OF THE CLOTHING AND ARMS
OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY
Compiled by Highest direction
Saint Petersburg, Military Typography Office, 1851
[TRANSLATED BY MARK CONRAD, 1993]
Grenadiers, Musketeers, Jägers, Marines, and Carabiniers
Aleksandr Vasilevich Viskovatov(pronounced vi-sko-VA-tof), born 22 April (4 May New Style) 1804, died 24 February (11 March) 1858 in St. Petersburg, Russian military historian. He graduated from the 1st Cadet Corps and served in the artillery, the hydrographic depot of the Naval Ministry, and then in the Department of Military Educational Institutions. He mainly studied historical artifacts and the histories of military units. Viskovatov’s greatest work was the Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army (Vols. 1-30, St. Petersburg, 1841-62; 2nd ed. Vols. 1-34, St. Petersburg - Novosibirsk - Leningrad, 1899-1948). This work is based on a great quantity of archival documents and contains four thousand colored illustrations. Viskovatov was the author of Chronicles of the Russian Army (Books 1-20, St. Petersburg, 1834-42) and Chronicles of the Russian Imperial Army (Parts 1-7, St. Petersburg, 1852). He collected valuable material on the history of the Russian navy which went into A Short Overview of Russian Naval Campaigns and General Voyages to the End of the XVII Century (St. Petersburg, 1864; 2nd edition Moscow, 1946). Together with A.I. Mikhailovskii-Danilevskii he helped prepare and create the Military Gallery in the Winter Palace. He wrote the historical military inscriptions for the walls of the Hall of St. George in the Great Palace of the Kremlin. (From the article in the Soviet Military Encyclopedia.)
Translator’s note: These are full and complete translations of Viskovatov’s greatest work, and as such follow the original style and organization. I used microfilm made from volumes held by the New York Public Library, the Anne S.K. Brown Collection of Brown University, and the Library of Congress. All these have monochrome plates, and I know of no colored versions outside Russia. Underneath each plate are the words “Imp Lemercier Paris” and often the names of the artist and engraver for that particular illustration. I have no reason to think that Viskovatov himself created any of the individual plates or was in any way an artist. Indeed, variations in style and the ways of depicting finer details like lace and insignia are explained by the fact that a least half a dozen illustrators worked on this project. Dates in the text are Old Style, lagging western Europe by 12 days.
Changes in the Clothing and Weapons of Army Infantry, from 1801 to 1825:
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
EMPEROR ALEXANDER I
1274. Grenadiers. Leib-Grenadier Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate. 1802.
1275. Grenadier Cap. Pavlov Grenadier Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate. 1802-1813.
1276. Grenadiers. St.-Petersburg Grenadier Regiment of the Liflyand Inspectorate. 1802-1805.
1277. Grenadiers. Taurica Grenadier Regiment of the Liflyand Inspectorate. 1802-1805.
1278. Noncommissioned Officers. Yekaterinoslav Grenadier Regiment of the Lithuanian Inspectorate. 1802-1805.
1279. Fifer and Drummer of Grenadier Companies. Little Russia Grenadier Regiment of the Ukraine Inspectorate. 1802-1805.
1280. Battalion Drummers. Kiev Grenadier Regiment of the Ukraine Inspectorate. 1802-1805.
1281. Fusilier Caps. Kherson Grenadier Regiment of the Dniester Inspectorate. 1802-1804.
1282. Fusiliers. Kherson Grenadier Regiment of the Dniester Inspectorate. 1802-1804.
1283. Company-grade Officers. Siberia Grenadier Regiment of the Ukraine Inspectorate. 1802-1804.
1284. Hat for Field and Company-grade Officers. 1802-1804.
1285. Field-grade Officer and Adjutant. Caucasus Grenadier Regiment of the Caucasus Inspectorate. 1802-1804.
1286. General. Moscow Grenadier Regiment of the Smolensk Inspectorate. 1802-1804.
1287. Clerk, Barber, and Driver. Phanagoria and Astrakhan Grenadier Regiments of the Smolensk and Moscow Inspectorates. 1802-1803.
1288. Doctor and Auditor. 1802-1804.
1289. Grenadier. Leib-Grenadier Regiment. 1802-1805.
1290. Officers. Leib-Grenadier Regiment. 1802-1804. (In campaign uniform.)
1291-2. Officers’ Shabrack and Holsters for Grenadier Regiments. From 1802 on.
1293-4. Shako for Noncombatant Lower Ranks. 1803-1809.
1295-6. Fusilier Noncommissioned Officers. Kherson and Siberia Grenadier Regiments of the Dniester Inspectorate. 1804-1805.
1297-8. Officers’ Hat. 1804-1816.
1299. Grenadier Shako. 1805-1807.
1300-1. Noncommissioned Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1805-1807.
1302. Company Drummer and Musician. Grenadier Regiments. 1805-1807.
1303. Staff-Doctor and Doctor. 1806-1811.
1304. Doctors. 1806-1811.
1305. Company-grade Officers’ Epaulette, confirmed in 1807.
1306. Company-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1807-1811.
1307. Field-grade Officer and General. Grenadier Regiments. 1807-1811.
1308. Grenadiers. 1807-1808.
1309. Grenadier. 1808.
1310. Grenadiers. 1808.
1311. Officers’ Gorgets. 1808-1820.
1312. Train Personnel. 1809-1811.
1313. Hat for Noncombatant Lower Ranks. 1809-1811.
1314. Grenadier. 1809.
1315. Grenadier Shako for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates. 1809-1811.
1316. Generals’ Hat. 1809-1815.
1317. Officers’ Shako for Grenadier Regiments. 1809-1811.
1318. Field-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1809 and 1810.
1319. Noncommissioned Officers’ Shako for Grenadier Regiments. 1811.
1320. Infantry Pompons and Swordknots for Lower Ranks. 1811-1833.
1321. Forage Caps of Combatant Lower Ranks. From 1811 on.
1322. Noncombatants. 1811-1824.
1323. Grenadiers’ Shakos. 1812-1816.
1324. Company-grade Officer and Noncommissioned Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1812-1816.
1325. Shako Badge for Distinction, confirmed in 1813.
1326. Company-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments. 1814-1816.
1327. Officers’ Hat. From 1815 on.
1328. Drum Major. Grenadier Regiments. 1815-1817.
1329. Grenadiers’ Shako Plate. 1817-1828.
1330. Grenadiers. 1817-1824.
1331. Grenadier. 1817-1824.
1332. Grenadiers’ and Noncommissioned Officers’ Shakos. 1817-1828.
1333. Grenadiers. Grenadier Regiments. 1817-1824.
1334. Grenadier. Grenadier Regiments. 1817-1824.
1335. Drummer. Grenadier Regiments. 1817 and 1818.
1336. Company-grade Officer. H.M. the Emperor of Austria’s and H.M. the King of Prussia’s Grenadier Regiments. 1817-1826.
1337. Grenadier. Grenadier Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1818-1826.
1338. Field-grade Officer. Grenadier Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1818-1826.
1339. Fifers. Grenadier Regiments. 1818-1820.
1340. Hornists. Grenadier Regiments. 1819-1820.
1341. Officers’ Gorget, confirmed 1820.
1342. Drummer. Grenadier Regiments. 1820-1826.
1343. Noncommissioned Officer. Marksmen Platoons of Grenadier Regiments. 1824-1826.
1344. Musketeer. Velikie-Luki Musketeer Regiment of the Finland Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.
1345. Musketeer. Yelets Musketeer Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate. 1802-1803.
1346. Musketeer. Sevsk Musketeer Regiment of the Livonia Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.
1347. Musketeer. Tula Musketeer Regiment of the Lithuania Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.
1348. Musketeer Noncommissioned Officer. Old-Ingermanland Musketeer Regiment of the Brest Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.
1349. Musketeer Noncommissioned Officers. Smolensk and Ladoga Musketeer Regiments of the Ukraine and Dniester Inspectorates. 1802 and 1803.
1350. Musketeer Drummer. Belev Musketeer Regiment of the Crimea Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.
1351. Musketeer Drummers. Polotsk and Suzdal Musketeer Regiments of the Smolensk and Caucasus Inspectorates. 1802 and 1803.
1352. Regimental Drummer. Moscow Musketeer Regiment of the Kiev Inspectorate. 1802-1803.
1353. Musician. Penza Musketeer Regiment of the Moscow Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.
1354. Company-grade Officer. Rylsk Musketeer Regiment of the Orenburg Inspectorate. 1802-1804.
1355. Noncombatant of Noncommissioned Officer Rank. Shirvan Musketeer Regiment of the Siberia Inspectorate. 1802 and 1803.
1356. Musketeer Noncommissioned Officer. 1803-1805.
1357. Musketeer Shako. 1805-1807.
1358. Musketeer. 1809.
1359. Musketeer. 1812-1817.
1360. Drummer. Musketeer Regiments. 1817-1820.
1361. Noncommissioned Officer and Field-grade Officer. Infantry Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1823.
1362. Musketeer. Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1825-1828.
1363. Private and Company-grade Officer. Marine Regiments. 1812-1817.
1364. Forage Caps for Marine Regiments, from 1812.
1365. Officers’ Shabrack and Holsters for Marine Regiments. 1812.
1366. Grenadier. Marine Regiments. 1817-1826.
1367. Privates. 1st and 2nd Jäger Regiments. 1802-1807.
1368. Privates. 3rd and 4th Jäger Regiments. 1802.
1369. Privates. 5th, 6th, and 7th Jäger Regiments. 1802.
1370. Noncommissioned Officers. 8th and 9th Jäger Regiments. 1802.
1371. Company Drummer. 10th Jäger Regiment. 1802.
1372. Battalion and Regimental Drummers. 11th and 12th Jäger Regiments. 1802.
1373. Waldhornists. 13th and 14th Jäger Regiments. 1802.
1374. Company-grade Officers. 15th and 16th Jäger Regiments. 1802-1804.
1375. Field-grade Officer. 17th Jäger Regiment. 1802-1804.
1377. Jäger Hat. 1802-1807.
1378. Company-grade Officer. 20th Jäger Regiment. 1803 and 1804.
1379. Company-grade Officer and Private. 21st and 22nd Jäger Regiments. 1805-1807.
1380. Battalion Drummer. 23rd Jäger Regiment. 1806 and 1807.
1381. Noncommissioned Officer and Privates. 24th, 25th, and 26th Jäger Regiments. 1806 and 1807.
1382. Private. 27th Jäger Regiment. 1806 and 1807.
1383. Privates. 28th and 29th Jäger Regiments. 1806 and 1807.
1384. Noncommissioned Officer. 30th Jäger Regiment. 1806-1807.
1385. Company-grade Officers. 31st and 32nd Jäger Regiments. 1806-1808.
1386. Private. Jäger Regiments. 1807.
1387. Officers’ Shabrack for Jäger Regiments. From 1807 on.
1388. Private. Jäger Regiments. 1808 and 1809.
1389. Private. Jäger Regiments. 1809-1811.
1390. Company-grade Officers. Jäger Regiments. 1809-1811.
1391. Noncommissioned Officer. Jäger Regiments. 1812-1816.
1392. Company-grade Officer. Jäger Regiments. 1817-1824.
1393. Carabinier. Jäger Regiments. 1817-1826.
1394. Drummer. Jäger Regiments. 1817-1826.
1395. Carabinier. Jäger Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1828.
1396. Company-grade Officer. Jäger Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1828.
1397. Officers’ Shabrack for Jäger Regiments of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1817-1830.
1398. Cartridge-pouch Plate for Carabinier Regiments, confirmed in 1817.
1399. Musician. Carabinier Regiments. 1817-1820.
1400. Marksman. Nesvizh Carabinier Regiment of the Separate Lithuania Corps. 1818-1828.
THE CLOTHING AND WEAPONS
OF ARMY INFANTRY
FROM 1801 TO 1825.
9 April 1801— Lower ranks are ordered to cut off their curls [pukli] and have queues [kosy] only 7 inches long, tying them midway down the collar (665).
[14 April 1801— All infantry and Artillery regiments are to wear black neckclothes, but lower ranks are not to begin before the wear-out period of the old neckclothes (Highest Order). - M.C.]
24 June 1801— Generals and field and company-grade officers of the St.-Petersburg garrison, i.e. the troops located in St. Petersburg, including the Leib-Grenadier and Pavlovsk Grenadier regiments, are ordered to wear hats of the new pattern, the same as described below in the description of Grenadier uniforms according to the table of 30 April 1802 (666).
15 January 1802— New rules are confirmed regarding the cutting and sewing of uniforms for combatant and noncombatant, or lower-staff [unter-shtabnye] personel (667).
17 March 1802— Supplementary regulations are confirmed regarding the pattern for coats, by which, among other things, it is ordered that: in all regiments which have Princes of the Blood [Printsy Krovi] as Honorary Colonels [Shefi], officer’s coats are to have gold or silver (according to the color of the buttons) embroidered buttonholes [petlitsy]; on each side of the collar - two, and on the cuffs - according to the number of buttons. Additionally, for officers and combatant lower ranks of the Leib-Grenadiers aiguillettes [akselbanty] are kept as before, on the right shoulder: for the first - gold, and for the latter - of yellow worsted [garus] (668).
30 April 1802— Confirmation is given to the new table of uniforms, accouterments, and weapons of Grenadier regiments. Based upon this table, as well as on the four directives presented above, privates [ryadovye] of the the first, or Honorary Colonels’ [Shefskie], Grenadier battalions are prescribed: coat [mundir] or caftan [kaftan], pants [pantalony]; boots [sapogi]; neckcloth [galstuk]; forage and grenadier caps [furazhnaya i grenaderskaya shapki]; greatcoat [shinel], warm coat [fufaika]; sword [shpaga] with swordknot [temlyak]; swordbelt [portupeya], musket [ruzhe] with bayonet [shtyk], sling [remen], lock cover [ognivnyi chekhol] and frizzen protector [polunagalishche]; cartridge pouch [patronnaya suma] with crossbelt [perevyaz];knapsack [ranets], and water flask [vodonosnaya flyazha].
The coat was to be double-breasted, of dark-green cloth, with a standing collar of a special color for each Inspectorate; with cuffs the same color as the collar; with dark-green flaps on the cuffs; with red kersey lining, with brass buttons and two shoulder straps [pogony], of a special color for each regiment in an Inspectorate. The lower edge or lining of the collar and shoulder straps were dark green (Illus. 1274). This coat was to have all buttons fastened in summer as well as winter, and the sizes of its parts, assuming a man of 6 feet in height, were prescribed to be as follows:
Collar height, in front, at the edges - 3 1/2 inches, behind, at the middle - 4 3/8 inches; the upper edge shorter than the lower by 3 1/2 inches.
Length of the caftan, from the collar to the waist - 17 1/2 inches, and from the waist to the end of the tails - 15 3/4 inches; width of the turnover - 3 inches; the distance of the first button from the collar - 7/8 inch; between the first and second buttons and so on - 2 5/8 inches; between the buttonholes and the edge of the turnover - 7/8 inch.
Turnbacks on the tails, along the straight edge - 17 inches, along the other edge - 14 7/8 inches, on the upper edge - 1 1/3 inches; width below - 4 7/8 inches.
Width of the cuffs - 3 inches, and of the flap - 1 3/4 inches; length of the flap - 6 1/8 inches.
Length of the shoulder strap - 5 3/4 inches; its width at the shoulder - 1 3/4 inches, width at the button - 1 1/4 inches.
Buttonswere flat, 25 in number, namely: on the right side of the turnover - 7; on the left - 6; on the cuffs opposite the buttonholes - 2 each; on the upper buttonhole of the flaps - 1 each; at the lower edge of the collar, for the shoulder straps - 2; on the waist - 2; at the joining of the turnbacks on the tails - 1 each (Illus. 1274).
Pants, of white wool cloth but in summer of Flemish linen - 37 5/8 inches long from the edge of the swordbelt, i.e. reaching to within 8 3/4 inches of the heels, and having a panel [latsbant] in front of such a width that it is covered by the coat skirts. In front under the panel, and behind on the waist hem, 1 3/4 inches from the top edge of the pants, were sewn two covered buttons each, for suspenders [pomochi], arranged so that they could be fastened and unfastened easily without removing the swordbelt.
Boots, polished, with round toes - 14 inches high from the heels, i.e. 5 1/4 inches above the lower edge of the pants - made with a 1 3/4 inch cut-out in back and 7/8-inch heels. There were also small leather ears with buttonholes sewn inside the tops of the boots, which fastened to small leather buttons fixed to the side seams of the pants.
Neckcloth, with a small dicky, made from black cloth on a linen lining and fastened behind by four small ribbons. Its height and width were not fixed, and there was only a rule in regard to the dicky which said that if a man had loosened the top button of his coat then the dicky was not to be visible when he raised his head up.
Forage cap- of dark-green cloth, with a band the same color as the collar or with no band at all, and with piping on the seams the same color as the shoulder straps. It kept almost the same form as it had during the previous reign. Its height from the lower edge to where it bent over was prescribed to be 8 3/4 inches; the distance from where it bent over to the tassel and knot - 10 1/2 inches; width where it bent over - 10 1/2 inches; width at the knot at the end - 1 1/4 inches; tassel - 2 5/8 inches; width of the band - 3 1/2 inches (Illus. 1274). The tassel was to be of two colors: green and the color of the shoulder straps. The knot was according to the company: in the first companies of battalions - white, in the second - red, in the third - sky blue, and in the fourth - orange. In regard to the coiffure, care was taken that the front hair, or laverzhet as it was called then, and hair at the temples was cropped smooth and short, while the hair at the rear was tied into a thick, flat queue intertwined with a black, woolen ribbon so that the end of the hair protruded just a bit. Powder was only used at big parades and holidays.
Grenadier cap- of almost the same form and size as under Emperor Paul I, namely: with a brass plate in front; with three grenades - also of brass - behind and on the sides. On the first, i.e. the plate, there was almost over its entire height a raised image of the double-headed Russian eagle with St. George on the breast. The top part [verkhushka] was according the the color of the collar and cuffs, while the rear piece or band [zadnik ili okolysh] was according to the color of the shoulder straps. The edging around the plate and below the band was black, as before. The trim on the top part was white cotton tape, while the pompons were according to the special list located below (Illus. 1275).
Greatcoat- of undyed cloth, dark or light grey, only being the same shade for the whole regiment; with a collar and shoulder straps the same color and pattern as on the coat, and with round grey cuffs. It was made so that it not only could be worn over the coat, but additionally over the warm coat or half-length fur coat. In front it was fastened with seven flat brass buttons, sewn on with such a distance between one and the next that when the swordbelt was worn over the greatcoat, the very bottom button was under the swordbelt, while the top button of the rear flaps was over the swordbelt (Illus. 1276).
The warm coat, or half-length fur coat [polushubok], was of sheepskin as before.
Sword, with a cutlass-like [tesachnyi] blade, brass hilt [yefes], a similar brass hook and endpiece, and with a scabbard of unblackened leather. It was unchanged from before (Illus. 1277).
The swordbelt was, as before, of deerskin, whitened, and 2 inches wide; with an adjustable brass buckle; with two frogs [lopasti] for the sword and the bayonet scabbard, and with welts near the edges. At its front edge, the frog was prescribed to be 6 1/8 inches long from the swordbelt to the slit into which the sword was placed, and the distance along the lower edge of the swordbelt, between both ends of the frog and depending on the individual body size, was about 5 to 7 inches. As a rule, when the swordbelt was worn it had to be adjusted so that when the rear end of the frog was between both waist buttons and pulled flat against the left one of these, then the sword was not to project forward and the left hand of a man standing upright was to lie above and alongside the hilt. The lower edge of the swordbelt had to lie above and right next to the waist buttons (Illus. 1277).
The swordknot consisted of a strap, small loop [gaechka], acorn [derevyashaka], trinchik, or colored ring, and the fringe. The length of the strap was prescribed to be 19 3/4 inches long and its width 7/8 inch; the distance from the top of the loop to the colored ring was 1 3/4 inches, the colored ring was 1/2 inch; the fringe was 7/8 inch. The swordknot was tied to the sword with an opening or loop under the knob on the hilt and wrapped around the whole length of the guard, leaving the tassel free for 3 1/2 inches (Illus. 1277). For all privates the strap and fringe of the swordknot remained white cotton; acorns - the same color as the collar and cuffs, and the loops and color rings: in the 1st company - white, in the 2nd - red, in the 3rd - sky blue, and in the 4th - orange.
Musket, along with its sling, lock cover, and frizzen cover; cartridge pouch, with brass plate and four grenades also of brass, and crossbelt, 3 3/4 inches wide, with welts along the edges. All these remain as previously laid down in the table of 5 January 1798 (Illus. 1277).
Knapsack, of black, dried leather, lined with linen, made round, 15 3/4 inches long and 8 1/4 inches across, and having a cover 8 3/4 inches wide that was closed by three iron buckles and, over them, two leather buttons. Inside it was a divider of doubled linen for putting three days worth of rusk into one half, and in the other - baggage, as follows: two shirts, foot wraps, wool kerchiefs, half-length fur coat, summer or winter (depending on the time of year) pants, brush, polish, soap, chalk, etc. The knapsack was put on over the right shoulder with the help of a whitened, deerskin belt 1 1/8 inches wide, fastened by two iron buckles at the sides of the knapsack so that it lay close to the shoulders, somewhat at a slant, with the right side upward (Illus. 1277).
Waterflask, made from double thickness iron and keeping the previous shape and size, i.e. height, without the cap - 6 3/8 inches, with the cap - 7 7/8 inches, breadth - 6 1/2 inches, and width - 3 inches. It was strapped to middle of the knapsack with white deerskin straps 5/8 inch wide (Illus. 1277).
Noncommissionedofficers [unter-ofitsery] of Grenadier battalions were uniformed the same as private grenadiers but with only one shoulder strap, on the right shoulder, and with the additional distinction that along the lower and side edges of the collar and along the upper edge of the cuffs they had gold galloon [galun], 5/8 inch wide. and the pompon on the grenadier cap and the trinchik or colored ring of the swordknot were white with black and orange mixed in. Also, as before, they wore white chamois gloves with rounded cuffs 2 5/8 inches wide and carried a cane stick [trost] with a knob made of white bone and a brass endpiece, of such a length that if a person holds it in his right hand under the knob and lets its end point to the toe of the right foot, it then would reach the floor. In formation, the stick, by means of a leather strap passed through it below the knob, hung on the right side from the second coat button from the top, and then was put through a double black leather strap, 5/8 inch wide, fastened to the right waist button. When out of formation, when the stick was held in the hand, this strap was unfastened and put away.
Of the six junior noncommissioned officers [mladshchie unter-ofitsery] in each company of a Grenadier battalion, four were to have rifled muskets and black leather front pouches [podsumki] with a brass plate and four grenades, also of brass. As it was under Emperor Paul I, the other two noncommissioned officers, as well as the supply sergeant [kaptenarmus] and first sergeant [feldfebel] kept the halberds [alebardy] of the previous pattern, whose hafts were specially colored according to the list appended below. Officer candidates [podpraporshchiki] and distinguished officer candidates [portupei-praporshchiki] did not have muskets or halberds, but just the stick (Illus. 1278). Noncommissioned officers had knapsacks like the privates but wore them across the left shoulder instead of the right.
Company drummers [rotnye barabanshchiki] of Grenadier battalions were uniformed the same as grenadiers but were distinguished from them by wings or shoulder pieces [kryltsy ili naplechniki] of dark-green cloth with white cotton tape 5/8 inch wide. This tape was sewn on along the round or bottom edges of the wings and along the side of the left coat edge, but in half width so that half of it was above and half underneath. Tape was on the wings - four rows in full width; on the upper halves of the sleeves - six rows in full width with points up; and on the left coat side of the coat and on the cuff flaps, opposite buttonholes and buttons, laid double in the shape of the buttonhole (Illus. 1279). The drum was prescribed to be of brass without a badge, with dark-green and white triangles painted on the hoops, ropes to tighten the frame or hoops, and white deerskin ears or looseners.
Drumstickswere according to the color of the flagstaffs and halberd shafts. The crossbelt for the drum was 4 3/8 inches wide, deerskin, whitened, with two holders of that same material for the drumsticks, a small strap to suspend the drum from, and without any metal appointments. An apron [zanaveska] for protecting the pants was of calfskin, made with the hair on the outside (Illus. 1279).
Fifers [fleishchiki] of Grenadier battalions were uniformed like company drummers of these battalions and kept their brass cases of the previous pattern to hold the fife, worn on a white deerskin belt (Illus. 1279).
Battalion drummers [batalionnye barabanshchiki] of Grenadier battalions differed from company drummers in that they had seven rows of tape sewn on their coat sleeves instead of six, and also in having this on all seams, on the edge of the left side of the coat, and on the tails along the turnbacks. Like noncommissioned officers, they had gold galloon on the collar and cuffs; the pompon of the grenadier cap and the trinchik of the swordknot were white with black and orange; they had gloves and a cane (Illus. 1280).
Privates of Fusilier battalions [ryadovye fuzelernykh batalionov], except for the cap worn in formation and the cartridge pouch, had entirely the same uniform, accouterments, and armaments as privates of Grenadier battalions. Their formation caps [stroevyya shapki], or fusilier caps [fuzelernyya shapki], had almost the same appearance as they had under Emperor Paul I, only a little taller, namely: 10 inches tall with the plate, this having exactly the same image on it as the plate for grenadier caps (Illus. 1281). And fusilier pouches had only the badge without the grenades in the corners (Illus. 1282).
Junior noncommissioned officers, supply sergeants, and sergeants [mladshie unter-ofitsery, kaptenarmusy i feldfebeli] of Fusilier battalions were uniformed and armed like these ranks in Grenadier battalions with only the grenadier cap being replaced by the fusilier cap described above, and with the additional difference that all without exception had halberds. Officer candidates and distinguished officer candidates were not prescribed these last items.
Company and battalion drummers of Fusilier battalions were uniformed and armed as in Grenadier battalions except the grenadier cap was replaced by the fusilier cap.
The regimental drummer and musicians [polkovyi barabanshchik i muzykanty] (two each for bassoons, waldhorns, clarinets, and fifes, and one for a drum) were uniformed and armed like battalion drummers in Grenadier battalions, without any difference.
Apart from the equipment and weapons described here, each Grenadier and Fusilier company was issued entrenching tools [shantsovye instrumenty]: 20 axes, 10 iron spades, and 5 picks and mattocks [5 of each? — M.C.], with covers made from worn-out pouches and with 1 1/2 inch straps for them made from similarly worn-out crossbelts and swordbelts. The ax handle was prescribed to be 2 feet 5 inches long; the length of the spade handle - exactly 2 feet 4 inches; the width of the ax cover: top - 10 inches, bottom - 10 1/2 inches; its length - 9 1/8 inches; width of the spade cover - 9 1/8 inches; its length - 11 3/8 inches.
Company-grade officers [ober-ofitsery]of Grenadier regiments had a coat, pants, and boots of the same colors and patterns as prescribed for private grenadiers, except that the first did not have a seventh button under the right side of the front of the coat, it had horizontal pocket flaps on the coattails with three buttons, the tails being of a little greater length, namely such that their lower ends were only a hand’s breadth higher than the knees, and there was narrow gold galloon around the edges of the shoulder straps. Instead of the previous neckcloths which were black in some regiments and white in others, it was ordered to wear black silk kerchiefs [platki], tied in the back. Gloves were ordered to be without cuffs. Canes remained as before, while new hats were authorized, with black plumes of cock feathers. The bow or cockade was of the same ribbon as under the previous reign, with an embroidered gold buttonhole, and with two small silver tassels in the corners, fastened to the ends of a silver cord or length of lace in which, as in the tassels themselves, was intermixed black and orange silk. The hat was prescribed to be 9 5/8 inches tall in front, 10 1/2 inches in back, and the distance from the crown to the corners - 5 1/4 inches (Illus. 1283 and 1284). The swordknot, sash [sharf], gorget [znak], and spontoon [esponton] remain of the previous patterns, except that the last of these had the monogram of Emperor Alexander I, the next to last did not have the cross of St. John of Jerusalem on the eagle’s breast, and the swordknot and sash did not have raspberry-colored silk. The color of the spontoon’s shaft corresponded to the color of the halberd’s shaft. The greatcoat was of grey cloth, with a similar hanging cape and also a standing collar of the pattern and color of the coat’s (Illus. 1283).
Adjutants [adyutanty], of battalions and of honorary colonels, supposed to be of company-grade officer rank, had their entire uniform as well as armament the same as company-grade officers, except for spontoons, which they were not authorized. In formation, when they had to be mounted, they wore deerskin or chamois pants, using ochre to keep them white, and jack boots [botforty] with bell-shaped openings and iron spurs (Illus. 1285).
Field-grade officers [shtab-ofitsery] were uniformed and armed like adjutants, but they had gilded gorgets (Illus. 1285).
Generals [generaly] were distinguished from field-grade officers only by the white plumage around the sides of the hat (Illus. 1286).
Shabracks [chepraki] and holsters [chushki] were the same as before for adjutants, field-grade officers, and generals, of dark-green cloth with one row of gold galloon all around.
Company: barbers [tsiryulniki], hospital orderlies [lazaretnye sluzhiteli], gunstock craftsman [lozhnik], and carpenter [plotnik]; battalion clerks [pisarya], medics [fel'dshera], gunsmith apprentices [oruzheinye ucheniki], blacksmiths [kuznetsy], and provosts [profosy]; regimental wagonmaster [vagenmeister], supervisor of the sick [nadziratel dlya bolnykh], clerk, chaplains’assistants [tserkovniki], gunstock craftsman, and farrier [konoval]; and company, battalion, and regimental train personnel [furleity], i.e. all noncombatant [nestroevye] lower ranks of Grenadier regiments, wore cloth frock coats [sertuki] reaching to the knees, with turned-back skirts, a collar and shoulder straps of the same pattern and color as on the coats of combatant personnel, red kersey lining, and flat brass buttons which were prescribed to be: in front on the right turnover, down the very center of the chest - 6, for the shoulder straps - 1 each, on the cuffs and flaps - 3 each, at the ends of the skirts - 1 each, at the waist - 2; 18 total. The spacing of the buttons down the front was the same as on greatcoats, while the cut and dimensions of the collar, cuffs, flaps, and shoulder straps were as for the coats of combatant lower ranks (Illus. 1287). Pants were prescribed to be of grey cloth, but of Flemish linen in summer. Boots, neckcloth, forage cap, greatcoat, warm coat orhalf-length fur coat, knapsack, andwater flask were the same as for combatant lower ranks, while hats were of the same pattern and size as described above for officers except without any decoration or trim besides a flat brass button and, serving as binding, a black woolen cord. The wagonmaster, supervisor of the sick, medical orderlies, and all clerks, since they held noncommissioned officer ranks, had gold galloon on the coat’s collar and cuffs, gloves with cuffs, cane, and a hanger [tesak] with a noncommissioned officer swordknot and a swordbelt (Illus. 1287). Barbers were also authorized swordbelts and hangers, but without swordknots, and on a 1 1/2 inch wide strap over the left shoulder they wore a black leather bag for razors and other items (Illus. 1287). All the rest of the noncombatant lower ranks had no weapons at all (Illus. 1287).
Battalion and Regimental Doctors [lekarya] received a uniform similar to officers’, except that the coat did not have shoulder straps. Collar, cuffs, turnbacks of the coattails, and lining were dark green, with red piping along the edges of the collar, cuffs, flaps on the sleeves and pockets, and turnbacks of the coattails. Silver buttons were located: in front on the right turnover - 6, on the sleeve flaps - 2 each, on the pockets - 3 each, on the ends of the coattails - 1 each, and at the waist - 2. Hat, epee, and swordknot were to be the same as for officers, except without a plume (Illus. 1288).
Auditors [auditory] were uniformed similar to doctors, but they had two rows of buttons down the front of the coat; turnbacks of the coattails and lining were red; pants were chamois or deerskin; jackboots with iron spurs; and a hat with the same plume as for officers (Illus. 1288).
6 June 1802— [N.B. See the notes at the end of this volume regarding Grenadiers’distinctive colors - M.C.] Confirmation is given to a list of colors for the pompons on grenadier caps (669), based upon which the colors in the directive of 17 March and the table of 30 April, laid out above, which distinguished Grenadier regiments from one another were as follows:
Leib-Grenadier Regiment of the St.-Petersburg Inspectorate:
Red collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1274); the crowns and bands of grenadier and fusilier caps were red; white pompons with a red center on grenadier caps; pale-yellow [palevyi] drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Pavlovsk Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Red collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were red and the bands white; white pompons on grenadier caps (Illus. 1275); pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
St.-Petersburg Grenadier Regiment of the Livonia [Livland, Liflyandskaya]
Turquoise collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were turquoise and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center (Illus. 1276); pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Taurica Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Turquoise collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were turquoise and the bands white; white pompons on grenadier caps (Illus. 1277); pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Yekaterinoslav Grenadier Regiment of the Lithuania
Light-green collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were light green and the bands red (Illus. 1278); pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Little Russia (Malorossiiskii) Grenadier Regiment of the
Rose collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were rose and the bands red; white pompons on grenadier caps; black drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons (Illus. 1279).
Kiev Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Rose collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were rose and the bands white; pompons on grenadier caps were white; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons (Illus. 1280).
Kherson Grenadier Regiment of the Dniester Inspectorate:
Lilac collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were lilac and the bands red (Illus. 1281 and 1282); pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; black drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Siberia Grenadier Regiment of the same Inspectorate:
Lilac collar and cuffs; white shoulder straps; the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were lilac and the bands white; pompons on grenadier caps were white; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons (Illus. 1280).
Caucasus Grenadier Regiment of the Caucasus Inspectorate:
Blue collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus 1285); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were blue and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Moscow Grenadier Regiment of the Smolensk Inspectorate:
White collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1286); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were white and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white with a red center; pale-yellow drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Phanagoria Grenadier Regiment of the Smolensk Inspectorate:
White collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1287); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were white and the bands red; pompons on grenadier caps were white; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
Astrakhan Grenadier Regiment of the Moscow Inspectorate:
Orange collar and cuffs; red shoulder straps (Illus. 1287); the crowns of grenadier and fusilier caps were orange and the bands red; pompons on the grenadier caps were white with a red center; white drumsticks and shafts of halberds and spontoons.
18 September 1802 — Lower ranks’ aiguilettes in the Leib-Grenadier Regiment are abolished, and to replace them they are ordered to have white lace buttonholes on the collar and cuffs (Illus. 1289) (670).
27 October 1802— While on the march with troops or on detached duties, generals and field and company-grade officers are ordered to wear, instead of white pants, overalls [shirovary (sic, more commonly sharovary - M.C.)] or riding trousers [reituzy]; of grey cloth with flat brass buttons on the side seams, and with black leather lining along down the inner seams and around the lower ends (Illus. 1290) (671).
29 June 1803— New patterns for the shabrack and holster are designated for generals, field-grade officers, and adjutants of Grenadier regiments, dark-green as before but with red piping all around, two rows of gold galloon instead of the previous one, and red cloth between these galloon rows (Illus. 1291-2) (672).
19 August 1803— Noncombatant lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are given round shakos [shapki] in place of the tricorn hat. These are 7 7/8 inches high, of black cloth, with two flaps of similar material sewn inside and used to protect the ears and cheeks during freezing weather. They have a lacquered visor of black leather fastened in three places by small iron hooks and eyes, and a similar black leather chin strap. A black cockade with a surrounding orange stripe and a brass button in the middle is sewn on the front of the shako, and above the cockade are two woolen pompons [kisti] of the same colors as were prescribed on 6 June 1802. Between the lower pompon and the cockade button is fastened a loop of black woolen tape (Illus. 1293-4). These shakos are lined upright with straw, quilted through the whole height, while the lower [sic, should be upper? — M.C.] edge is trimmed with black leather. Those holding noncommissioned officer ranks have gold galloon around the upper edge, 7/8 inch wide, and the lower pompon is divided crosswise into four parts, two of which are white and two black with orange, as on grenadier caps for noncommissioned officers (673).
19 October 1803— All noncommissioned officers of Grenadier regiments are to have two shoulder straps on their coats and greatcoats as for privates, instead of one (674).
15 November 1804— The Kherson and Siberia Grenadier regiments of the Dniester Inspectorate are ordered to have: dark-green collars and sleeve flaps with red piping; red cuffs; dark-green crowns to the caps, while the band and shoulder straps remain the same colors as before: in the first regiment - red, in the second - white (Illus. 1295-6) (675).
In the same year of 1804, there were introduced for generals and field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments hats [shlyapy] with a buttonhole loop of narrow gold galloon, of the pattern used by them on shoulder straps, and with a tall plume (Illus. 1297-8) (676).
26 January 1805— Of the noncommissioned officer strength of second and third battalions of Grenadier regiments, who by the table of 30 April 1802 were supposed to have halberds, four men of each company are ordered to have muskets and cartridge pouches, following the example of the situation in the companies of honorary colonels’ battalions [shefskie bataliony] (677).
13 February 1805— In all Grenadier regiments, the former grenadier and fusilier caps of combatant lower ranks are replaced by new ones based on the pattern established in 1803 for noncombatants, except not quilted. There is a brass grenade above the cockade; with a brass button on the chin strap and with a thick horsehair plume. 19 1/4 inches high and about 8 inches wide (Illus. 1299). For privates this plume is completely black and the shako is without any other decoration besides the grenade, cockade, and small pompon (Illus. 1299). For noncommissioned officers the plumes have a white top with a yellow stripe in its middle and the shakos have gold galloon around the top edge of the crown (Illus. 1300-1); for company drummers and for fifers the plumes are red and the shakos are as for privates (Illus. 1302); for battalion and regimental drummers and for musicians the plumes are red with the tops and the shakos as for noncommissioned officers (Illus. 1302) (678).
12 June 1805— For Fusilier battalions of Grenadier regiments, the previously described shakos are ordered not to have grenades (679).
23 December 1805— To obviate the inconveniences often met with when in battle with the enemy, generals and field and company-grade officers of regiments of the Caucasus Inspectorate, including the Caucasus Grenadier Regiment, are permitted, instead of hats, to wear shakos, similar throughout to those of the soldiers except with a silver pompon with a mix of black and orange silk instead of a woolen one. These shakos are to be only for campaigns and military operations, and during other times the above-mentioned ranks are to wear hats (680).
1 July 1806— The flaps over the cuffs are abolished on the coats of regimental and battalion doctors, and the cuffs themselves are ordered to be slit instead of round, with two buttons on each, and which as everywhere on the coat are prescribed to be white and flat. Likewise the short boots are replaced by jackboots with spurs. Those holding the rank of staff-doctor [shtab-lekar] are given silver embroidered buttonholes, two on each side of the collar and on each cuff (Illus. 1303). Together with this, while on campaign and during operations doctors are permitted to wear grey pants and grey frock coats that are a little below the knees, with dark-green collars and white metal buttons, and sewn so that one coattail goes behind the other. Greatcoats are authorized, likewise grey, with a collar of the same color, having green piping around its edges (Illus. 1304) (681).
1 October 1806— The warm coats [fufaiki] of lower ranks are discontinued (682).
2 December 1806— Lower ranks are ordered to cut their hair short; generals, though, and field and company-grade officers, are in this case allowed to proceed according to their personal wishes (683).
10 March 1807 — Officers’ spontoons and canes are abolished, and it is ordered that they use swords [shpagi] while in formation (684).
17 September 1807 — Generals and field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments, instead of shoulder straps, are ordered to wear epaulettes [epolety] with a cloth field the same color as these shoulder straps. One half of the the field, that closest to the collar, is trimmed with narrow gold galloon, and around the edges of the other half are laid two gold cords (Illus. 1305 and 1306). For field-grade officers the epaulettes have a narrow, and for generals a thick, fringe of gold threads (Illus. 1307), and for everyone the epaulettes are passed through a small shoulder strap [pogonchik] or counter-epaulette [kontr-epolet] of the same galloon as on the epaulettes, and are fastened by a button sewn to the coat at the collar (685). Only in the Leib-Grenadier Regiment is it ordered to wear the epaulette only on the left shoulder, as the officers of this regiment have aiguilettes on the right (686).
7 November 1807— For all Army regiments of heavy infantry, collars and cuffs of coats, as well as collars of greatcoats, are directed to be of red cloth, while shoulder straps are according to the regiment: in the first regiments of each division - red, in the second - white, in the third - yellow, in the fourth - dark green with red piping, and in the fifth - sky blue. In consequence of this, of the Grenadier regiments the Siberia receives white shoulder straps, the St.-Petersburg - yellow, and all the rest - red (687).
15 December 1807— Lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are to have on their shoulder straps, and generals and officers on their epaulettes, the number of their division: in gold for the latter and of wool cord for the former: on white and yellow fields - in red, on others - in yellow (688).
19 December 1807 — Lower ranks with swordbelts are ordered to wear these not at the waist, but over the right shoulder, under the crossbelt for the pouch, crossing these crossbelts and being of the same width. In consequence of this the former seventh button at the bottom of the coat’s front is abolished. Along with this, the swordbelt as well as the crossbelt are to be stitched along their edges and constructed with a small bend so that the upper edges of both one and the other come closer to the collar. The former swords [shpagi] which have been in use since the time of Empress Anna Ioannovna, with broad blades [tesachnye klinki], are replaced by swords [tesaki] having a hilt with a large, cupped guard, almost the same as for officers’ swords [shpagi]. With the new swordbelts, bayonet scabbards are fitted into an opening left in the frog to the right of the sword and are parallel to it (Illus. 1308). Beginning at this time, to make them more sturdy, the shakos introduced in 1805 were trimmed at the top and on the sides with black leather, and the visor was sewn on, and subsequently they received the name kiver(689).
23 December 1807— Lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are ordered to have winter pants with leather trim [obshivka] on the lower part, in almost the same style as there used to be from 1786 to 1796 (Illus. 1308), while summer pants are of Flemish linen, with spats [kozyrki] and covered buttons (Illus. 1309). Following this change, the boots introduced in 1802 were exchanged for others with soft tops (690).
26 January 1808— Generals of Grenadier regiments at parades, on designated calendar days [tabelnye dni], and at troop formations in general, in peacetime as well as during wartime, are ordered to wear the newly introduced standard generals’ coat [obshchii generalskii mundir]. And with the regimental coat when not on duty, they have dark-green pants instead of white (691).
(Note: The description of the standard generals’ coat is found later, at the end of the survey of Emperor Alexander I’s reign, in the section about general officers’ uniforms.)
14 July 1808 — The round knapsacks used by lower ranks since 1802 are exchanged for rectangular ones similar to those used during the reign of Emperor Paul I, but of black leather and not made with woolen interiors. They were prescribed to be worn on two soft, whitened deerskin straps, 2 5/8 inches wide, stitched on firmly at the top edge of the back side [of the knapsack - M.C.] and fastened to two large wooden buttons at the bottom edge. A canteen [manerka] or water flask was strapped to the top of the knapsack, in the middle, with white straps, as previously (Illus. 1310). The knapsack was supposed to contain: 2 shirts, 1 pair of pants, 1 foot wrap, 1 forage cap, material for 1 pair of boots, 1 frizzen cover, 12 flints, 3 brushes, 2 scrapers, 1 small board for cleaning buttons, a small quantity of chalk and polish, a small valise with threads, soap, glue, needlecase with needles, moustache dye, dye comb, sand and a brick, and rusks for three days, so that the valise with the canteen and summer trousers weighed 25 pounds, but with the winter pants (instead of the summer) - 26 1/4 pounds. At the same time it was set forth as a rule that when wearing the knapsack in warm or good weather, the soldier was to have his greatcoat rolled over his left shoulder, with the ends low on his right side being tied with a whitened deerskin strap (Illus. 1310). In cold or inclement weather it was ordered to wear the greatcoat with all its buttons fastened and to take off the coat and place it behind the back above the waist, between the shirt and greatcoat. But in frosts, the coat was to be worn in addition to the greatcoat (622).
Along with this change, the grenadier shakos’ former ribbons or cockades were replaced: in Grenadier companies - by a brass grenade with three flames, but in Fusilier companies - with one flame. The same grenades were ordered to be on the pouches, which from this time began to be made of black, polished leather and smaller than the previous dimensions, the cover being set down as 10 inches long (top) and 7 1/2 inches wide (in the middle) (Illus. 1310) (693).
2 November 1808— The pants authorized on 23 December 1807, with leggings [kragi] in the winter and spats in the summer, are kept only for combatant lower ranks, while for noncombatants the pants, as well as the boots, are directed to be of the pattern introduced in 1802 (694).
5 November 1808— Company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments, when the troops are wearing knapsacks, are ordered to also have them, of the same pattern in all details as was established for lower ranks (695).
12 November 1808— When not on duty, field and company-grade officers are allowed to wear dark-green cloth pants instead of white ones (696).
In November 1808— Officers’ gorgets of a new pattern are confirmed, twice as short as the previous ones, with a raised rim all around and an affixed two-headed eagle in the center. These, as before, are worn on a black ribbon with orange borders, right up against the collar. These gorgets were prescribed for each rank: for an Ensign [Praporshchik] - all silver; for a Sublieutenant [Podporuchik] - silver with a gold rim; for a Lieutenant [Poruchik]- silver with a gold eagle; for a Staff-Captain [Shtabs-Kapitan] - silver with a gold rim and a gold eagle; for a Captain [Kapitan] - gold with a silver eagle; for field-grade officers - all gold (Illus. 1311) (697).
5 December 1808— Halberd shafts, and likewise drumsticks, are designated to be yellow in the first regiment of each division, black in the second, white in the third, yellow again in the fourth, and black in the fifth (698).
11 February 1809— Noncombatant lower ranks not holding noncommissioned officer ranks, such as: chaplains’ assistants, barbers, hospital orderlies, master craftsmen of every kind, train personnel, and provosts, are all given a new pattern cap [shapka] in place of the shako [kiver], of dark-green cloth, with a red band, also of cloth, a leather chinstrap, two dark-green cloth flaps to cover the ears in winter, and one leather flap to protect the back of the head in inclement weather (Illus. 1312 and 1313) (699).
27 March 1809— Instead of one epaulette, officers of the Leib-Grenadier Regiment are ordered to wear two each; aiguilettes, however, which have been in use since the reign of Empress Catherine II, are abolished (700).
4 April 1809— Noncommissioned officers are ordered to have galloon not on the lower and side edges of the collar, but on the upper and side edges .(701)
8 April 1809— There was issued the following order regarding the shoulder slings on muskets:
The lower bracket on the stock, for the sling, is to be moved higher up to the
brass trigger guard.
2.) The button on the sling is to be located two fingers from the upper sling bracket.
3.) A buckle with prong is to be fixed to the middle of the ramrod’s brass lower band or tube.
4.) The upper side, i.e. the side colored red, of the sling is to be lacquered so that it does not stain the pouch crossbelt (702).
20 April 1809— To supplement the directive issued in 1808 concerning new knapsacks, the following changes and additions are made:
The greatcoat is to be rolled 6 1/2
inches wide and worn over the left shoulder so that the soldier can freely hold
the musket behind it.
2.) The lower ends of the greatcoat are to be tied with a strap and buckle 3 1/2 inches from the end.
3.) Greatcoat, knapsack, and canteen straps are not to be whitened.
4.) The left knapsack strap is to be worn over the left shoulder on top of the greatcoat.
5.) To hold both knapsack side-straps, there is another, third, strap with one end sewn to the left side-strap and the other passed through an iron buckle, with a narrow leather loop. The buckle is sewn to the right strap which is bent back under the buckle.
6.) The third, chest, strap is positioned between the first and second top buttons of the coat or greatcoat (Illus. 1314) (703).
30 May 1809 — Noncommissioned officers’ front pouches [podsumki] are replaced with pouches [sumy] of the same pattern as prescribed for privates (704).
11 June 1809— Cords [etishkety] are added to the shakos for lower ranks: all white for privates, but for noncommissioned officers and musicians - white with a mixture of black and orange (Illus. 1315) (705).
8 June 1809[sic] — The plumage around the sides of generals’ hats is discontinued and the former pattern of buttonhole is replaced with a new one made of four thick, twisted cords, of which the two middle ones are intertwined with each other as if in a plait (Illus. 1316) (706).
29 August 1809— Only sergeants [feldfebeli] retain the halberd, while all other noncommissioned officers are given muskets identical to soldiers’(707).
23 November 1809— Colors are assigned for shako pompons [repeiki] or tufts of combatant lower ranks: in the 1st battalion - white around, green center; in the 2nd - green around, white center; in the 3rd - red around, yellow center; the colors for noncommissioned officers’ pompons are left as before (708).
6 December 1809— Company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments are ordered to wear a shako [kiver] instead of the hat when in formation, of the same pattern and size as those established for lower ranks, but with silver cords with a mixture of black and orange silk, only the tassel and ring being wholly silver. The pompon is silver with an embroidered, silver Imperial monogram in the center surrounded by black and orange small, toothed strips. Flat gilt scales are on the chinstraps, and there is also a small, gilt, six-pointed star behind, which has a small hook attached that during the march or while on campaign is used to take up the long cords and tassels that hang down on the right side of the shako (Illus. 1317). Field-grade officers are given the exact same shakos, but with three rows of thick, silver spangles on the pompon, sewn on around the monogram. These shakos are prescribed to have the exact same three-flamed grenades and the same black hair plumes as privates had, except that the first are gilt. Shakos are not prescribed for generals (709).
In this same year the powdering of the hair was completely discontinued for officers, and for them as well as general officers it was permitted to wear, over the coat [mundir], double-breasted frock coats [sertuki] of dark-green cloth, with red cloth collars, red stamin lining, and gilt buttons (Illus. 1318) (710).
9 January 1810— Grenadier regiments are ordered to have shoulder straps as follows:
2nd ” St.-Petersburg — red.
3rd ” Taurica — red.
7th ” Yekaterinoslav — red.
8th ” Moscow — red.
9th ” Astrakhan — red.
10th ” Kiev — red.
11th ” Siberia — red.
12th ” Phanagoria — red.
20th ” Kherson — red.
” ” Caucasus — white(711).
[Pavlovsk (2nd Div.) and Little Russia (11th Div.) are omitted by Viskovatov. — M.C.]
24 September 1810— Knapsack straps are ordered to be stitched on the edges, in the manner of crossbelts and swordbelts, and have a bend at each shoulder so that they do not wear away the coat or constrict a man under his arms (712).
17 January 1811— Instead of the multicolored cords on their shakos, noncommissioned officers and musicians of Grenadier regiments are to have white ones with only their tassels having black and orange mixed in (Illus. 1319); officers’, though, are completely silver (713).
29 January 1811— Officers’ frock coats are to have red cuffs instead of dark green (714).
3 February 1811 — Shoulder straps are ordered to be the same color in all Grenadier regiments - red, with the cursive initial letter of the regiment’s name in yellow cord except for the Leib-Grenadier, St.-Petersburg, Graf Arakcheev’s, and Little Russia regiments, of which the first is assigned the two Cyrillic letters L.G. the second - S.P., the third - G.A., and the fourth - M.R . (715).
4 February 1811— Grenadiers, Marksmen [strelki], and Fusiliers, and in general all combatant ranks including officers, have the shakos’ former thick plumes replaced with new ones 16 1/2 inches high, 5 3/4 inches wide at the top, and 1 3/4 inches wide at the bottom (Illus. 1319) (716).
22 February 1811— Consequent to the organizational changes of Grenadier regiments, the colors of the pompons and swordknots are also changed, as follows:
1st battalion, in the 1st Grenadier company - red for Grenadiers, yellow for Marksmen; in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Fusilier companies - white with a green center (Illus. 1320).
2nd battalion, in the 2nd Grenadier company - red with green below for Grenadiers, yellow with green below for Marksmen; in the 4th, 5th and 6th Fusilier companies - green with a white center (Illus. 1320).
3rd battalion, in the 3rd Grenadier company - red with sky blue below for Grenadiers, yellow with sky blue below for Marksmen; in the 7th, 8th and 9th Fusilier companies - sky blue with a white center (Illus. 1320).
1st battalion, in the 1st Grenadier company - for Grenadiers, red acorns [derevyashki], loops [gaiki], and bands [okolyshi] or trinchiki, yellow for Marksmen; in the Fusilier comapnies - white acorns with the loops and bands according to the company: in the 1st company - white, in the 2nd - sky blue, and in the 3rd - orange (Illus. 1320).
2nd battalion, in the 2nd Grenadier company - for Grenadiers, red acorns and green loops and bands; for Marksmen, yellow acorns and green loops and bands; in the Fusilier companies - green acorns with the loops and bands according to the company: in the 4th company - white, in the 5th - sky blue, and in the 6th - orange (Illus. 1320).
3rd battalion, in the 3rd Grenadier company - for Grenadiers, red acorns and sky blue loops and bands; for Marskmen, yellow acorns and sky blue loops and bands; in the Fusilier companies - sky blue acorns with the loops and bands according to the company: in the 7th company - white, in the 8th - sky blue, and in the 9th - orange (Illus. 1320).
The lace and fringe of swordknots are left white, as before, with black and orange bands for noncommissioned officers (717).
23 September 1811— Combatant lower ranks are ordered to have forage caps shaped like shakos, but almost twice as low and without visors, with a red band and the following distinctions:
1st battalion, in the 1st Grenadier company: for Grenadiers - red piping on top; for Marksmen - yellow piping on top and around the band (Illus. 1321).
2nd battalion, in the 2nd Grenadier company: for Grenadiers - green piping on top; for Marksmen - green piping on top and yellow around the band (Illus. 1321).
3rd battalion, in the 3rd Grenadier company: for Grenadiers - sky-blue piping on top; for Marksmen - sky-blue piping on top and yellow around the band (Illus. 1321).
1st battalion, in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Fusilier companies - white piping on top and around the band, with the respective number of each company on the front of the band (Illus. 1321).
2nd battalion, in the 4th, 5th, and 6th Fusilier companies - green piping on top and around the band, with the respective number of each company on the front of the band (Illus. 1321).
3rd battalion, in the 7th, 8th, and 9th Fusilier comapnies - sky-blue piping on top and around the band, with the respective number of each company on the front of the band (Illus. 1321) (719).
Officers are given the same caps except with the addition of a sewn-on visor of black, lacquered leather (719).
Note by M.C. - the actual decree went as follows:
PSZ No. 24,789. Forage caps for lower ranks are to be like a shako without a visor, with red bands in Grenadier and infantry regiments and with green bands in Jäger and Marine regiments, in accordance with the models provided to regiments along with their cutters. Different piping on the forage caps, in Grenadier and infantry as well as in Jager and Marine regiments, is to be as follows: Grenadier companies: 1st Grenadier Company, in the grenadier platoon - red piping on the top of the cap, and in the marksmen platoon - yellow piping on the top of the cap and around the band; 2nd Grenadier Company, in the grenadier platoon - green piping on the top of the cap, and in the marksmen platoon - likewise green piping on the top of the cap but yellow around the band; 3rd Grenadier Company, in the grenadier platoon - sky-blue piping on the top of the cap, and in the marksmen platoon - likewise sky-blue piping on the top of the cap but yellow around the band; in the other companies the piping differs by battalion: in the 1st Battalion white piping on the top of the cap and around the band; in the 2nd Battalion green piping on the top of the cap and around the band; in the 3rd Battalion sky-blue piping on the top of the cap and around the band. All these companies, that is to say except for the Grenadier companies, have their company number on the front of the cap band. In Jäger regiments the Grenadier platoons in Grenadier companies are to have red piping around the green band.
9 October 1811— Halberds are withdrawn from all Grenadier regiments, and those sergeants and noncommissioned officers who had them are given soldiers’ muskets with bayonets and, consequently, cartridge pouches with crossbelts (720).
3 November 1811— Gloves are abolished for noncommissioned officers, and to replace them in winter they are allowed to wear mittens of the same pattern as used at this time by privates (721).
17 December 1811— Noncombatant lower ranks, in place of the frock coats they had since 1802, are given singlebreasted, grey-cloth caftans [kaftany] or coats [mundiry] with collar, cuffs, and turnbacks on the tails all that same color, with red piping on them. The existing grey pants of these ranks are to also have red piping, in five rows, and leather lining, and are to be worn over the boots. Summer pants are abolished altogether, and grey forage caps are to be issued, with earflaps and red piping. Noncombatants holding noncommissioned officer ranks are to keep the gold galloon on their collars and cuffs (Illus. 1322)(722).
1 January 1812— All combatant ranks are given a new pattern shako [kiver], lower than before, with a greater spread or widening toward the top and indented sides, with flat brass scales on chinstraps; as was already the case for officers, the shako no longer has the sewn-on earflaps and neckflaps (Illus. 1323). Along with this, the previous high, open collars are changed to low ones closed in front with small hooks and eyes. The soldiers’ integral leggings [kragi] and the officers’ boots are to be high and up to the knees (Illus. 1324), while officers, in order to reduce their expenses, are permitted to have white shako cords, sashes, andswordknots instead of silver ones, and forged brass appointments on the epaulettes instead of gold (723).
10 February 1812— Noncombatant lower ranks of Grenadier regiments are ordered to have shoulder straps on their caftans and greatcoats of the same color and pattern as the shoulder straps of combatant ranks (724).
13 April 1813— The Kexholm and Pernau Grenadier regiments, renamed from infantry and assigned to the 1st Division, are authorized grenadier uniform (725).
30 November 1813— For their actions in battle against the enemy, the Yekaterinoslav and Graf Arakcheev Grenadier regiments are granted badges [znaki] for the shako, of yellow copper or brass, with the raised inscription “For Distinction” [“Za otlichie”] (Illus. 1325). This pattern was accepted as standard for all Grenadier regiments which received this award in the subsequent years of Emperor Alexander I’s reign (726). (Note: a detailed listing of all regiments which received shako badges with the inscription “Za otlichie” will be found later, in a separate paragraph about badges for distinction.)
22 August 1814— Shoulder straps in all Grenadier regiments are ordered to be yellow with red letters (727).
In the same year of 1814, during the return of the forces from France, officers of Grenadier regiments were given a new pattern of riding trousers [reituzy] without leather or buttons, with two wide stripes [lampasy] of red cloth along the outer side seams, and on the seam itself — piping of the same material (Illus. 1326). In the following year of 1815, on the cockades of officers’ hats, along the edges of the black tape with orange teeth, it was ordered to have another white tape of the same width (either of cotton or silk), which in later years became silver (Illus. 1327).
At the same time, drum majors [tambur-mazhory], or the former regimental drummers, were ordered to have shako cords and all lace on the coat in silver or gold, according to the regimental commander’s choice, and instead of shoulder straps—epaulettes. These last were authorized to be of the pattern for generals with the only difference being that the galloon around the edges of the cloth field was not entirely silver or gold, but had a red silk stripe down the center. In this uniform, drum majors in formation were authorized a staff [trost] with a gilt top in the form of a mace, and with a similar gilt endpiece and silver galloon winding around the staff, ending at the lower end in two silver tassels (Illus. 1328). With the introduction of the new uniform, all musicians, fifers, and drummers, as well as drum majors, were given singlebreasted coats in place of the previous double-breasted ones, these being buttoned in front with small hooks and eyes and having lace not on just one side of the front of the coat, but on both sides (Illus. 1328) (728).
16 August 1815— The embroidered buttonholes or bars of lace [petlitsy] established in 1802 for officers’ coats in those regiments which had Princes of the Blood as Honorary Colonels are to be in only two regiments: His Majesty the Emperor of Austria’s Grenadiers and His Majesty the King of Prussia’s Grenadiers(729).
7 January 1816— All combatant ranks are forbidden to have the collar of a shirt [rubashka] or dicky [manishka] protruding from behind the neckcloth (730).
24 January 1816— In all Grenadier regiments the scabbards for swords [tesaki] and bayonets, and consequently those for officers’ rapiers [shpagi], are ordered to be black, the former being polished and the latter — lacquered (731).
13 April 1816 — Field and company-grade officers of Grenadier regiments are ordered to wear white pants (of wool cloth in the winter and linen in the summer) only during reviews and parades, and during the rest of the time to have the riding trousers with stripes prescribed in 1814, with the exception of officers in the capitals, where they are prescribed to be in dark-green pants and high boots