut colored [kashtanovye] (Illus. 1373).
15th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - light iron colored [svetlozheleznye] (Illus. 1374).
16th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - camel colored (Illus. 1374).
17th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - violet [fioletovye] (Illus. 1375).
18th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - brown (Illus. 1376).
19th Regiment- collar, cuffs, piping, and center of the pompon - lilac (Illus. 1376)(788).

16 September 1802Combatant lower ranks of Jäger regiments, in place of their previous tricorn hats, were given round ones of the same size as those established in 1803 for Musketeer regiments and with the same cockades and pompons [kokardy i kistochki] as on these (Illus. 1377). Noncommissioned officers, in addition, also had gold galloon around the upper edge (789).

22 June 1803The collar, cuffs, and piping on the pants for the newly formed 20th Jäger Regiment are prescribed to be dark green (Illus. 1378) (790).

5 January 1804Drummers’ crossbelts and hoops in Jäger regiments are ordered to be black.

12 April 1804Generals and field and company-grade officers of Jäger regiments are given shabracks and holsters of the patterns confirmed for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments on 29 June 1803, but in light green with trim (between the strips of galloon) and piping (around) of the same color as the collar, the same being also ordered for the band as well as trim, ring, and tassel on forage caps (792).

4 August 1804In Jäger regiments musket and rifle slings are ordered to be black instead of red. In this same year generals and field and company-grade officers of these regiments were given hats with a buttonhole loop of narrow, gold galloon, with the high, green plumes as before (793).

8 September 1805The collars and cuffs of the newly established 21st and 22nd Jäger Regiments are ordered to be: for the firstred with white piping; for the second—white with red piping. For both, the piping on the pants is to be the same color as the collar (Illus. 1379) (794).

23 December 1805The permission given to generals and officers of Grenadier and Musketeer regiments of the Caucasus Inspectorate to wear the same headdress as the soldiers is extended with equal force to the Jäger regiments of this Inspectorate (795).

27 January 1806The newly formed 23rd Jäger Regiment is pre­scribed orange collars and cuffs with white piping, while pants piping is orange (Illus. 1380).

20 June 1806Newly formed Jäger regiments are prescribed collars and cuffs as follows: for the 24th—light green, the same color as the coat, with sky-blue piping; for the 25thpale yellow, with red piping; for the 26thdark blue, with red piping. Pants piping for all three is to be the same color as the collar (Illus. 1381) (797).

1 July 1806The new-pattern uniforms described above for doctors in Grenadier regiments are likewise for Jäger regiments (798).

18 October 1806The ammunition pouches [patrontashi] used by Jäger regiments are replaced by front pouches [podsumki], 13 1/8 inches long and 5 inches wide (799).

2 December 1806Lower ranks are ordered to cut their hair very short; but generals and field and company-grade officers are in this case allowed to proceed according to their own wishes (800).

31 December 1806The newly formed 27th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, and 32nd Jäger regiments are designated to have light-green collars; the lining to the collar, piping along the edges of the collar and turnbacks of the tails, for officers also along the edges of the pocket flaps, as well as on the cuffs, and piping along the side seams of the pants, are all as follows: 27th Regiment red (Illus. 1382); 28th yellow (Illus. 1383); 29th turquoise (Illus. 1383); 30thwhite (Illus. 1385); 31st raspberry (Illus. 1385); 32nd black (Illus. 1385) (801).

17 September 1807Generals and field and company-grade officers of Jäger regiments are given epaulettes of the same pattern as those received by these same ranks in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments (802).

26 September 1807Instead of front pouches [podsumki], all Jäger regiments are ordered to have pouches [sumy] of the same pattern as used in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, but without badges and on black crossbelts. At this same time, the round hats in use are replaced by shakos [shapki] of the same pattern as those confirmed for Musketeer regiments in 1803 (Illus. 1386) (803).

7 November 1807For all Jäger regiments the light-green color of the coat is changed to dark green, and consequently officers’ shabracks are also ordered to be completely dark green, edged around with red piping (Illus. 1387) (804).

19 December 1807Lower ranks of Jäger regiments are ordered to wear swordbelts over the left shoulder, these being in all ways the same as those introduced at this time for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, except with the white color changed to black. Shakos [kivera] are also introduced for Jägers, trimmed with black leather (Illus. 1388) (805).   [Note by M.C. - Almost certainly, Viskovatov should have written “over the right shoulder” in regard to swordbelts.]

23 December 1807Lower ranks of Jäger regiments are given summer and winter pants and boots, of the same patterns as established at this time for lower ranks of Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, and along with this, these regiments are ordered to have shoulder straps and epaulettes with the numbers of their divisions. In those cases where there are two Jäger regiments in a division, shoulder straps and epaulettes are prescribed to be red for the senior of them, and sky blue for the junior; where there is only one Jäger regiment, these are to be red (806).

14 March 1808When in formation, lower ranks of Jäger regiments are ordered to have muskets with fixed bayonets (807).

7 May 1808— All Jäger regiments are ordered to have white collars, piped red, on their present dark-green coats. Cuffs are red (Illus. 1388); pants are dark green with red piping in the side seam (808).

25 June 1808All lower ranks of Jäger regiments are ordered to have muskets with three-edged bayonets, while rifles and sword-bayonets are not to be used (809).

2 November 1808The summer and winter pants established on 23 December 1807 are to be kept only for combatant lower ranks, while non­combatants are ordered to have pants as well as boots of the pattern introduced in 1802 (810).

11 February 1809Noncombatant lower ranks who do not hold noncommissioned-officer rank are given new-pattern caps [shapki] in place of their previous shakos [kivera] and forage caps with tassels, the same as those introduced at this time in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, with the only difference being that their cap band is not red, but dark green with red piping along the top edge (811).

13 February 1809In all Jäger regiments collars (instead of white) and cuffs (instead of red) are ordered to be dark green, the same color as the coat, with red piping, which is also kept on the cuff flaps (Illus. 1389) (812).

4, 8, and 20 August 1809The directive that noncommissioned officers have galloon on the top edge of the collar instead of the bottom, and the changes in the fitting of musket slings and in the pattern and wear of knapsacks, described above for Grenadier regiments, were all extended with equal force to Jäger regiments, with the only difference being that for the last the knapsack straps were black (Illus. 1389) (813).

24 May 1809Field and company grade officers of Jäger regiments are given gorgets [znaki] of the same pattern as used at this time by field and company-grade officers of Grenadier and Musketeer regiments (814).

8 and 11 June 1809The changes in the pattern of hats for generals and the addition of cords to lower ranks’ shakos, as described above for Grenadier regiments, are applied with equal force to Jäger regiments (Illus. 1389) (815).

8 July 1809All Jäger regiments with red shoulder straps are to have them in yellow (816).

23 November 1809Combatant lower ranks of Jäger regiments are given pompons [repeiki] for their shakos, identical to those established at this time for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, while the previous upper tufts [kistochki] in the form of small plumes [sultanchiki] are abolished (817).

6 December 1809Jäger field and company-grade officers are ordered to have, when in formation, shakos [kivera] instead of hats, of the same pattern as confirmed at this time for field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments, but without plumes and grenades, with a brass chain on the chinstrap, fixed tightly to one side of the shako and and fastened on the other with a hook to a small gilt star (Illus. 1390).

In this same year Jäger generals and officers received permission to wear frock coats [sertuki] of the same style as established for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments, dark green in color, with the same colored lining and red piping on the collar and cuffs; powdered hair was completely abolished (Illus. 1390) (818).

31 December 1809All Jäger regiments are ordered to have brass numerals on their cartridge pouches corresponding to the number of the regiment (819).

9 January 1810The shakos in all Jäger regiments are to have a brass grenade with one flame, instead of the ribbon, and shoulder straps with the divisional numberare as follows:

     1st Jäger Regiment- yellow, with a No2; 2nd - yellow, with No21; 3rd - yellow, with No6; 4th - yellow with No4; 5th - yellow, with No7; 6th - yellow, with No12; 7th - yellow, with No8; 8th - yellow, with No10; 9th - sky blue, with No20; 10th - yellow, with No9; 11th - yellow, with No11; 12th - yellow, with No13; 13th - sky blue, with No15; 14th - yellow, with No15; 15th - yellow, with No20; 16th - yellow, with No19; 17th -sky blue, with No19; 18th - yellow, with No24; 19th - yellow, with No25; 20th - yellow, with No3; 21st - sky blue, with No3; 22nd - sky blue, with No13; 23rd - yellow, with No5; 24th - sky blue, with No5; 25th - yellow, with No14; 26th - sky blue, with No14; 27th - yellow, with No16; 28th - yellow, with No18; 29th - yellow, with No22; 30th - yellow, with No17; 31st - sky blue, with No17; 32nd - sky blue, with No18 (820).

25 November 1810Grenadiers and Marksmen of Jäger regiments are given swords [tesaki] patterned after the swords in the rest of the Army infantry (821).

17 January 1811Noncommissioned officers and musicians of Jäger regiments are ordered to have whitecords on their shakos instead of multicolored ones, while the cords’ tassels are to have a mix of black and orange (822).

4 February 1811Grenadiers and Marksmen are ordered to have hair plumes on their shakos, of the same pattern as those confirmed at this time for Grenadier regiments: for privates all black; for noncommissioned officers—black with a white top with an orange stripe down its middle; for drummers and fifers all red; for musiciansred with the same top as for noncommissioned officers (823).

The following directives, described above, for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments were also applied to Jäger regiments: 22 February 1811 about pompon colors in all companies and swordknot colors in Grenadier compa­nies, and also about Marksmen not wearing plumes; 8 April 1811 about Grenadiers and Marksmen having three-flamed grenades on their shakos; 5 April 1811 about noncombatant noncommissioned officers being authorized swordknots for their swords; 23 September 1811 concerning the change in forage caps for combatant ranks; and 9 October and 3 November 1811 about canes and gloves being taken away from noncommissioned officers. These applied the Jäger regiments, the only difference being that the forage caps had dark-green bands, as in Marine regiments (824).

7 November 1811In the Jäger regiments of the newly established 27th Division shoulder straps are to be: in the 49th - yellow, in the 50th - dark blue (825).

The folowing directives, described above for Grenadier regiments, were also applicable to Jäger regiments: 11 December 1811 about the new uniform for noncombatant lower ranks; 1 January 1812 - about the new pattern shakos, the changes in the styles of collars, leggings (Illus. 1391), and officers’ boots, and officers having white appointments and brass, forged epaulettes; and 10 February 1812 about noncombatant lower ranks wearing shoulder straps (826).

12 April 1812The 20th, 4th, 23rd, 3rd, 11th, 7th, 10th, 8th, 1st, 6th, 12th, 25th, 13th, 27th, 30th, 28th, 16th, 9th, 2nd, 29th, 18th, 19th, 31st, 5th, and 49th Jäger regiments, being the senior in their brigades, are assigned yellow shoulder straps, while all the rest are to have sky-blue ones (827).

13 April 1813The 1st, 5th, 14th, and 20th Jäger regiments are awarded badges for their shakos with the inscription “For excellence” (“Za otlichie”), identical to those awarded to Grenadier and Musketeer regiments. The pattern for these was used for all Jäger regiments which received this award later during the reign of Emperor Alexander I (828).

22 August 1814The senior Jäger regiments in brigades are to have sky-blue shoulder straps (instead of yellow), while the junior regiments (instead of blue) are to have dark-green ones with red piping (829).

The following directives, described above for Grenadier and Infantry regiments, were also applied to Jäger regiments: 1814 and 1815 about changes in the patterns for officers’ riding trousers and the cockade on officers’ hats, and about the uniform for drum majors, musicians, fifers, and drummers; 24 January 1816 about rapiers and swords having black scabbards; 7 May 1816 about drum majors wearing uniforms with silver galloon; 13 May 1816 concerning the introduction of covers for shakos, plumes, coats, etc.; 8 August 1817 about the size of the forage cap; and 26 September 1817 about instructions for the construction and wear of shakos and other accouterments. These applied to Jäger regiments but with the following differences from the previously described Army infantry:

     1.) Stripes on the riding trousers of Jäger officers were to be black, while the piping on the side seams was to be red (Illus. 1392).

     2.) On the covers for shakos and plumes and on the bands of forage caps for Carabinier companies (formerly Grenadiers) of Jäger regiments, the writing,instead of Cyrillic 1 G.R., 2 G.R., 3 G.R.—was to be: Cyrillic 1 K.R., 2 K.R., 3 K.R., while yellow brass numerals were to be on the covers of pouches, as before, designating the regimental number.

     3.) Shakos and drummers’ crossbelts in Carabinier companies were to be as in Grenadier companies of Musketeer regiments, while in Jäger companies they were to be as in the Musketeer companies of these regiments (Illus. 1393 and 1394).

     4.) Swordbelts, crossbelts, and in general all accouterment straps in Jäger regiments were to be of black, polished leather; these were also to be stitched along the sides, as in Grenadier and Musketeer regiments (830).

3 February 1816Officers’ coats in Jäger regiments are not to have pocket flaps across the tails (831).

8 December 1817Jäger regiments are given leggings with spats.

In this same year, those Jäger regiments which were in the Separate Lithuania Corps were ordered to have: instead of yellow appointmentswhite, instead of red piping yellow, instead of dark-green cuff flapsyellow, and, in addition, they were given dark-green cloth plastrons for their coats, with yellow piping (Illus. 1395 and 1396). Officers’ shabracks and holsters were also to have yellow piping instead of red, and with silver galloon instead of gold (Illus. 1397) (832).

23 August 1818The instructions issued on this date concerning the size and form of musketeer shoulder straps are also applicable to Jäger regiments, with the only difference being that these last had them, as before, in only two colors: blue [svetlosinii] and dark green; in both cases with yellow divisional numbers (833).

4 April 1819The spats that were part of the leggings are eliminated (834).

10 April 1819The hornists [gornisty] or signalers [signalisty] introduced into the personnel tables for Jäger regiments are prescribed the same uniform as drummers, while the signal horns [signalnye rozhki] are of the same pattern as for grenadiers and musketeers except with black straps instead of white, and painted green inside instead of red (835).

The following directives, described above for Grenadier and Mus­keteer regiments, were also extended to Jäger regiments: 20 September 1820 about the change in officers’ gorgets; 26 September 1823 about all musicians having noncommissioned-officers’ distinctions, and in this same year about pompons being introduced for shakos; 16 January 1824 about the changes in shako cords, knapsack straps, and musket shoulder straps; and 29 March 1825 about the tape sewn onto the left sleeve for faultless service (836).

 

V.  GRENADIERJÄGER, OR CARABINIER, REGIMENTS.

 

3 April 1814— With the renaming of the 1st, 3rd, 8th, 14th, 26th, and 29th Jäger regiments as Grenadier Jägers [Grenaderskie Yegerskie], there was no change in their uniform.

22 August 1814— These regiments are ordered to have yellow shoulder straps with their previous divisional numbers in red cloth. Furthermore, all the directives described above for Jäger regiments were also applicable to them: 1814 and 1815 — about the changes in the pattern for officers’ riding trousers and the cockade on officers’ hats, and about uniforms for drum majors, fifers, and drummers, as well as about the pattern for the shako badges for distinction; 24 January 1816 — about rapiers and swords having black scabbards; and 3 February 1816 — about officers’ coats not having pocket flaps (837). During this time, on 30 August 1815 and 12 February 1816, the six regiments mentioned above, and also the 17th Jägers, were, as already stated, named: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Carabiniers (838).

16 April 1818— Carabinier regiments are given plates for their shakos, of the same pattern as those confirmed at this time for Grenadier regiments (838).

7 May, 8 August, and 26 September 1817— The directive for drum majors to have silver galloon on their coats; the defining of forage-cap dimensions, and the instructions for constructing and wearing shakos and other accouterments—were all extended to Carabinier regiments, with the following differences as opposed to Jägers:

     1.) Shakos were to be of the same pattern as for Grenadiers, with the plates established on 16 April 1817 and with curved chin scales; with plumes in Carabinier platoons and without them in the rest. On the cover of the cartridge pouch, in place of the previous grenade, plates were issued, of yellow brass and similar to the shako badge for distinction, with a raised regimental number and the letter K. (Illus. 1398).

     2.) Drummers’ crossbelts in all companies were ordered to have three grenades, as in Grenadier regiments (839).

8 December 1817— Carabinier regiments are to have spats on their leggings (840).

23 March 1818Shoulder straps in Carabinier regiments are to be yellow, as before, and with the number not of the division but of the regiment. Their pattern is to be the same as the shoulder straps established at this time for Grenadier regiments, the uniform for musicians also being exactly the same as in these regiments (Illus. 1399) (841).

For the Carabinier Regiment of the Separate Lithuania Corps, newly formed in this same year, all uniforms, accouterments, and armaments were authorized to be of the patterns for the Jägers of this corps, with those differences that existed between Carabinier and Jäger regiments in the rest of the Army infantry, plus the additional distinction that Marksmen and Jägers of this regiment had shakos with the pompons described above for the uniforms of Infantry and Jäger regiments of the Lithuanian Corps (Illus. 1400). Shoulder straps on the coats of this regiment had the Cyrillic letter L., but with its being renamed the Nesvizh Carabiniers in 1824, these had the Cyrillic letter N., which was also applied to the plates on the cartridge pouches with the addition of the letter K. (842).

All the directives after this time, already described above for Jäger regiments, were also applied in full to Carabinier regiments: 4 April 1819 — about spats being eliminated on leggings; 10 April 1819 — about the uniform for signalers and the pattern for signal horns; 20 September 1823 — about musicians having noncommissioned officers’ distinctions, and in this same year—about the pompons introduced for the shako; 16 January 1824 about the changes in shako cords, knapsack straps, and musket shoulder straps; and 29 March 1825 — about the tape sewn onto the left sleeve in recognition of faultless service (843).

   

END OF VOLUME TEN

 

 

Notes to the Illustrations, by Mark Conrad

Frontispiece: Emperor Alexander I.  This portrait depicts the Tsar at the end of his reign wearing an undress uniform of a general of the Cavalier Guard Regiment. The coat is dark green with red piping and silver buttons and epaulettes, the shoulder boards of these last being backed with red.

1274. The plates in Volume 10 continue with the numbering of the previous volumes, each volume averaging something over a hundred illustrations. Viskovatov supervised the production of a team of artists and engravers. This particular plate is credited to Gubarev, Berestov, and Giller. Other persons credited with their work in Volume 10 include Zakharov, Pashennyi, Razumikhin, Anderson, Petrovskii, Fernlyund, Ratye, and Schmidt.

1276. The grenadier under arms has his hair powdered, while his comrade’s is unpowdered.

1277. Both grenadiers have powdered hair.

1279. Even the young fifer has white powdered hair. The straps of the fife case are white.  Viskovatov says that the pompon for this regiment was white, but Zvegintsov says that it had a red center.  In this plate, the fifer’s pompon has a colored center in his pompon but the drummer’s is all white.

1288. As a bit of trivia, the Russian word lekar has the same root as the old English word for a doctor— “leech”.

1293-4. I have no explanation why this and other plates have more than one number.

1297-8. Zvegintsov writes, “4 August 1804. Hat.  For officers the button loop was to be of narrow galloon, either gold or silver according to the uniform’s appointments (instead of with a star as previously), and instead of a ribbon there was prescribed a round cockade of black tape with orange checks.  The plume was higher than before, but the color was unchanged.”

1328. The cuffs on the drum major’s coat appears to be red with a flap. This flap has tassels on one side and a strip of lace under three buttons on the other. That strip of lace appears to be longer than the flap and joins a horizontal strip of lace on the sleeve. This second strip of lace passes the top of the flap lace to make a right angle down the rear seam of the sleeve. The collar of the coat has NCO lace on the front and top, and musician’s lace on the bottom.

1329. The words “Za veru i vernost” translate as “For faith and fidelity”.

1383. If the jäger leaning on the fence appears bemused, perhaps it is because he has two right hands!

 

SOME NEW INFORMATION REGARDING

GRENADIER UNIFORMS, 1802-1806.

According to research by Petr Kosmolinskii and published in the Russian magazine Tseikhgauz, No. 3 (1/1994), the true colors for grenadier uniforms from 1802 to 1806 were those of a table of 27 May 1802, signed by Lieutenant General Prince Dolgorukov.  This is confirmed by surviving examples of grenadier caps. Viskovatov’s (and hence Zvegintsov’s) information was apparently from a proposed scheme different from Dolgorukov’s which was the one actually adopted. In fact, the order of 6 June 1802 that Viskovatov cites as his source was examined by Kosmolinskii and found to be the scheme of Dolgorukov. Viskovatov had made an error and while citing the correct order, provided the wrong scheme.

The following is from Kosmolinskii’s research and lists the inspectorates and each one’s regiments in order. The inspectorate color was for collars, cuffs (cuff flaps always dark green), and the upper back of the grenadier cap. In each inspectorate the regiments had the distinguishing colors (in order) of red, white, yellow, light raspberry, turquoise, rose, light green, grey, lilac, and dark blue. Red was for the first regiment of an inspectorate, white for the second, and so on up to however many colors were needed based on the number of regiments in the inspectorate. These regimental distinguishing colors were for the shoulder strap, lower band around the grenadier cap, and the middle of the pompon on the cap (except here raspberry was replaced by light green).  Exceptions are noted.

     INSPECTORATE    Inspectorate color   -  Regiments (in order)
     FINLAND — yellow - Velikie-Luki [Velikolutskii], Ryazan, Neva.
     ST. PETERSBURG — red - Life-Grenadiers, Pavlovsk Grenadiers, Kexholm, Belozersk (black band), Yelets, Tenginsk (dark-blue band), Lithuania, Petrovsk (dark-green; formed 16.05.1803).
     LIVONIA [LIVLAND, LIFLYANDSKII] — turquoise - St.-Petersburg Grenadiers, Taurica Grenadiers, Chernigov, Tobolsk, Sevsk, Dnieper, Reval, Sofiya, Kopore (spelled Kaporskii by Kosmolinskii; formed 16.05.1803 with the normal ninth-place color of lilac, placed as the tenth regiment of the inspectorate on 21.06.05 with violet strap, band, and pompon middle, the Kopores place being taken by the Kaluga Regiment which was formed 29.08.05 and which had the usual ninth-place lilac).
     LITHUANIA [LITOVSKII] — light green - Yekaterinoslav Grenadiers, Pskov, Rostov, Murom, Archangel, Nizovsk, Tula, Volhynia (formed 16.05.1803, place taken by the Mogilev which was formed 29.08.05), Kostroma (formed 29.08.1805), Volhynia (since 21.06.1805 with dark-green strap, band, and pompon middle).
     BREST — straw - Azov, Viborg, Old-Ingermanland, Apsheron, Ryazhsk, Podolia, Vilna, Penza.
     UKRAINE — rose - Kiev Grenadiers (black band), Little-Russia Grenadiers, Smolensk, Bryansk (rose band), Galich (formed 16.05.1803, place taken by the Estonia [Estland] which was formed 29.08.05), Galich (since 21.06.1805 with sky-blue strap, band, and pompon middle).
     DNIESTER — lilac ( dark green since 15.11.1804) - Siberia Grenadiers, Kherson Grenadiers, Nizhnii-Novgorod, Vladimir (black band), Yaroslavl, Ladoga, Aleksopol, Kozlov, New Ingermanland, Crimea (formed 16.05.1803).  Since 21.06.1805 this inspectorate was reorganized as: Nizhnii-Novgorod, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Aleksopol, Kozlov, New Ingermanland, Crimea, Odessa.
     CRIMEA — blanched (i.e. dull tan or flesh color) - Troitsk, Vitebsk, Belev (black band), Sevastopol (light-green band). Since 21.06.1805 this inspectorate was reorganized as: Siberia Grenadiers, Kherson Grenadiers, Troitsk, Vitebsk, Ladoga, Belev.
     CAUCASUS — dark blue - Caucasus Grenadiers, Kazan, Suzdal, Tiflis, Kabarda, Saratov (the Kura Regiment was formed on 29.12.1802 and in the Moscow Inspectorate took the place of the Saratov, which at the same time was transferred to the Caucasus Inspectorate; the Saratov’s place in this inspectorate was taken by the Sevastopol on 21.06.1805), Vologda (formed 16.05.1803), Saratov (in this position since 21.06.1805).
     SMOLENSK — white - Moscow Grenadiers, Phanagoria Grenadiers, Perm, Voronezh, Uglich, Kursk, Polotsk.
     KIEV — light raspberry - Moscow (black band), Novgorod, Vyatka, Narva, Butyrsk, Kolyvan (dark-blue band), Poltava.
     MOSCOW — orange - Astrakhan Grenadiers (black band), Schlüsselburg, Nasheburg, Tambov (orange band), Orel, Staryi-Oskol (dark-green band), Navaginsk, Ukraine, Saratov (replaced by the newly formed Kura Regiment on 29.12.1802), Olonets.
     ORENBURG — camel (i.e. light brown) - Rylsk, Ufa, Yekaterinburg.
     SIBERIA — grey - Shirvan, Tomsk, Selenginsk.

The outsides of pompons were white for the 1st Battalion of the Life-Grenadiers and all Musketeer regiments, yellow for the 2nd Battalion, and red for the 3rd.  In the rest of the  Grenadier regiments the outside of the pompons was always white.

Kosmolinskii promised to publish a future article giving the correct colors for jäger and garrison regiments.

 

 

NOTES.

 

(665) Polnoe Sobranie Zakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii (Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire, hereafter cited as PSZ), vol. XXVI, pg. 609, No19,826.
(666) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 72, No19,950.
(667) PSZ, vol. XLIV, chap II, instructions for coats, pp. 29 and 59, No20,109.
(668) Ibid., pg. 30, No20,186.
(669) Ibid., pg. 64, N
o20,287.
(670) From transactions in the Archives of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(671) Ibid., pg. 30, No20,485.
(672) PSZ, vol. XXVII, pg. 415, No21,377, and evidence from contemporaries.
(673) From transactions in the Archives of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War, pg. 67, No20,927, and an actual model headdress preserved at the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(674) Instruction of the Military College, 20 October 1803.
(675) From transactions in the Archives of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(676) Model officer’s hat from that time, preserved in the Personal Arsenal of the SOVEREIGN EMPEROR in the Anichkovsk Palace; drawings of 1804-model coats, kept in HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’S Personal Library under No361, and evidence from contemporaries.
(677) PSZ, vol. XXVIII, pg. 794, No21,603.
(678) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No21,621; shakos with similar plumes, preserved in the Personal Arsenals of the SOVEREIGN EMPEROR and His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich, and evidence from contemporaries.
(679) Announcement of the Government Military College to the Military Commissariat, 12 June 1805.
(680) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No21,969.
(681) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 31, No22,197.
(682) From transactions in the Archives of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(683) PSZ, vol. XXIX, pg. 201, No22,382.
(684) PSZ, vol. XXIX, pg. 1039, No21,482, and evidence from contemporaries.
(685) and (686) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 14, No22,625, and evidence from contemporaries.
(687) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No22,677.
(689) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 13, No22,720; actual articles preserved in various Arsenals, and evidence from contemporaries.
(690) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 67, No22,720.
(691) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 45, No22,784.
(692) and (693) Archive of the Inspection Department of the Ministry of War, transactions upon the suggestion of the Honorable Minister of War, with drawings and descriptions: the manner in which to wear knapsacks and greatcoats, 1808, No13786/654, and evidence from contemporaries.
(694) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 67, No23,335.
(695) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 669, No23,343.
(696) From transactions in the Archive of the Commisariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(697) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II,pg. 31, No23,377; actual gorgets preserved in the Personal Arsenal of the SOVEREIGN EMPEROR, and evidence from contemporaries.
(698) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 68, No23,382.
(699) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 781, No23,478, and headdress specimens at the Commissariat Department, No119.
(700) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 13, No23,548.
(701) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(702) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 904, No23,571.
(703) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 950, No23,625.
(704) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 970, No23,667.
(705) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 31, No23,736.
(706) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 1006, No23,695.
(707) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 1114, No23,812.
(708) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 68, No24,000.
(709) and (710) PSZ, vol. XXX, pp. 1364/1362, No24049/24019; Model shako confirmed by Highest Authority, 15 December 1809, located in the Personal Arsenal of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY, in the Anichkovsk Palace, and evidence from contemporaries.
(711) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 68, No24,113.
(712) PSZ, vol. XXXI, pg. 362, No24,357.
(713) PSZ, vol. XXXI, pg. 517, No24,488, and evidence from contemporaries.
(714) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(715) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(716) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 69, No24,529, and an actual model plume preserved at the Commissariat Department.
(717) PSZ, vol. XXXI, pg. 558, No24,527.
(718) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 69, No24,789.
(719) Evidence from contemporaries.
(720) PSZ, vol. XXXI, pg. 862, No24,805.
(721) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 898, No24,848.
(722) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 31, No24,911 and 24,912, and evidence from contemporaries.
(723) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War and evidence from contemporaries.
(724) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 70, No24,991.
(725) PSZ, vol. XXXII, pg. 556, No25,370.
(726) Highest Order and actual badges for distinction preserved in various Arsenals and at the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(727) Highest Order.
(728) Evidence of contemporaries and actual uniforms from that time preserved in various Arsenals and at the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(729) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(730) PSZ, vol. XXXIII, pg. 430, No26,063.
(731) Highest Order and evidence from contemporaries.
(732) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(733) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 138, No26,801.
(734) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 120, No26,833.
(735) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pp. 112 and 120, No26,857.
(736) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 104, No26,842.
(737) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 104, No27,067.
(738), (739), and (740) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(741) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 121, No27,504.
(742) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 108, No27,653.
(743), (744), (745), and (746) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(747) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 26 November 1823, No49.
(748) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(749) Order to the Separate Corps of Military Settlements, 16 January 1824, No22.
(750) PSZ, vol. XL, pg. 188, No30,309.
(751) The same sources as shown above for Grenadier regiments, and also the table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons confirmed by Highest Authority on 30 April 1802.
(752) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II.
(753) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 30, No20,485.
(754) See above, the description of colors in the article for 6 June 1802.
(755) See above, note 672.
(756) See above, note 673.
(757) See above, note 674.
(758) Information from the Government Military College to the Military Commission, 3 August 1804.
(759) Information from the Government Military College to the Military Commission, 31 December. See above, note 672.
(760) See above, note 673.
(761) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 67, N
o21,589.
(762) See above, note 677.
(763) See above, note 678.
(764) See above, note 680.
(765) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 70, N
o21,987.
(766) See above, notes 678 and 679.
(767) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 70, N
o22,373.
(768) See all these articles above for Grenadier regiments.
(769) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 68, N
o24,113.
(770) See these articles for Grenadier regiments.
(771) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 71, N
o24,861.
(772) See these articles for Grenadier regiments.
(773) Ukase of the Military College, for 1812.
(774) Highest Order.
(775) See these articles for Grenadier regiments.
(776) See these articles for Grenadier regiments, and PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 101, N
o27,067.
(777) and (778) See these articles for Grenadier regiments, and drawings as well as uniforms themselves of the former Separate Lithuania Corps, still preserved.
(779) PSZ.
(780) See these articles for Grenadier regiments.
(781) A personnel table and chart for a Marine regiment, confirmed by Highest Authority on 29 April 1803, with later changes after this, and evidence from contemporaries.
(782) See for Musketeer regiments.
(783) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part I, section II, pp. 42, 86, and 96, N
o21,794, and information extracted from transactions of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(784) PSZ, vol. XXVI, pg. 609, N
o19,826.
(785) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. section IV, pg. 71, N
o19,874.
(786) See the description for Grenadier regiments.
(787) Table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons for Army Jäger regiments, confirmed by Highest Authority, and PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 30, N
o20,186; pg. 71, No20,109; and pg. 64, No20,287.
(788) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 64, N
o20,287.
(789) Information from the Government Military College, 16 September 1802, and an actual model headdress held by the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(790) Information from the Government Military College to the Military Commission, from 22 June 1803.
(791) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 71, N
o21,117, and contemporary drawings and evidence.
(792) PSZ, vol. XXVIII, pg. 264, N
o21,258.
(793) Decision by the Government Military College, from 4 August 1804, and evidence from contemporaries.
(794) PSZ, vol. XLIII, part II, pg. 38, N
o21,928.
(795) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 67, N
o21,969.
(796) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 71, N
o22,009.
(797) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 71, N
o22,185.
(798) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 31, N
o21,197.
(799) PSZ, vol. XXIX, pg. 789, N
o22,321, and a model cartridge pouch at the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(800) PSZ, vol. XXIX, pg. 201, N
o22,382.
(801) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 71, N
o22,185.
(802) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 14, N
o22,625.
(803) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 14, N
o22,633.
(804) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 54, N
o22,677.
(805) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 13, N
o22,720, and evidence from contemporaries.
(806) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 67, N
o22,727.
(807) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 128, N
o22,895.
(808) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 71, N
o23,005.
(809) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 67, N
o23,335.
(810) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(811) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 781, N
o23,478.
(812) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 72, N
o23,481, and a model jäger coat preserved at the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(813) See this article for Grenadier regiments.
(814) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg. 965, N
o23,654.
(815) See above in the articles for Grenadier regiments.

(816) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 72, No23,741.
(817) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 68, No24,000.
(818) PSZ, vol. XXX, pg 1362, No24,019, and evidence from contemporaries.
(819) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 72, No24,058.
(820) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 72/68, NoNo24,077/24,113.
(821) PSZ, vol. XXXI, pg. 461, N
o24,438.
(822) PSZ, vol. XXXI, pg. 517, N
o24,488.
(823) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 69, N
o24,509.
(824) See these articles for Grenadier, Musketeer, and Marine regiments.
(825) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 72, N
o24,861.
(826) See these articles for Grenadier regiments.
(827) Book of Ukases of the Military College, for 1812, pg. 1331.
(828) and (829) Highest Orders.
(830) See these articles for Grenadier regiments, and PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 104, N
o27,067.
(831) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, Instructions in regard to uniforms, pg. 103, N
o26,655.
(832) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War and contemporary drawings.
(833) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 121, N
o27,504.
(834) and (835) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(836) and (837) See these articles for Grenadier and Musketeer regiments.
(838) PSZ, vol. XLIV, pg. 138, N
o26,801.
(839) See these articles for Grenadier and Jäger regiments, and PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 104, N
o27,067.
(840) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War.
(841) PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 121, N
o27,504.
(842) From transactions in the Archive of the Commissariat Department of the Ministry of War, and PSZ, vol. XLIV, part II, pg. 103, N
o27,298.
(843) See these articles for Jäger regiments.