Uniforms of the Forestry Administration from 1803 to 1855.
By Sergei Popov and Leonid Shepelëv.
(From Tseikhgauz No. 14, 2/2001. Pages 19-24.)
In 1839 the Corps of Foresters [Korpus lesnichikh] was established, the third militarized corps from the civilian administration (after the Corps of Ways of Communications and the Corps of Engineers). However, the history of centralized forestry establishments in Russia begins much earlier.
Already in 1722 Peter I organized a Waldmeister service in the provinces. These men had the oversight of the valuable forests of ships timber and were subordinated to the admiralty. An ukase signed by Paul I on 26 May 1798 ordered that a special department for forestry matters be formed in the Intendance bureau of the Admiralty Collegium, under whose management were placed all the forests of the Empire except those of landowners. The tasks of the Forestry Department [Lesnyi departament] included determining the particulars of state forests, protecting them from unauthorized clearing, forestry reconnaissance, and the receipt of income from forests, as well as the management of local forestry administration. By an organizational table confirmed by a Highest ukase of 29 December 1799, the department was headed by a director or manager and 4 senior and 2 junior councilors. The department included a chancellery, drafting shop, executive office, registrars office, and six sections that managed the forests of various regions of the Empire. The Forestry Departments first director was O.M. Deribas.
As organized based on an ukase of 12 March 1798, local forestry management in the provinces was headed by 40 ober-forstmeistery to whom were subordinated 160 forstmeistery and 124 surveyors [zemlemery], as well as ferstery [foresters, from the German Förster] and unter-ferstery. It was prescribed that before taking up the duties of a forstmeister or ober-forstmeister one had to pass a special exam in sylviculture. To prepare such persons, in 1800 a 4-year master foresters class was established at the Naval Cadet Corps.
With the establishment of government ministries in 1802, the Forestry Department was included in the Finance Ministry. On 11 November 1802 an Ukase on forests was received and on 11 March 1803a new organizational table for the department. The head of the forestry administration was the chief director of government forests [glavnyi director gosudarstvennykh lesov]. The departments office included 6 councilors and 3 members from agencies with co-interests: the Admiralty Collegium (for forests providing ships timber), the Mines Collegium (for forests at industrial works), and the Commerce Collegium (for the lumber trade). From 1803 to 1809 the chief director was K.-L.I. Gablits, followed by G.V. Orlov.
By an ukase of 13 April 1803 uniforms were introduced for all officials serving in the Forestry Department. The coat, or kaftan, was prescribed to be single breasted, dark green, with dark-green lining, and with collar and cuffs of green velvet. Pockets were slanted [kosoi] (i.e. cut almost vertically instead of horizontally). All edges of the coat (as well as the top of the collar and cuffs) were trimmed with red cord. Buttons were to be white and flat. The chief director wore a white vest [kamzol] with the coat and short breeches with stockings and shoes, while other officials had long white pants with short boots [botinki]. Forstmeistery were prescribed boots with spurs. The uniform hat was of a common pattern for all officials having classed rank (i.e. equivalent to officer grades in the army), adorned with a bow (cockade), bound with silver buttonhole loops, and with small silver tassels at the corners. Classed officials also had silver officers swordknots [temlyaki] on their rapiers [shpagi]. Hats for officials holding ranks equivalent to general-officers had hats further adorned with white plumage along the brim. These distinctions were characteristic of uniforms for other departments as well.
Coats were adorned with silver embroidery, the various grades [razryady] of which were determined by an officials rank. The chief director of government forests was prescribed embroidery in the shape of garlands around the collar and along the upper edge of the cuffs, as well as in the form of three lace buttonholes on the pocket flaps. Coats for Forestry Department councilors had two such buttonholes on the collar and three on the slit cuffs and pocket flaps as for the chief director. The same coat was laid down for ober-forstmeistery but with one sewn-on buttonhole loop on the collar and two on the cuffs. Officials holding field-officer ranks were authorized buttonhole loops only on the cuffs, while forshtmeistery and those serving in company-grade officer ranks received coats without embroidery, with collars (and apparently also cuffs) made of green cloth instead of velvet.
Depictions of officials of the forestry administration wearing uniforms of all five grades may be seen in the drawings attached to the ukase. They are preserved in the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA) and are published for the first time in our journal. It must be mentioned that these drawings, although executed with talent, fall far short of allowing us to understand all the points of the descriptive text, and often directly contradict it. Thus, the embroidery tracery is shown very schematically (possibly there was a separate drawing of embroidery patterns that has not come down to us). The front of the coat sometimes has five and sometimes six buttons, but at the same time we know that the overwhelming majority of uniform coats of the first half of the 19th century were fastened with precisely six buttons. Cuffs of ober-forstmeistery and field-grade officials are shown with three buttonhole loops instead of the two indicated in the ukase, and they are not placed on the cuffs themselves but on cuff-flaps of which there is not one word in the descriptive text (at the same time, the flaps are obviously drawn unskillfully and hastily). If one were to follow the ukase literally and make an analogy with known coats of other departments, then the embroidery would have to be placed either in the form of vertical buttonholes on the front part of the cuffs or as horizontal buttonholes on its rear slit (in the latter variant the third buttonhole loopfor councilorswould be above the cuff on the sleeve). Unfortunately, not one portrait of a forestry official from that time is known to us, and it is not possible to clarify the appearance of these coats in detail.
Differences in the cut of the depicted coats must also be noted. The chief director is dressed in a coat of civilian pattern, as indicated by his coattails not being turned back, round cuffs, embroidery in the form of garlands, and short breeches with stockings and shoes. However, the coats of the other officials clearly have a military cut, as shown by the turnbacks on the coattails, slit cuffs with flaps, embroidery in the shape of buttonhole loops, and boots with spurs. Such discord in the cut of the coats of the administration head and its other officials is not encountered in any other department.
All the described contradictions and missing details are explained by the fact that the uniforms of the Forestry Department were one of the first departmental uniforms in the French style adopted by Russia at the beginning of the new century with the new tsar. Apparently, clear rules and customs regarding uniform design did not yet exist.
* * *
The Forestry Department lasted thirteen years. In 1811 is was abolished when a new Finance Ministry was established and its affairs were transferred to the newly instituted Department of State Properties [Departament gosudarstvennykh imushchestv] and allocated among its various sections, among which were sections for ships timber and government forests. Forestry coats of the old grades went out of use, but officials in the local forestry administration, which preserved its organization, continued to also wear the previous uniforms.
On 14 March 1819 uniforms were established for members of the Finance Ministry in general. Regarding officials of the forestry administration, it was noted that they keep their previous uniforms. In the meantime, by the end of the 1810s their uniforms had changed somewhat in that they followed the general alterations that gradually took place in the cut and finish of civilian uniform coats. Thus, the cutout in front for the skirts became more distinct; the collar became lower while the embroidery on it grew more full; buttons down the front came to be 8 instead of 6 (by the end of the 1820s there were indeed 9). The cockade on the hat, which already in 1804-05 acquired the form of a rosette, from 1815 was further embellished with a silver strip around the edge.
On 19 March 1826 officials of the forestry administration were directed to wear dark-green pants without piping as part of their uniform, and white pants and boots are not to be worn at all.
On 19 June 1826 the was issued a regulation On a new organization for the forestry administration. German titles were replaced by their Russian analogs. Ober-forstmeistery were retitled provincial foresters [gubernskie lesnichikh], while forstmeistery, ferstery, etc. became senior and junior foresters and sub-foresters [starshie, mladshie lesnichie i podlesnichie]. Untouched by these changes was only Courland, which had its own special forestry administration and where German was the official language for carrying out forestry business.
By an administrative regulation for civil uniforms, confirmed on 27 March 1834, the appearance of forestry coats was somewhat altered and thereby brought into harmony with the general system of departmental uniforms in the Empire. According to the regulation, officials of the forestry administration were to have a single-breasted (with nine buttons) coat of civilian cut, dark green as before, with collar and slit cuffs of green velvet, edged with red piping. Pocket flaps were to be straight (horizontal), also with red piping. On the flat white (silver) buttons there was introduced the image of the state seal (a double-headed eagle). Along with the coat were worn a white neck cloth, hat and sword of the previous patterns, and long dark-green pants over short boots with screwed-in spurs.
As before, different ranks were shown by silver embroidery on the coats collar and cuffs. The tracery of the embroidery apparently remained the same as introduced in 1803, only becoming somewhat fuller with the years. This time a close-up drawing of it was attached to the ukase. On it one can see that the tracery is made up of oak leaves and acorns and stylized sprays of larch. The embroidery of the most senior grade, prescribed for provincial foresters and the Courland Ober-Forstmeister, was made up of thick buttonholes (of half the tracery pattern) at the end of the collar and pairs of vertical buttonholes with buttons on the cuff, and also a narrow embroidered edging with sparkles. This maximum embroidery corresponded only to the 6th grade of the overall 10-grade system (grades 1 to 5 were not considered for forestry coats because that administration did not have a central office). Coats of the 7th grade, authorized for the chief of the Institute of Forestry and senior foresters, had the exact same embroidery on the collar, but on the cuffs there was only edging without buttonholes. The 8th grade, prescribed for deputies to provincial foresters, district foresters, and the Forstmeister (in Courland), had embroidery only on the collar.
Coats of the 9th grade (with only edging to the collar and cuffs) were prescribed for the heads of forestry posts [pristavy lesnykh zastavov], junior foresters, and Courland Förster. Coats of the 10th grade (with edging only on the collar) were worn by sub-foresters and Unter-Förster.
On ordinary days, as a kind of undress coat [vitsmundir], officials were permitted to wear a dark-green double-breasted tailcoat [frak] with an open collar of green velvet and full-dress coat buttons. The sword was not worn with this tailcoat, and the headdress was to be a cylindrical tophat. For outdoor work there was worn a single-breasted frock coat [syurtuk] with eight buttons and a standing collar of green cloth edged with red piping. A forage cap [furazhka] worn with the frock coat likewise had a green cloth band with red piping. The frock coat could also be put on over the full-dress coat in place of an overcoat, but then sword and full-dress hat were prescribed.
The low-ranking chancellery clerks [kantselyarskie sluzhiteli] were authorized frock coats of the pattern prescribed for military clerks. On the forage cap, the initial letters of the departments name were formed out of cord. The senior clerkskantselyaristyhad silver non-commissioned officers galloon on the frock coat.
* * *
In 1803 a Practical Forestry School [Prakticheskoe lesnoe uchilishche] was opened in Tsarskoe Selo to train specialists for the forestry administration. In 1811 it was transferred to St. Petersburg and reorganized by combining it with the forestry school of Graf Orlov that existed since 1808 on Yelagin Island, the new establishment being called the St. Petersburg Institute of Forestry [S.-Peterburgskii lesnoi institut] or the Forest Institute [Forst-institut] (two years later yet another forestry school was absorbed by it, one that had operated in Kozelsk since 1804). Instructors at the Forest Institute wore the uniforms of the forestry administration, and students uniforms were in corresponding colors. In 1829 students were prescribed somewhat different uniforms: single-breasted, dark-green (with eight buttons), with light-green collar and piping, in the pattern of the Forestry uniform. In winter the uniform was worn with grey cloth pants, a dark-green forage cap with a light-green band, and a grey greatcoat with a light-green collar. In summeran oil-cloth forage cap and linen pants. In classes dark-green double-breasted jackets [kurtki] with light-green piping were worn.
In 1832 a School for Surveyors was opened at the Institute of Forestry, which took in peasants children as pupils. The pupils of the school were clothed in single-breasted cantonists frock coats [kantonistskie syurtuki] of the same colors as institute students, and upon completion of their course they received the title of forest surveyor [lesnyi mezhevshchik] and wore frock coats in the style of the forestry uniform with a sword without a swordknot.
* * *
One of the main purposes of the forestry administration was the protection of woodlands from clearing and poaching. The forestry administrations lower ranks provided the immediate oversight for the well-being of woods. These were forstmeistery and ferstery, and when necessary they utilized the help of the local population. Along with this, from the beginning of the century steps were taken to provide a specific structure to protect forests. Thus, in 1805-06 in the western provinces there were established two temporary forestry inspectorates [lesnye inspektsii] with their own authorized personnel table, while in Nizhnii-Novgorod Province a service of forest watchers [lesnye nadzirateli] was organized with government funds and subordinated to the ferstery and unter-ferstery. With the outbreak of the Patriotic War of 1812, forest guards [lesnye strazhi] of the western provinces were permitted to be used as needed by the army, and in Courland a Corps of Courland Riflemen [Korpus kurlyandskikh strelkov] was formed from inhabitants of Buschwächter [German forest guard] settlements. Members of the corps were called Forst-Jäger and non-commissioned officers were provided by lower ranks of the forestry administration.
We have not been able to find any information on the establishment of any kind of uniform for lower ranks of the forest guards of this period. Apparently no uniform was prescribed for them in view of the temporary character of their formation.
In 1832 the question arose as to forming a forest guard on a permanent basis. At the request of the finance minister it was permitted to draft personnel for the forest guard from the military. On 28 December 1832 there was issued a Regulation for a permanent forest guard under the Ministry of Finance, the lower ranks of which were to be mainly drawn from state peasant families. As a uniform for the marksmen [strelki] of the forest guard there was introduced a grey coat with light-green trim, a grey forage cap, and black jäger accouterments.
* * *
In 1828 the control of forests and stands of timber for ships was again centralized under the Ministry of the Navy, in which was formed a Department of Ships Forests [Departament korabelnykh lesov]. In accordance with an organizational table confirmed on 3 December 1828, officials of the Department, or under its administration, who do not wear military uniform were prescribed a coat of the style for officials of the Navy and War ministries but with light-green piping (instead of red or white). The department organized its own guard for the naval forests, the lower ranks of which wore naval-pattern jackets [kurtki] with light-green piping. In particular, it is known that in Olonets Province the marksmen of this guard were armed with short swords and carbines [tesaki i karabiny]. The Department of Ships Forests existed until 1853.
* * *
On 26 December 1837 the Ministry of State Properties [Ministerstvo gosudarstvennykh imushchestv] was established, to which were transferred various functions from the finance administration including the control of government forests. Soon afterwards the question of organizing a special Forestry Corps was raised. However, doubts arose regarding what structure to give itmilitary or civil. Finally, it was decided to organize it at first on a military basis as a kind of trial for two years (which was later extended). The new organization received the title of Corps of Foresters [Korpus lesnichikh]. It took in all forestry officials of the central and provincial administrations, educational forestry institutions, and the permanent forest guard.
An organizational regulation for the Corps of Foresters was confirmed by Nicholas I on 30 January 1839. The Corps was under the overall authority of the Minister of State Properties, but immediate control was exercised by an inspector of general-officer rank (from 1839 to 1843 this was I.A. Mochulskii). The permanent cadre of the Corps received military ranks: provincial foresters [gubernskie lesnichie] from major to colonel; district foresters [okruzhnye lesnichie] from staff-captain to major, and so on. The authorized strength of the Corps comprised 4 generals, 12 colonels, 33 lieutenant-colonels, 41 majors, and 636 company-grade officers.
For officers of the Corps there were introduced single-breasted dark-green coats with light-green cloth collars and cuff flaps and dark-green lining. Cuffs, turnbacks on the tails, and also the pants were dark green with light-green piping. The coat was finished with convex silver buttons with eagles, epaulettes according to rank, and silver embroidery of a pattern common for all and to a large degree repeating the tracery of the previous style for the forestry administration. The sword was prescribed to be the infantry rapier with a swordknot. The hat with a black plume was worn fore and aft [s polya]. On special days during summer white linen pants were worn instead of the cloth ones. As a parade headdress a lacquered shako [kiver] of naval pattern was introduced, with silver pompon and an army-pattern plate of white tin with the Cyrillic letters K.L. On forest inspections and field trips a double-breasted dark-green frock coat [syurtuk] was worn, with a light-green collar and piping on the cuffs, along with a forage cap in corresponding colors. Officers (except field-grade ranks) were not authorized hats [shlyapy] or sashes.
Besides the common Corps uniform, generals were also prescribed a general-officers parade coat, with light-green collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps, and silver embroidery of the pattern common for army generals. With this coat were worn high boots with silver spurs. Generals who came from the military and who were still carried on army rolls were permitted to also wear the common army general-officers coat.
For civilian officials temporarily remaining in the Corps, there was kept the coat now used by the civilian Forestry administration.
We note that in the design of the uniform for the Corps of Foresters one may perceive borrowings from other types of uniforms, indicating a connection or relationship with other organizations. Thus, the general cut of the coat echoes the style for the Corps of Engineers (being a military organization), as well as that for the Ways of Communications and the Mines administrations. With this, the conifers and oaks pattern of the embroidery underlines the lineage of the Corps from the former forestry administration. The light-green cloth collar and trim corresponds to the facing color on the coat for the Ministry of State Properties, underscoring the relation to the Corps parent agency. The naval shakos recall the original origins of the forestry administration in the Admiralty-Collegium and how important the sylviculture was for ship building.
The relationships with the various engineer corps that were referred to were not just in regard to external appearance. Later, in 1843, the regulations for the Corps of Mining Engineers were applied to officers of the Corps of Foresters. In connection with this, in 1848 the rank of major was abolished, resulting in field-grade officer ranks moving one level higher in the Table of Ranks.
* * *
On 19 June 1839 new uniforms were confirmed for lower ranks of the Forest Guard which became part of the Corps of Foresters as its lowest level. Rangers and marksmen [obezdchiki i strelki] were prescribed an infantry soldiers coat of the same colors as for Corps officers, but with light-green shoulder straps on which yellow letters indicated the district [okrug] (Northern, Internal, Southern, or Western [Severnyi, Vnutrennii, Yuzhnyi ili Zapadnyi]. The number of the province was stamped on the tin buttons. A lacquered naval shako was secured with a strap on buttons and was decorated with a light-green pompon and tin plate with the brass Cyrillic letters K.L. A grey greatcoat had the same collar, shoulder straps, and buttons as on the tailcoat. In summer linen breeches were worn, but during field work and patrolsgrey ones of greatcoat cloth, with light-green piping, worn both over boots and with high Russian-leather boots fastened under the knee with a buckle. A dark-green forage cap without a visor had a light-green band and piping, and letters as on the shoulder straps. The whole was completed with a sheepskin coat [polushubok] and work smock [rabochii kitel].
Rangers [obezdchiki] were distinguished by non-commissioned officers galloon on the coat, and by having spurs; they were armed with a rifle [shtutser] and saber. The horse was saddled cossack-style; the horsecloth [valtrap] was prescribed to be dark green with light-green trim and monogram.
Marksmen [strelki] were armed with rifles or cavalry muskets, as well as short swords on a black waistbelt. At first it was planned to issue only a greatcoat uniform, i.e. a greatcoat and grey pants, while the shako was replaced by forage caps of a special pattern used by the St.-Petersburg police. These caps (also called shako caps [kivernye shapki]) had a leather visor, light-green band, and dark-green crown, high in the front and lower behind. The flat, sloping top of the cap was sewn round with lacquered leather like the shako, and in front was affixed the same plate. Judging by later documents, marksmen wore these caps right up to 1855.
* * *
As early as the middle of 1837 the St.-Petersburg Institute of Forestry was reorganized on a military footing following the example of the institutes for the Corps of Mining Engineers and the Ways of Communications corps, and received the title Institute of Forestry and Surveying [Lesnoi i mezhevoi Institut]. It was organized into two sections: the first, with 120 students, just as before prepared specialists for the forestry industry (mostlyofficers of the Corps of Foresters), and the second (360 persons) trained surveyors and topographic engineers for the state properties administration. With the formation of the Corps of Foresters the institute became a part of it.
By the regulation of 7 July 1837 on the organization of the Institute of Forestry and Surveying, civilian instructors and officials were prescribed the uniform of the administrative office for state properties, and officersa uniform in the style of that for military educational institutions. In regard to military organization, students were divided into one Forestry and three Surveyor companies. In the Forestry Company was worn a cadet uniform the same as in the Institute for Mining Engineers, but with collar, shoulder straps, cuff flaps, and piping of light-green cloth. The pompon on the shako was also light green. In formation were worn a backpack of calfskin with the hair still on it, black accouterments, and instead of a musketa rifle with short sword. For drummers and buglers the coat had light-green shoulder wings and was trimmed with yellow tape.
Students of the Surveyor companies did not have military accouterments or weapons, and instead of a tailcoat wore jackets [kurtki] (of the same pattern, but without tails), and in place of shakosforage caps with visor and chinstrap. For them light green was replaced by light blue throughout. For all students classroom dress consisted of single-breasted dark-green jackets with colored collars, shoulder straps, and piping, grey pants, dark-green forage caps, and a waistbelt with a steel buckle.
At the institute there was established a Model Company of the Forest Guard [Obraztsovaya rota lesnoi strazhi]. Its lower ranks wore soldiers coats of the same colors as students of the forestry section but with shoulder straps of worsted tape and naval shakos. Buttons did not have the state seal, but rather the Cyrillic letters O.L.S. Only non-commissioned officers had galloon on collar and cuffs. Tape for drummers and buglers was white.
In 1838 the Forestry Company of the Institute of Forestry and Surveying was ordered to take part in parades the same as cadets of the Communications and Mining institutes. In 1844 their shakos were replaced by helmets, as in other military educational institutions. By a new administrative regulation, in 1847 the number of students was decreased and consisted of 60 persons in the Forestry Company and 50 in the Engineer Company (i.e. the company for survey engineers). Both companies were combined into one instructional battalion. The rifles in the Forestry Company were replaced with muskets.
After graduation from the Institute, students of the forestry section received the title of forestry conductor [lesnoi konduktor] and underwent practical experience in the Lisinskii Instructional Forest Establishment [Lisinskoe uchebnoe lesnichestvo], and until promotion to officer tank they wore only frock coats without epaulets, with a forage cap and sword [shpaga] without swordknot.
* * *
On 18 January 1843 all the forestry business that was divided between three departments of the Ministry of State Properties was concentrated in a newly formed Forestry Department [Lesnoi departament] under the ministry. To the department was added a duty office [Dezhurstvo] of the Corps of Foresters and a Forestry Auditoriat [Lesnoi auditoriat]. The Corps inspector became also the director of the Forestry Department. In the six divisions of the department there served officers of the Corps of Foresters as well as civilian officials. The latter were given the common uniform of the Ministry of State Properties.
The uniforms of the Corps of Foresters continued in use without change to 1855 when they were completely redesigned, losing the light-green distinctive color and their tracery embroidery. The naval-pattern shakos were replaced by army helmets. The forestry coat was distinguished from those of other militarized corps only by the color of the piping.
Page 19: Chief Director of Government Forests (left) and an official of the Forestry Department serving in field-grade officer rank. Drawings from the emperors ukase of 13 April 1803. (RGIA)
Page 20: Councilor of the Forestry Department (left); ober-forstmeister (right). Drawings from the emperors ukase of 13 April 1803. (RGIA)
Page 21: Official of the Forestry Department serving in company-grade officer rank, or a forstmeister. Drawing from the emperors ukase of 13 April 1803. (RGIA) Bottom: Badge of a courier of the Forestry Department, 1803. (Reconstruction.)
Page 22: Top: 6th grade embroidery for the Forestry administration, confirmed by Highest Authority on 27 February 1834. Drawing from Regulation for civil uniforms, 1834. (RGIA) Bottom: Major K.K. von Ludwig (Lyudevich) of the Corps of Foresters. Miniature by L.D. Kryukov, 1842. (Private collection.) In the 1840s von Ludwig served as provincial forester of Vyatka Province.
Page 23: Field and company-grade officers of the Corps of Foresters. Drawing from the ukase of 30 January 1839. (RGIA)
Page 24: Uniform embroidery for the Corps of Foresters, 1839-1855: general officers parade coat; common corps coat; coat for officers of the Institute of Forestry and Surveying. (Sergei Popov, 2001.) Headdress plate for lower ranks of the Forest Guard, 1839. (Reconstruction.)
Page 25: 1. Councilor of the Forestry Department, 1803 (with possible variations of the actual positioning of embroidery on the cuffs).
2. Courier of the Forestry Department, 1803.
3. Official (class 9) of the Ministry of the Navys Department of Ships Forests, 1828.
4. Provincial forester in the uniform of the Forestry administration, 6th grade, 1834.
5. Senior clerk [kantselyarist] of the Forestry administration, 1834.
6. General of the Corps of Foresters in parade uniform, 1839.
7. Field-grade officer of the Corps of Foresters, 1839.
8. Company-grade officer of the Corps of Foresters, 1839.
9. Ranger [obezdchik] of the Northern District of the Forest Guard, 1839.
10. Student (cadet) of the Forestry Company of the Institute for Forestry and Surveying, 1844.
[CORRECTION] In the article on uniforms of the mines administration (Tseikhgauz No. 13), an error occurred during the editing of the illustrations. On the drawing of the uniform of an officer of the Institute of the Corps of Mining Engineers (page 17, figure 8), a helmet with an army plate was incorrectly shown instead of the regulation plate for military educational institutions. We ask the readers pardon.
 Prazdnovanie stoletiya Lesnogo departamenta. St. Petersburg, 1898. Page 6.
 Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii. Sobranie I. (Henceforth PSZ-I.) No. 20538 from 2.XII.1802.
 PSZ-I, No. 20506.
 PSZ-I, No. 20614.
 PSZ-I, No. 20706; RGIA, F. 559, Op. 2, D. 148, L. 1-1ob.
 RGIA, F. 1329, Op. 1, D. 257, L. 53-58.
 PSZ-I, No. 24688.
 PSZ-I, No. 27681.
 PSZ-II, No. 157.
 Prazdnovanie stoletiya Lesnogo departamenta. Page 9.
 PSZ-II, No. 6860 §§ 2-3, 14-16, 72.
 RGIA, F. 1409, Op. 10, D. 26a, L. 7.
 PSZ-II, No. 6860. Prilozhenie B.
 PSZ-II, No. 2940 of 19.VI.1829.
 PSZ-II, No. 5486 of 06.VII.1832.
 PSZ-I, No. 22008, 22060.
 PSZ-I, No. 22087 of 10.IV.1806.
 PSZ-I, No. 25138 and 25139 of 12.VI.1812.
 Ministerstvo finansov. 1802-1902. St. Petersburg, 1902. Part I, page 351.
 PSZ-II, No. 5486.
 PSZ-II, No. 2475. For uniforms of the War Ministry see Tseikhgauz No. 7.
 PSZ-II, No. 7592 of 29.XI.1834.
 Stoletie uchrezhdeniya Lesnogo departamenta. 1798-1898. St. Petersburg, 1898. Page 103.
 Prazdnovanie stoletiya Lesnogo departamenta. Page 11.
 PSZ-II, No. 11978.
 Stoletie uchrezhdeniya Lesnogo departamenta. Page 105.
 PSZ-II, No. 21901 of 19.I.1848.
 PSZ-II, No. 12443.
 PSZ-II, No. 10431.
 PSZ-II, No. 11621a of 12.X.1838.
 PSZ-II, No. 18339a of 23.X.1844.
 PSZ-II, No. 20990 of 10.III.1847.
 PSZ-II, No. 16461.
Translated by Mark Conrad, 2002.