Russian Naval Uniforms 1696-1917

[Russkii morskoi mundir 1696-1917]

 

By V.D. Dotsenko. “LOGOS,” St. Petersburg, 1994.

 

Contents
From the author
Main text
Illustrations in the text
Tables of ranks and orders of dress
Rules for wearing orders, medals, and badges
Chronological evolution of naval uniforms
Illustrations of the chronological evolution of naval uniforms
Short glossary
Bibliography

From the author.

The history of Russian naval dress is one of the most interesting pages from this country’s culture. Amazing as it may be, until now this topic has remained completely unstudied, in contrast to descriptions of army uniforms, accouterments, and weapons.  Maybe this is because no one was interested, or maybe no one tackled the subject because of its difficulties. In regard to the history of Russian army uniforms, over 100 books and albums have been published, besides many official publications,  including A. V. Viskovatov’s unique 30-volume work Historical Description of the Clothing and Weapons of Russian Forces, With Drawings, Compiled by Highest Order., but  on the history of naval dress, basically nothing has ever been printed. Up to 1917 the Navy Ministry  produced only official regulationsu for the uniforms of naval personnel, and these were printed in naval almanacs as well as annual Navy Ministry registers. These first appeared only in 1856, and in all they were issued  barely ten times (not counting corrections and supplemental printings).

In 1874, as an appendix to an order introducing new uniforms, an album was printed with the title Drawings and patterns pertaining to the regulation on providing Navy Ministry units with articles of clothing and accouterments. This album contained drawings of several uniform items for naval lower ranks. Of special value are the album’s colored examples.

In the second half of the 19th century an unknown authors wrote A Description of the Uniforms of the Russian Navy Since 1706[Opisanie form obmundrovaniya chinov Russkogo flota s 1706 g.]. In his manuscript the author placed in chronological order basic documents on uniforms from 1706 through December 1856 (the manuscript is preserved in the Central Naval Library). Unfortunately, it contains no descriptions and, moreover, no illustrations. Nevertheless it is of great value because it is the first attempt to gather together all documentation that would indicate the evolution of naval uniforms over one and a half centuries.

In his many works, F. F. Veselago (the great historian of the Russian navy and honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nicholas Naval Academy, and  Naval Technical Committee) in a certain number of places describes the outward appearance of naval personnel in one or another period of history. One lifetime was not enough for this great student of naval history to write another work on the evolution of Russian naval uniforms.

At the end of the 19th century the Navy Ministry attempted to publish an Illustrated Description of Uniforms of All Naval Ranks [Illyustrirovannoe opisanie form obmundirovaniya vsekh chinov Morskogo vedomstva], but in 1899 only the first volume appeared, in which was described and illustrated officers’ uniforms that were worn at that time. Later issues of this effort never appeared.

The Naval Guards Équipage had better luck. In 1892 its honorary colonel, or chef, Empress Maria Fedorovna, was presented with an album of magnificently executed illustrations showing the uniforms of Guards Équipagepersonnel for almost the past 100 years. This unique collation, the author of which is still unknown, is preserved in the Central Naval Museum.

After the 1917 October Revolution the subject was forgotten for a long time. Few persons were interested in uniforms adorned with the two-headed eagle, imperial crowns, monograms of rulers, and awards with monarchical symbolism. It was only a hundred years after the above unknown author did 1st Rank Captain S. Yur’ev begin collecting material on the history of naval uniforms. He adopted the same framework as his predecessor and brought the theme up to 1943, but was likewise unable to enrich his material or give descriptions of naval dress. As a kind of supplement to his manuscript S. Yur’ev compiled a glossary of terms and made an album with drawings and photographs. These materials are kept in the collections of the Central Naval Museum.

Thus, for the almost 300 years of the Russian regular navy’s history no one has been able to finish the research and produce a complete work. This is what prompted the author to take up his pen. However, in order to fill such a large hole in Russian naval history, a great many archival documents had to be examined in addition to the above mentioned works. These included the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire, compilations of official orders, directives, and other instructions by the naval department, the Compedium of Naval Regulations, Materials on the History of the Russian Navy, graphic and visual works, photographic documentation, and actual specimens of clothing from the  Central Naval Museum and private collections. All this was the basis for the present work. How successful this was is left to the reader to judge. The author accepts all comments and requests with gratitude.

Preparing this work for publication would have been impossible without the support of P. A. Nikitov who helped gather archival documents, coworkers I. S. Zenchenko and V. Ya. Krest’yaninov of the Central Naval Museum, and especially the museum’s chief artist, A. A. Tron’. Also, librarians V. I. Rogovoi, K. K. Stolt, O. Kh. Volkovaya; the collector O. F. Feoktistov, and the photographer A. M. Gronskii. The author considers himself obligated to express his deep gratitude to these persons.

 

The Era of Peter’s Reforms

Upon ascending to the throne, Peter the Great understood like none of his contemporaries that the most swift develop of Russia required close ties with Europe and thus access to the Black and Baltic seas. The only naval port in European Russia—Archangel—could not satisfy these requirements due to its remoteness and the lack of roads. This was the reason that all of Peter I’s efforts since the end of the 17th century were directed to establishing Russia on the shores of the Black and Baltic seas. The realization of grandiose plans for creating a regular navy and fighting for access to the seas in the country’s south and north were preceded by the mock battles of the Poteshnyiplay fleet on Lake Pleshchev and the tsar’s sailing on the White Sea.

As is well known, Peter I’s first campaign against Azov in 1695 ended in defeat. In the opinion of the general officers’ council called by the tsar, the basic reasons for the failure were the absence of a unified command and specialists familiar with military engineering, and also the lack of a naval fleet, without which it was impossible to close a blockade around a naval fortress. Peter I took less than a year to fix the noted deficiencies.

By the spring of 1696 the Azov fleet, also known as the “naval caravan,” consisted of 22 galleys, the galleass Apostol Petr, and 4 fire ships. The construction of the galleass Apostol Pavelwas delayed and it was not able to be brought into the fleet before the beginning of the campaign. The tsar’s favorite, General F. Ya. Leforte, was named admiral of the Azov fleet. Colonel Lima was vice-admiral, and Colonel B. de Lozier was rear-admiral. These persons wore, as did Peter I himself, coats of various colors with gold embroidery, neck cloths decorated with jewels, dark-green or white pants, long boots, and hats. During battle steel cuirasses were worn under the coats. Peter assigned officers of the Semenovskii and Preobrazhenskii regiments as ship commanders, while the sailors were soldiers from the same regiments. Their dress differed not at all from that worn on land. In the summer of 1696 Azov was taken by a joint naval and army operation.

Peter I generously rewarded the victors. The boyar commander-in-chief, A. S. Shein, received a gold medal and 13 gold chervontsy, a goblet, a sable-lined coat with gold embroidery, an increase in pay of 250 roubles, and an estate.  Peter I granted Admiral F. Ya. Leforte villages, a gold medal, a fur coat, a piece of woven gold brocade, a goblet, and a stone house. Each soldier received a gold kopeck. The Petrine tradition of rewarding successes and zealous service with a  coat was preserved up to 1917. Originally, Peter I presented his soaked clothing to servitor Antip Timofeev who saved the yacht Svyatoi Petrfrom certain destruction in 1694 when the tsar was aboard making a voyage from Archangel to the Solovets Islands. In a document from the archives, signed on 22 December 1801 by Vice-Admiral A. S. Shishkov, we read: “Karpov (1st Rank Captain – V.D.) and Yakovlev (Midshipman – V.D.) are ordered by Highest Authority to be retired from service, the first with an increase in rank, pension, and uniform coat, and the second—with an increase in rank.” In 1842 Vice-Admiral M. P. Lazarev was decorated with jewel insignia of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky and ordered by Highest Authority to wear the uniform of the 12th Naval Équipagein memory of his command of that unit at the Battle of Navarino.

Even amidst the noisy celebrations of the victory at Azov, Peter I did not stop thinking about the creation of a strong navy. Recognizing that its creation would require significant resources and consequently the imposition of new taxes and duties, Peter I handled the problem not through a personal ukase in the name of the tsar, but through the boyars. Neither the location of the boyar council’s deliberation nor its membership is known. It is only known that at a session on 20 October 1696 two questions were discussed: settling Russians in Azov and the construction of a fleet. While the first question was dealt with and a resolution passed, the second resulted in only a general though fundamental decision—“there will be Russian ships.” A final decision on building a regular military fleet was postponed until the next session. This second meeting of the council took place on 4 November at Preobrazhenskoe. Exceptionally, the foreigner Patrick Gordon attended the meeting as a technical expert. After long and stormy discussions, in April 1698 it was decided to build a fleet for the Sea of Azov. In this way, through a decision by a council of generals and decrees of the boyar council from 20 October to 4 November 1696 one of Peter the Great’s most important reforms was carried through—laying the foundation for the creation of a regular Russian navy.

Peter I tasked his ambassadors stationed in maritime powers to recruit foreigners to serve in the Azov fleet. It was mainly Dutch and English who entered Russian service, more rarely French, Danes, and Spaniards. Especially heavy recruiting took place from 1696 to 1700. Groups of from two or three individuals up to several hundred reached Russia by land an by sea. Each person had his own dress so that in old engravings one sees a great variation in the style of clothing. Special uniform clothing was possessed only by soldiers in boarding detachments [soldatskie abordazhnye komandy].

From 1700, ships’ crews in the Azov fleet began to be formed of sailors drafted from army regiments. This immediately converted 504 men into sailors, and in the following year 98 soldiers were taken to be seamen. They all wore the uniforms of their regiments. In 1702 the Preobrazhenskii Regiment underwent its first draft “from all ranks aged 15 to 25 years.” At the first conscription of recruits 1200 men were drafted as sailors. In the same year the tsar issued an ukase for recruiting seamen from volunteers who had to be familiar with craft at sea or on rivers. Some 394 men were recruited as wishing to serve on the ships of the Azov fleet.

In 1705 Peter I ordered that Archangel pilots be subordinated to the admiralty commissar Ye. Ye. Izbrant, who in that same year established a special uniform for them. This consisted of a scarlet French coat [kaftan], red waistcoat [kamzol], red breeches, wig, hat, stockings, and German shoes. Apparently, Ye. Ye. Izbrant wanted to use such a colorful dress to not only distinguish his pilots, who had the skill needed to maneuver vessels through the difficult mouth of the Northern Dvina, but to make them easily recognizable in a crowd of townspeople.

Russian naval uniforms began to take shape in the first decade of the 18th century. It is not hard to notice heavy Dutch influence as the uniforms were designed. The dress of the sea soldiers underwent subtle changes. In one archival document dated 10 February 1706 we find: “It is very fitting that each soldier [soldat] have a green coat [kaftan], and a grey coat [yamurluk] for winter as protection against snow and frost. They should have grey jackets [bostrogi, from German Bootsrock?] and breeches suitable for soldiers to wear when working on ships, and when on guard duty the soldiers’ yamurlukcoats should have special embroidery to distinguish sergeants and corporal.”

As construction of the Baltic fleet was a far bigger undertaking than that of the Azov fleet, there were similarly greater problems in finding manpower for the ships, training the sailors, and providing all the required provisions. At first seamen were classed as old or experienced, i.e. already familiar with nautical affairs, and young or new recruits. They were further given rank according to seniority as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th class sailors. But soon in 1710 the category of seaman 4th class was abolished, and in a short time that of seaman 3rd class was also discontinued. Within a ship’s complement the sailors carried out nautical duties while the soldiers mounted guard and provided boarding and landing parties.

The regulation strength of the Baltic Fleet changed almost every year. For example, by tables for 1705 there were authorized for the Baltic Fleet 1 vice-admiral, 2 shautbenakht (rear admirals), 78 officers, 35 navigators, 14 doctors, 34 boatswains, 52 boatswain mates, up to 120 foreign and about 2500 Russian sailors and soldiers. But already in 1708 preparing just one squadron for sailing required about 8000 officers, sailors, and soldiers to man its ships.

When a authorization table for the number of ships in the Baltic Fleet was confirmed in October of 1715,  another regulation was issued on the sizes of crews for ships of different sizes. A 84-gun ship was authorized to have 650 men, while a 6-gun bomb vessel had only 30. All together the ships of the Baltic Fleet were to have 13,686 men, of which two-thirds were sailors and gunners.

In organizing the crews of frigates and ships of the line the authorization tables of the Dutch navy were taken as models. For example, here is the crew of the 28-gun frigate Mikhail Arkhangelwhen is left the river Syasi in May of 1704: Captain Pieter Fock in command, 2 lieutenants, a navigator, boatswain, and boatswain’s mate, 4 foreign and 27 Russian sailors, and 12 soldiers, or 49 men in all. But four years later the size of such a frigate was increased to 110 men.

In 1715 an authorization table was confirmed for the manning of the crews of the galley fleet. In organizing the crew of a galley the Venetian fleet was taken as a model. A galley crew’s was authorized to include the following foreigners: captain, lieutenant, komit [a rank taken over from Byzantine Greek galleys], stokomit, podkomit, doctor, commander of the guns, navigator, two steersmen, and six sailors. Russians consisted of a priest, clerk or scribe, two komit aides, navigator, kapodiskal, 36 sailors of whom 12 were already familiar with maritime matters, 5 gunners, 6 master craftsmen of whom two were caulkers, a carpenter, blacksmith, craftsmen for the oars and guns, 150 soldiers, and 250 rowers. The crews of some galleys consisted of 450 to 500 men. Rowers were prisoners as well as soldiers. A gradual replacement of prisoners by soldiers produced significant advantages because when boarded by the enemy, the soldier-oarsmen could engage them in battle but the prisoners were idle observers or sometimes even sided with the foe.

In 1712 four battalions of marines were formed from the former naval commands. Three battalions, each of 625 men and called the admiral’s, vice-admiral’s, and rear-admiral’s, were destined for service on the ships forming the corps de bataille, vanguard, and rearguard, respectively. A fourth (galley) battalion was for service on the ships of the galley fleet. There was also an admiralty battalion formed in 1705, which carried out shore duties at the admiralty buildings.

In the beginning all lower ranks arranged for clothing themselves, “obtaining it out of their received pay.” However, there was no accurate system for disbursing pay. For foreigners it was calculated according to a signed contract. Russians were paid depending on duties performed and the attentiveness of their commanders. Only in 1710 was regular monthly pay established according to rank and thus to duty position. Quartermasters received 2 roubles 50 kopecks, gunners 2 roubles, and sailors anywhere from 2 roubles to 50 kopecks. But most lower ranks, once having been paid, did not hurry to obtain clothing and—as noted in many orders—“went about naked.” The commander of the fleet, Vice-Admiral K. I. Kryuis, had to issue an order to withhold a certain amount for the purchase of clothing. The first regulation deductions for sewing clothing were only established in 1709, in the amount of 25 kopecks from each rouble. For this money lower ranks were issued “a hat, jackets, breeches, stockings, and chiriki shoes.” Sailors obtained the remaining articles of their clothing themselves.

The first mention of a specifically naval uniform is dated December 1710. In the correspondence of General-Admiral Graf F. M. Apraksin is a report on lower ranks’ uniforms in the fleet in which it was noted: “It is ordered to give sailors of the fleet a uniform beginning on 1 April 1711: a pair of jackets each, the same number of breeches made of grey kanifas (hemp sail cloth – V.D.), a pair of shoes with buckles, a pair of stockings, two shirts with drawers, and a cap or hat every two years. In the battalions a coat and waistcoat with breeches are issued every three years.” From this time on clothing in the fleet became distinguished not only by cut and color, but also by galloon, plumage, buttons, emblems, etc.

However, the lack of skilled tailors always made it difficult to make uniforms. Each man had to find a private tailor and orally explain what kind of uniform and of what pattern was to be sewn. In these years F. M. Apraksin often berated flag officers for “uniforms that are too skimpy, made of bad cloth, and with breeches more suitable for a 10-year old.” In January 1711 Prince Dolgorukoi reported to F. M. Apraksin: “Soldiers and sailors on frigates are almost all without clothing because shirts are so rarely to be found, and I cannot give them clothes because of lack of money.”

In the beginning of 1719 Peter I signed an ukase by which in the following year 1st and 2nd class sailors  and gunners would each be authorized a hempen [kanifasnyi] jacket with breeches of coarse peasant cloth [sermyazhnyi], a jacket with breeches of ticking [tikovyi], 12 arshins [9 yards] of  good linen and 8 arshins [6 yards] of thin linen [portochnyi] for shirts, 2 pairs of dark blue stockings, and a felt hat. Once every two years each man was to be issued a cloth jacket with hempen breeches and three pairs of shoes.

However, already on 7 March 1719 a new ukase appeared which stated: “ ... in regard to sailors’ jackets frieze cloth in cornflower blue [vasil’kovyi], sky blue [goluboi], and black is to be brought to the Admiralty from the cloth office [sukonnyi dvor] in Moscow, while breeches are to be as before, of grey cloth...” In this case the color of the uniform was determined by what was available at the cloth office in the appropriate materials. Such nonchalance in regard to coat colors continued until the middle of the century. In an order to the Naval Department on 3 June 1724 it was prescribed that: “The coat for petty officers and soldiers on board ships is to be made from cornflower blue or red cloth, since there is now no green cloth in the Admiralty.”

Starting in 1716 all questions regarding clothing for naval personnel were taken up by a specially established uniforms office [mundirnaya kontora], which in 1719 decided that navy clothing would begin to be sewn in a centralized manner according to confirmed patterns. In 1719 still another ukase appeared: “Henceforth there will be a deduction for clothing for 1st and 2nd class sailors on ships as well as galleys, and for those on transport vessels at the Admiralty, and also for gunners, which will be 13 altyn 2 den’gi in roubles, and the uniform to be issued to them will be: for each man a jacket of frieze cloth, with lining, hempen breeches every two years. Additionally, there will be an annual issued to each man: a hempen jacket with sermyazhnyi breeches. A 3rd class sailor will have no deductions for uniforms because his pay is so small, and will have his clothing given to him.”

An ukase of the tsar on 17 December 1717 ordered that departments [vedomstva] “be subordinated to their collegiums [kollegii],” which would begin operating at the coming new year. General-Admiral F. M. Apraksin was named president of the Admiralty Collegium, while vice-admiral K. I. Kryuis became vice-president. However, in its first years the Admiralty Collegium’s work could not be organizing in its due manner because neither its number of members nor their responsibilities were established. Thus, in 1718 its members were Graf F. M. Apraksin, Vice-Admiral K. I. Kryuis, Major General G. P. Chernyshov, and Colonel Norov, and in the following year Lieutenant Colonel Tormasov was assigned as over-secretary to maintain the collegium’s operations. From 1720 it was decided that a rear-admiral [shautbenakht] and captain-commodore would also attend sessions.

Only in 1722 was a regulation issued for the Admiralty Collegium that sufficiently laid out its sphere of responsibility as well as the duties of its chairman and members. In that year 13 chancelleries and officers were subordinated to the collegium, including those for military naval affairs, the admiralty, surveying, provisioning, contracting, clothing, budget, timber, comptroller, armories, treasury, paymasters, and auditors. All the named chancelleries and officers were only executive agencies through which the Admiralty Collegium carried out its decisions.

A great event in the history of the Russian navy was the adoption of the first Naval Statute[Morskoi ustav]. An ukase of 13 January 1720 announced that it was issued, and on 13 April the document itself was made public under the title “Naval Statute Book, containing everything for good command in the fleet and life at sea.” In connection with the sailors’ tendency in those years to sell new and worn-out uniforms to the civilian population, the Naval Statute contained the following article: “If anyone’s uniform or musket is wagered away, sold, or pawned, that person will be severely punished for the first and second offenses, but for the third time he will be shot or sent to the galleys. Anyone who buys or receives such items will return without recompense what was bought or received and be fined double their value; moreover, he will receive corporal punishment.”

No less important an event was the institution in 1712 of the St.-Andrew naval flag. This proved to be so suitable that it continued without change until 1917. There is a legend that in their time the Americans made an attempt to buy the right to raise the St.-Andrew flag on their ships for a sum only a little less than what they paid Russia for Alaska.

In 1722 a sailor’s coat [matrosskii kaftan] was introduced for lower ranks as their own style of uniform, as well as a hat bound “in the English manner, deep so that half the ear is covered.” Previously sailors had worn a Dutch-style hat. This year also saw the first appearance of a table fixing the wear-out times for items of clothing. “For gunners and sailors: annually – jacket of ticking, two pairs of shirts with drawers, two neck cloths of coarse striped cloth [pestredinnyi], two pairs of shoes, two pairs of stockings, and one hat; every two years – sailor’s coat with breeches.” Before this, uniform clothing as a rule was worn until completely worn out.

On 1 October 1722 a “guard-mount” uniform [karaul’naya forma] was introduced for naval lower ranks, consisting of a kaftan coat of sail cloth lined with coarse peasant cloth [sermyazhnyi]. This coat was sewn with wide sleeves and was fairly long.

In 1723 Peter I established uniform clothing for the cadets [gardemariny] of the Navy Guards Academy [Akademiya morskoi gvardii], opened in St. Petersburg in 1715. This was similar to the uniform of the Life-Guards Preobrazhenskii Regiment and consisted of a kaftan coat and pants of green cloth, white stockings, a black hat, and black shoes with brass buckles. Collar, cuffs, and coat lining were red.

Naval officers of the Petrine fleet stood out in society, in all likelihood, both by their external appearance and by their level of culture. This is because they had spent more time abroad and because they took part in all of the tsar’s festivities, which as a rule took place on the water. At the same time, however, many officers were distinguished by their coarseness and loved to drink, and quarrels and even fights were normal events. A case is known when N. Senyavin, when in Copenhagen in 1716, verbally abused and then beat General-Adjutant Devier, who was the tsar’s trusted representative and the brother-in-law of Prince A. D. Menshikov. His injuries were such that he was in bed for two weeks. However, N. Senyavin was one of the best commanders and successfully carried out his mission from the tsar to convey to Russia ships purchased abroad, so Peter I let the incident pass without comment.

By the end of Peter the Great’s reign promotion procedures became formalized. It is known that as early as the cruises of the Poteshnyi fleet in 1692 Prince F. Yu. Romandanovskii oversaw a parade in the rank of general and admiral. He was also an admiral during the tsar’s voyage from Vologda to Archangel, while I. I. Buturlin was a vice-admiral and P. Gordon a rear-admiral. But at this time these ranks were a formality, since their bearers did not have the corresponding naval training. There was an analogous situation during the second Azov campaign when the tsar’s favorite, F. Ya. Leforte, simultaneously held the ranks of general and admiral, because of which he was mistakenly called general-admiral.

During the first years of the navy’s existence there was no set procedure for promotions in rank. Foreigners received ranks according to the contracts they signed when entering Russian service. Promotions of Russian subjects, especially when it concerned flag officers, depended on the tsar himself. Only the ranks of lieutenant and sublieutenant could be bestowed by immediate commanders, bypassing the tsar. Sometimes, after some years of uninterrupted service, officers could petition for a rank themselves, and as a rule they received it.

The first time promotions for Russians were regularized was by the statue of 1720. In one of its articles we note: “from petty officer and midshipman to company-grade officer, that is—to sublieutenant, is by voting by ballot; from sublieutenant to captain-lieutenant is by seniority, without balloting; from captain-lieutenant to to 3rd-rank captain is again by ballot, but from 3rd-rank captain up to 1st-rank captain without balloting, again by seniority in rank; for 1st-rank captain to commodore and flag officer, there is voting by ballot for each rank or a special order will be given that specifies an officer’s merit. In the same way balloting is used for admiralty officials, namely comptrollers, treasurers, senior provisioning masters, senior commissars for contracting and purchasing, and councilors of the Admiralty Office; for other ranks promotion is not by balloting.” As we can see, voting by ballot was required when moving from one level to another, while promotion to positions at the same level took place by seniority. According to regulations the right to promote in rank was held by the Admiralty Collegium.

It must be noted that over the course of almost a quarter century there were fairly frequent changes in naval ranks. Only the ranks of admiral, vice-admiral, and rear-admiral [kontr-admiral, orshautbenakht, also called arir-admiral] remained the same. In 1707 the rank of captain-commodore [kapitan-komandor] was introduced, equal in status to that of an army brigadier or major general. In the Russian navy this rank was twice abolished then reinstated. It was finally done away with in 1827. In 1708 the rank of general-admiral appeared, equivalent to an army general-field marshal. At first captains were divided only by pay, but since 1713 there were 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th-rank captains (the rank of 4th-rank captain was abolished in 1717). In 1716 the rank of midshipman first appeared, and in the next year—that of ship’s secretary [korabel’nyi sekretar’]. In the Russian navy there were also the ranks of captain-lieutenant [kapitan-poruchik or kapitan-leitenant], lieutenant [poruchik or leitenant], and sublieutenant [podporuchik or unter-leitenant]. With the appearance of the naval regulations in 1720 the order of naval ranks was finally settled, and in 1722 the Table of Ranks laid down their relationship to army grades, civil officials, and court ranks. The highest rank, being Class I, was general-admiral, and the lowest (Class XIII) were ship’s commissar, 2nd-rank skipper [shkiper, responsible for the structure and equipment of the ship – M.C.], and marine artillery ensign [konstapel’].

Unlike lower ranks, Russian naval officers during Peter I’s reign had no fixed uniforms. Their coats of various colors were trimmed with gold galloon, the design of which was determined by the owner himself. Especially lavish was the decoration on the coats of general-admirals and admirals. They were adorned with galloon, gold embroidery, and sable fur, with jewels affixed to neck cloths and hats.

Under Peter I a system of awards was also developed. At the very end of the 17th century the first Russian knightly order was instituted—that of St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle. Drafts of its charter were written with the direct participation of Peter. The order was awarded in very small numbers, and over the entire Petrine period the knights of this order were less than forty. F. A. Golovin was the first to receive this award. Peter I himself was distinguished with this order only in 1703 for an actual military deed—the capture of two Swedish ships in the mouth of the Neva.

The insignia of the order was worn on a sky-blue ribbon worn over the right shoulder, while the star of the order was on the left side of the breast. On extraordinary occasions when in parade dress a cross was worn on a special chain of the order.

During the Petrine period enamel portraits of the tsar, decorated with valuable stones, were also awarded for bravery. In commemoration of the events connected with the Russian army’s unsuccessful Pruth campaign, in 1711 the lady’s order of St. Catherine appeared. Peter I planned to institute one more order, intended exclusively for  military deeds, named after the great Russian military leader and Orthodox saint, Prince Alexander Nevsky. But Peter I never found a recipient for this order, and it was first awarded only after the tsar’s death.

The oarsmen of the court sloops had a special uniform. They wore green, dark-blue, or red coats without collars, and matching pants. The coat was decorated with buttons and lace. The green coat had red cuffs. It was directed that a white neck cloth, white stockings, and black gaiters be worn with this uniform. The headdress was a hat with a high crown and wide brim.

Rowers in the Neva fleet, created in 1718, also had unusual clothing. The only stipulations were the pattern and that it be decorated with silk or woolen galloon and flat brass buttons. The wearer himself chose the material and color. As a rule, this clothing was sold in the markets of St. Petersburg.

 

The Navy Under Court Favorites

With the death of Peter the Great naval affairs lost their inspiration and quickly began to decline in importance. Those who had been close to the tsar, once they were freed from restraint, busied themselves with enriching their own fortunes. Government matters fell into the background. If under Peter I promotions and career advancements were in proportion to services rendered, now personal connections were paramount. For example, in 1726 3rd-Rank Captain I. P. Sheremetev and Lieutenant Prince M. M. Golitsyn became members of the Admiralty Collegium. Although they had never distinguished themselves in naval matters, they were of the highest aristocratic families.

The ships built during Peter I’s reign became old and unfit for service very quickly, and for all practical purposes were not replaced with new ones. During Catherine I’s entire reign only two ships of the line and several small craft were launched.

On the day in May of 1725 that Peter I’s daughter Anna married Duke Charles-Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, the empress distributed the order of St. Alexander Nevsky to the wedding guests. The order’s red moire ribbon was worn over the left shoulder and the star was worn on the left side of the chest. The rules for wearing the order of Alexander Nevsky had their own particulars: a cross was affixed to the ribbon at the thigh, with a star,  only on ceremonial occasions; normally the cross was worn on a narrower ribbon around the neck. This order was a rather high honor and occupied the fourth place in the hierarchy of orders. In K. M. Stanyukovich’s story Groznyi admiral [The Fierce Admiral] the hero received it, as related in this episode:

As before, he always rose at 6 o’clock, took a cold bath, and drank coffee with toast and cold ham. At 8 o’clock, dressed in a frock coat (on holidays a frock coat with epaulettes), with the order of St. Alexander Nevsky around his neck and that of St. George in a buttonhole, he set out on his usual walk, regardless of the weather, which lasted an hour or two and was a great pleasure for the old man.

Not many know that the “fierce admiral” was based on the writer’s father, Admiral M. N. Stanyukovich. He was awarded the order in 1862 after already having been a member of the Admiralty Council for seven years, i.e. was for practical purposes retired. The award was more for his advanced years than a recognition of his wartime services. Regardless, St.-Peterburgers marveled at his uniform coat which besides the order of Alexander Nevsky bore the orders of the White Eagle, St. Anne 1st class, St. Stanislav 1st class, St. Vladimir 2nd class, St. George 4th class with the inscription “For 18 campaigns,” and more than ten other decorations.

After Catherine I’s death in May 1727, in naval circles there was hope that the fleet might be reborn. However, during the very brief reign of Peter the Great’s grandson, Peter II, there was no change. Of “Peter’s nest of fledgelings,” Prince A. D. Menshikov was sent to Siberia, and Graf F. M. Apraksin and Admiral K. I. Kryuis had already departed this world. Although Admiral P. I. Sievers, who had an excellent knowledge of maritime affairs, was placed at the head of the navy, his quarrelsome nature prevented any real changes in the naval administration.

During these years ships went to sea very rarely, and to sail beyond the confines of the Baltic Sea was almost regarded as a feat in itself. A case is known in which Captain 3rd Rank I. Koshelev was promoted through two ranks at once to captain 1st rank for sailing to Spain on a commercial mission. In April of 1728 the High Privy Council decided that in order to save resources “...ships and frigates will be kept in a state such that if necessary they may be immediately armed for campaign; the preparation of provisions and other other supplies necessary for campaign, however, will be postponed. For normal cruises and the practical training of commands, five ships of lesser size will be made ready, but they are not to go to sea without an order to do so. Two frigates and two fleity [three-masted cargo ships, from the Dutch fluit – M. C.] are to be sent to Archangel and two frigates sent on a cruise no farther than Reval. Galleys of the number that has been ordered will be made ready and fit.”

With the fleet being treated in such a manner interest in naval service declined so much that many ships’ crews could not be kept at even half strength, and there was a particular shortage of captains and navigators. Sailors worn ragged coats and, as noted in the journals of the Admiralty Collegium, “went about naked and barefoot.” In this regard one of the sessions decided that from March 1728 sailors would be prescribed a dark-blue coat with red cuffs and red lining. In order to differentiate marine artillerymen, from September of that year they were given a red uniform coat with slit cuffs and cornflower-blue collars and lining, and instead of horn buttons—brass ones. From 28 August 1729 the same buttons were sewn on the coats of all naval lower ranks. On this subject it was written in the Admiralty Collegium’s  jounral: “Colored uniform coats and waistcoats both now and in the future are to be made with brass buttons; the brass coat buttons now in on hand will be used up, but on waistcoats, with what is necessary being bought through the contracts office, while horn buttons are to be sewn onto coats made of hemp or ticking.” However, the supply of brass buttons only lasted for six months. The Collegium decided to temporarily allow horn buttons to be used, to be replaced as soon as possible with brass ones.

In December 1728, new wear-out periods were established for lower ranks’ uniform items. Gunners and  sailors were authorized the issue of a jacket of ticking every year, along with two shirts, two neck cloths, and two pairs of shoes and stockings. A sailor’s coat was to be issued every two years, along with hempen pants, a pair of boots, and an English-style hat. Every three years they to be issued a sailor’s coat with lined with peasant’s cloth, and hempen pants.

Under Empress Anna Ioannovna the most influential person in Russia was A. I. Osterman. In 1732 a “Military Marine Commission” [“Voinskaya morskaya komissiya”] was established under his chairmanship. The members were Admirals T. Sanders, N. A. Senyavin, P. P. Bredal’, and Mamonov, and Captain-Commodore V. A. Dmitriev-Mamonov. In that same year the commission presented its plans for a reorganization of the naval administration. If previously members of the Admiralty Collegium were actively employed admirals, i.e. commanding fleet units, they now were not directly controlling the fleet or its squadrons. By a newly confirmed organization table three members of the Collegium were vice-admirals and one was a rear-admiral. Two advisors holding vice-admiral rank were also authorized, with the first being in charge of the Naval Academy, and the second overseeing factories and production facilities. The Collegium also had a procurator, senior fiscal official, and executive agent [prokuror, ober-fiskal i ekzekutor]. A senior secretary remained at the head of the Admiralty Collegium’s chancellery, and the chancellery itself had about ten men. The procurator had his own chancellery.

From the former chancelleries and officers were formed four agencies [ekspeditsii]: for the commissariat, intendance, crews, and artillery. These agencies were managed by permanent members of the Admiralty Collegium who received the titles of general-war-commissar, general-intendant, general-master-of-crews, and senior master of the ordnance, respectively [general-krigs-komissar, general-intendant, general-ekipazhmeister, andober-tseikhmeister]. After the reorganization the president of the Admiralty Collegium was Graf N. F. Golovin.

In 1733 the building of ships was resumed in Archangel, where larch was used to construct two-deck ships and frigates on the Solombalsk wharves for the Baltic Fleet. As before, the St.-Petersburg wharves were empty. All naval personnel were divided into divisions that encompassed 36 companies. As part of the divisions came two newly formed regiments of soldiers. In 1734 a Corps of Marine Artillery was created and a beginning was made in forming a Corps of Naval Navigators. In place of white, dark-blue, and red flags on the ships of the fleet there was introduced a white flag with a dark-blue St.-Andrew’s cross, and for the galleys—a red swallowtail flag with a dark-blue St.-Andrew’s cross in a white canton.

At the beginning of 1732 the Collegium discussed a proposal from Captain P. I. Sievers regarding uniforms for naval offices and passed the following resolution: “The Collegium has decided: because officers in the fleet do not have a standard uniform for themselves, and therefore are not distinguishable when with other officers and officials at all ceremonial occasions, it has been judged advantageous to follow the example of army officers and officials, and we order: the aforesaid commissioned officers, serving on ships as well as on galleys, are at their own cost to have made and henceforth possess a uniform of cornflower-blue cloth with red lining, in the following style: kaftan coat without collar, flaring cuffs on the sleeves, coats and waistcoats trimmed along the front opening, pocket flaps, and cuffs with straight gold braid [pozument], large gold buttons down to the waist; buttonholes trimmed with gold braid, and where the braid crosses the rear opening, with worsted, too; artillery officers are to have red with dark-blue cuffs and the same braid and buttons.”

The Collegium ordered that half the captains, captain-lieutenants, lieutenants, and sublieutenants be sent from Kronstadt to St. Petersburg to receive pay and have uniforms sewn according to the confirmed pattern. But in just a week came a new order: if anyone had not managed to order a new uniform, he was to wait a little until receiving special instructions, and to report what he had. The reason for such an order has not yet been established. Possibly, officers had not been able to order new uniforms because of financial difficulties, or perhaps the storehouses did not have the appropriate cloth, galloon, and buttons. It is only known that not more than ten of the most wealthy officers in the Baltic Fleet had uniforms of the new pattern tailored for themselves. The majority of officers continued wearing old uniforms until 1735.

In 1735 navy mid-grade officers were authorized a green coat with cuffs, lined red, a red waistcoat lined white, and red cloth breeches. The coat had a red fold-down collar and red cuffs. The coat and waistcoat were trimmed with gold galloon and adorned with large gold buttons. Mid-grade officers wore black hats edged with gold galloon, and powdered wigs with queues wrapped with black ribbon. Uniforms for junior officers were the same but without galloon. All officers were authorized to go about in black leather gaiters. For parade dress—red stockings and blunt-nosed shoes with brass buckles, white sashes, and on the left side—a sword.

At this time officers began to have their uniforms sewn according to patterns. Before 1735 their uniforms were distinguished by their varied styles, since orders containing literally only a list of items and their colors. The dimensions and placement of pockets and cuffs, the number of buttons, and other details were determined by the client and his tailor. For example, an ukase from 1726 prescribed, “Each soldier and officer is to have a duty uniform made for himself, namely: coat and breeches of cornflower-blue cloth with red cuffs, waistcoat of red cloth, trimmed down the front opening with silver braid.”

It is remarkable how in the Russian navy the need for show always played such a large role in the clothing of personnel. In the archives there are many documents recording the re-clothing of personnel with new uniforms when being seen by high officials or being inspected or reviewed. Thus, in a report of 13 July 1727 Vice-Admiral N. A. Senyavin requested, “ ...for transporting the Sovereign Empress Anna Petrovna from ship to shore, the quartermaster and oarsmen should be issued the red uniform and kolpaki (headdress in galley crews – V.D.) that are in the storehouses.” As a rule, uniforms issued beyond norms were returned to store, but there were instances when this clothing was allowed to be kept as a kind of reward for zealous service.

For example, after an inspection of one of the Baltic Fleet équipages, on 13 February 1826 Highest Authority ordered that “naval officers and lower ranks are to be given new uniform clothing of the kind in which they were presented for inspection to Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich on the 11 February, except for shakos for officers and lower ranks and the mess tins that they had but which are not authorized.” On that same day a new uniform was given to the cadets of the Naval Corps.

In 1832, after Nicholas I, who had visited the garde-marine companies, declared his satisfaction with the brave appearance of grenadiers wearing mustaches, there came an order directing that “all military (combatant) ranks are to wear mustaches.” In a short time the fashion for mustaches spread throughout the young men of the fleet, and in this regard there came a new order: “It has been noticed that in some navy équipages and commands, as well as in navy hospitals, non-combatant lower ranks are wearing mustaches, to which they are not entitled according to current regulations. The Inspection Department of the Navy Ministry, in accordance with the wished of higher authority, hereby announces for appropriate action through the Naval administration, that non-combatant lower ranks, namely: clerks, messengers of the watch, skipper’s assistants, commissar’s assistants and junior assistants, medics, hospital apprentices, masters of minor crafts, couriers, typesetters at the navy printing office, and watchmen [pisarya, vakhtennye, shkhiperskie pomoshchniki, batalera, unter-batalera, fel’dshera, gospital’nye shkol’niki, mastery melochnykh masterstv, kur’era, naborshchiki morskoi tipografii i storozha], are not allowed to wear mustaches.”

During Anna Leopoldovna’s short reign, lasting less than a year, there were no changes in the navy. She only managed to grant A. I. Osterman the title of Graf and the rank of general-admiral, and award the order of St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle to Admiral N. F. Golovin. The navy, though, fell into final ruin. The new president of the Admiralty Collegium, Prince M. M. Golitsyn, who would receive the rank of general-admiral in 1750, was without initiative and proved to be completely inactive. Under him even the most insignificant questions concerning the fleet were decided upon only after hours in councils with flag officers and captains.

During these years theft and stealing ran rampant in all departments. Many civilians wore stolen naval uniforms in which they often took part in drunken debaucheries, thus leading to sailors being execrated. These disorders were cut short by severe punishments laid upon persons wearing a uniform that did not belong to them.

With the rise to power of Peter the Great’s daughter, Elizabeth Petrovna, there were some changes in the naval administration. Flags in three colors were again introduced, shipbuilding recommenced in many dockyards, the Naval Noble Cadet Corps [Morskoi shlyakhetnyi kadetskii korpus] was formed from the Academy of the Naval Guards and the cadet company [Akademiya Morskoi gvardii i Gardemarinskaya rota], and a new uniform was introduced for officers of the fleet. From 12 June 1745 officers received white coats and breeches. The coat[kaftan]had a green fold-down collar and green slit cuffs on which were sewn three buttons. The waistcoat was green with white lining. The coat and waistcoat were fastened with flat brass buttons, and for admirals and mid-grade officers—trimmed with additional gold galloon. If before 1745 galloon was sewn on as decoration, it now was a kind of rank distinction. For admirals the coat and waistcoat were trimmed with two rows of galloon, and for mid-grade officers—with one. Junior officers had the same uniform but without galloon.

In the summer of 1748 other ranks in the navy received rank distinctions: for midshipman of petty officer rank, 3rd-rank skippers, and navigators, a single row of braid was sewn onto the coat collar, and four rows on the cuffs; for junior navigators [podshturmany], boatswains [botsmany], and skippers [shkhipery] three rows were sewn onto the coat cuffs; for boatswains’ mates [botsmanmaty], assistants to the master of rigging and sails [shkhimanmaty], and ships’ clerks [korabel’nye pisarya]—two rows of braid, and for quartermasters [kvartirmeistery], commissars’ assistants [batalera], and clerks [pisarya]—one row.

In these years ships went to sea with understrength crews. There were instances when with a fresh wind the small crew could not even raise the anchor in order to get underway. The lower ranks’ clothing was ragged and their shoes worn through, since these were worn for two or three times the prescribed wear-out periods.

At the beginning of Peter III’s reign a commission was again created for “bringing the fleets to a better state.” Members were Vice-Admiral V. F. Louis, Rear-Admiral S. I. Mordvinov, Rear-Admiral F. S. Miloslavskii, and Captain-Commodore A. I. Nagaev. The commission proposed new authorized strengths for ships’ crews, improve the conditions of lower ranks—including reviewing the regulations for uniform clothing, transfer the Admiralty from St. Petersburg to Kronstadt, etc. The tsar himself desired “that the fleet be brought to, and permanently maintained in, a state such that it can be sure of  dominating the fleets of other Baltic powers.” However, the grandson of Peter the Great also failed to do anything tangible for the navy.

 

The Navy Gathers Strength

With Catherine II’s ascension to the throne, the most senior member of the Admiralty Collegium was Admiral I. L. Talyzin, but nevertheless the real force in the Navy remained S. I. Mordvinov, one of the more educated naval officers, who had passed through all the ranks from midshipman to vice-admiral and acquired much experience commanding ships and squadrons. A. S. Pushkin wrote about him, “...radiant in valour, and glory, and technical expertise.” It was he who was tasked by Catherine II to report on all the deficiencies noted in the naval administration and proposals for their remedy. Soon, on 10 November 1763, S. I. Mordvinov reported to the empress on the work accomplished, and in a week Highest Authority established a “naval commission of the Russian fleets and Admiralty administration, for bringing that element (the navy – V.D.) to a true and good state capable of defending the state.” S. I. Mordvinov himself was named chairman of the commission, and its members were Catherine II’s adviser in naval matters Lieutenant General Z. G. Chernyshev, Vice-Admiral F. S. Miloslavskii, and Rear-Admiral G. A. Spiridov.

In an effort to express special recognition of the sailors and and wishing to elevate the role of the navy, on 29 June 1763 the empress named the heir to the throne, Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, general-admiral of the fleet. The grand duke’s promotion was accompanied by lavish ceremony. The admirals presented him with the St.-Andrew flag, under which he in company with the empress and her suite made a cruise from the Admiralty to the Saints Peter and Paul Fortress. At the end of a religious service at the home of the fortress commandant, Catherine II awarded the grand duke a flag with a cross [keizerflag], under which he made the return sail to the Admiralty. From that time on, regardless of his youth, Grand Duke Paul Petrovich took an active part in naval ceremonies and celebrations. Fittingly, for this ceremony the oarsmen of the court detachment were specially fitted with a splendid uniform of bright colors and rich gold galloon decoration. Later Catherine II created an additional court yacht detachment from the court oarsman command, and with it she often went to sea on the yacht Svyataya Yekaterina for pleasure or to inspect the navy.

In the summer of 1765 the aforementioned commission approved a “Regulation for Admiralty and naval  administration” that defined the powers and responsibilities of members of the Admiralty Collegium and its subordinate offices [ekspeditsii]. In accordance with the new regulation five offices were formed: commissariat, intendance, artillery, treasury, and accounting, or the comptroller’s. Each office included a deputy and two advisers over whom stood the chief [ekspeditor]. The Collegium itself was to  conduct all its business in strict accordance with the regulation and existing statute [ustav]. All matters were to be decided in meetings of at least a majority of its ekspeditsiya members: the general-war-commissar, general-intendant, general master-of-ordnance, general finance chief [shatsmeister, from the  GermanSchatzmeister – M.C.], and general-comptroller. The Admiralty Collegium comprised its president with the rank of general-admiral, a vice-president, and the five ekspeditsiya members. The ranks of the ekspeditsiya members were not specified. The Collegium also included a general-procuror and general-auditor. Until 1798 the post of president of the Admiralty Collegium remained vacant since the rank of general-admiral was taken by the heir to the throne, Paul Petrovich. Upon his ascension to the throne as Paul I, the position was taken by I. L. Golenishchev-Kutuzov who remained in it until 1802, i.e. until the formation of the ministry of the navy.

Questions regarding clothing personnel were the responsibility of the commissariat office. It submitted for consideration by the collegium recommendations for improving uniforms, took care of issuing finished uniforms to lower ranks, and saw to the preparation of cloth, leather, accessories, and so on. As before, theft and corruption blossomed in the naval administration. Anything could be stolen, including uniforms. In response to numerous report of such malfeasance, Catherine II jokingly answered, “They steal from me just as from everyone else; but that’s a good sign since it shows that there’s something there to steal.”

Several times commissions were formed to consider new organization tables for the Baltic Fleet. There were many opinions and proposals. Finally it was decided that the Russian fleet must surpass the combined Danish and Swedish navies, and on 21 March 1764 organization tables for ships in peacetime and wartime were adopted.

A few years later all the Baltic Fleet’s ships were divided into two divisions [divizii], the first commander of which were Vice-Admirals V. Ya. Chichagov and S. K. Greig. Each division consisted of four squadrons formed not as tactical organizations to carry out military operations, but as formations convenient for training personnel. Still, in several instances tactical units were formed on the basis of the existing squadrons to carry out specific missions. For example, there was the Baltic Fleet’s Reval squadron in an advanced position where it was the most battle-ready unit afloat, or the Archangel squadron, designated for manning ships built in the Archangel yards and sailing them to the Baltic. But this division of forces did not last long. Under Paul I in the “Organizational tables for the Russian fleet” a squadron was defined as a tactical unit of four ships-of-the-line and one reserve ship.

In 1783 the Black Sea Fleet was formed, and in two years an organization table was adopted by which it was proposed to have two 80-gun and ten 66-gun ships. Twenty frigates, three large raft-like craft called kameli, and several tens of smaller craft. It was determined that 13,500 men were needed to man such a quantity of vessels. However, in 1798 new organization tables were adopted for both the Baltic and Black Sea fleets.

It is noteworthy that by the middle of the 18th century many of the skills for building ships in Russia itself were practically gone. Foreign experts returned to their own countries, and the great ships of Peter the Great’s time came to the end of their useful lives without equivalent replacements having been built. A case is known when due to the low quality of ship construction a squadron under Rear-Admiral M. I. Voinovich practically lost its ability to fight after running into a storm. On many ships beams were dislodged, and when planks forming the lining of the vessels came apart, there were leaks requiring massive efforts to keep the ships afloat. When shrouds snapped several ships lost their masts, the flagship losing all three. The frigate Krym sank, and the shipMariya Magdalina was carried off to the Bosphorus where it was seized by the enemy. It may be mentioned here that when foreign navies were beginning to use pig iron as ballast, the Russians continued using stones and sand which attracted trash and debris, and with infiltration by water and poor ventilation rot set in, creating ideal conditions for nourishing rats, insects, and other pests. The dampness and poor air flow below decks meant that men’s clothing did not dry out for months at a time and provisions went bad very quickly, all this contributing to high sickness and mortality rates. Thus, 54 sailors died in G. A. Spiridov’s squadron when sailing from Kronstadt to Copenhagen, and when going on to the Mediterranean the total number of sick exceeded 700 men. Disturbed by the situation in the squadron, Catherine II wrote to G. A. Spiridov, “When you eat up all your provisions on the way, then your whole expedition is a shame and humiliation for us both... In the name of God himself I ask you to preserve your morale and not expose yourself to everyone’s ridicule. All of Europe is watching you and your expedition.” In a display of concern for the sailors’ wellbeing, the empress abolished punishment with rods or the cat o’nine tails unless preceded by a trial. But the lash continued to rule in the Russian navy for a long time.

As no time before, during Catherine II’s time external presentation was paramount in the fleet. It influenced all aspects of naval activity, including the appearance of its personnel. Trying to show the empress the fleet in all its shining glory, senior officers during imperial inspections dressed the men in new uniforms which were returned to store until the next review. For instance, when Catherine II visited the Black Sea Fleet in the summer of 1787, Graf M. I. Voinovich did everything possible to please the empress. In Admiral N. D. Senyavin’s notes we find:

The oarsmen were selected from among the finest men and had to be tall, handsome in face and limb, and on the right all were blond, and on the left—all dark-haired. The dress was as follows: wide breeches of orange satin, silk stockings, shoes, find linen shirts, taffeta neck cloths of the same color and sumptuously knotted. When the men rowed, the knot and ends were turned round to the back. Orange jackets [fufaiki] of fine cloth with black cord applied in various tracings, a round hat with wide galloon, tassels, and a plume of ostrich feathers. The boat sparkled with gilt and lacquer.

The other captains’ boats were also painted in the finest paints under a coat of lacquer. Oarsmen were dressed in narrow jackets of dark-blue cloth, striped silk breeches, linen shirts, a pink neck cloth or kerchief, and a hat with lace. Men aloft on the yardarms were put into summer dress, white jackets, and wide breeches, silk neck cloths, round hats, and shoes. Sashes around the waist were of a different color for each ship, similar to the ribbons for the orders of St. George, St. Vladimir, and so on. At that time uniformity in style was not an object, only a fine and proper appearance.

Trevenin, an Englishman serving in the Russian navy, characterized the sailor of Catherine’s time: “One could not wish for better men, since under enemy fire the clumsy and unskilled peasant muzhiks quickly turned into knowledgeable, stalwart, and bold fighting men.”

By making great efforts it was possible by the end of the 18th century to improve the quality of ship construction. Ships began to have English-pattern pumps installed, the underwater parts were sheathed in copper, wooden armature was replaced with iron, the upper deck was made leak proof, etc.

The sizes of crews were also changed. Admiral S. K. Greig proposed that an 80-gun ship have a commander, 2 captain-lieutenants, 4 lieutenants, 11 midshipmen, and 440 sailors. The crew of a 74-gun ship was to consist of a commander, 2 captain-lieutenants, 3 lieutenants, 10 midshipmen, and 407 lower ranks. His calculations were derived from the organizational basis that one midshipman was to command a boatswain, quartermaster, and forty sailors. Two or three such commands were under one lieutenant, and two lieutenant’s commands—under the control of a captain-lieutenant. S. K. Greig also proposed to eliminate he fleet practice of frequently transferring sailors from one ship to another.

Upon the suggestion of Z. G. Chernyshev, in 1777 the Russian navy introduced ship’s wardroom messes [kayut-kampanii] after the English model. They were first established on the Iezekil’ andGraf Orlov, but soon the innovation spread to other ships. We know that before his, officers’ servants were for the most part from his own serfs. They cooked for their masters however they could, jostling and cursing in the cramped galley, and complained about each other and embroiled their officers in the quarrels. Also, the richer officers ate better than the others, arousing the envy of those less well off. With the introduction of the wardroom these problems were eliminated.

On a proposal put forth by Doctor Bacheracht, ship’s sick bays [lazarety] were introduced. The authorized crew of a ship of the line included a staff-doctor [shtab-lekar’], 2 doctors [doktora], 4 doctor’s assistants [podlekarya], and several doctor’s apprentices [lekarskie ucheniki]. During these years there began the systematic practice of smoking out ships’ interiors by burning dry beech branches, which not only dried out the ship, but also killed insects and vermin.

At the same time new ship manning tables were introduced in 1764, a table for the organization of personnel in the navy as a whole was established, the system of career promotions was changed, and new uniforms were introduced. The new table authorized the navy to have a general-admiral, 2 admirals, 2 vice-admirals, 3 rear-admirals (one of whom was to command the galley fleet), 18 1st-rank captains, 15 2nd-rank captains, 52 captain-lieutenants, and 97 lieutenants. The table for peacetime amounted to 21, 813 men, while the wartime table authorized from 28,121 to 32,527 men.

Under Catherine II the ranks of 3rd-rank captain, ship’s secretary, and sublieutenant were abolished. The Admiralty-Collegium was authorized to make promotions up to 2nd-rank captain and colonel, inclusive. Higher ranks were granted only by Highest Authority. It was confirmed that promotion from cadet to midshipman was by the attestation of the cadet corps leadership, from midshipman to lieutenant by examination, and “to other ranks, even to those of mid-grade officers, by ballot [po ballotirovaniyu].” However, in 1764 promotion from 2nd-rank captain to 1st rank began to be by seniority, and in the following year promotion to rear-admiral set down as by ballot [po ballam].  But in 1782 balloting was discontinued in favor of promotions solely by seniority into vacant positions. During Paul I’s reign promotion from midshipman to lieutenant was by examination, as before, and from lieutenant to captain-lieutenant—by balloting, and to the following ranks—only by seniority.

Conditions for leaving service and retiring were also changed. If an officer had made 18 voyages (“campaigns”), then he was authorized a pension upon retirement, and if he had been wounded in battle, then he was authorized promotion to the next rank. For unauthorized absences, insubordination, and drunkenness, officers could be discharged without pension. When Paul I ascended to the throne he immediately promoted P. V. Chichagov to captain with equivalency to brigadier [kapitan brigadirskogo ranga], but in the following year released him from service without pension “for contrary character” [“za sprotivost’ nrava”]. True, as soon as 1799 he was again taken into service and promoted to rear-admiral.

As before, officer cadres were trained in the Naval Noble Cadet Corps, which after a big fire on Vasiliy Island on 23 May 1771 was transferred to Kronstadt in the Italian Palace. During these years interest in the corps on the part of the empress and higher authorites slackened. Naturally, the level of training sharply declined. However, the formation of the Black Sea Fleet and the increase in naval forces on the Baltic not only demanded an increase in the size of the officer corps, but also better standards of training, so the number of students at the cadet corps was increased from 360 to 600. In Kherson Prince G. A. Potemkin opened a Naval Corps which was later moved to Nikolaev with a change in name first to the Navigators’ School and then to the Navigators’ Company [Shturmanskaya rota].

After Paul I ascended to the throne the corps was again transferred to St. Petersburg, after which it was often graced by the emperor’s visits. As a sign of gratitude for the monarch’s attention to the corps, the newly built corps chapel was consecrated in the name of St. Paul the Confessor, in whose memory the  chapel held a yearly service on 6 November. This day was both the emperor’s name day and the day he ascended to the throne, and it became celebrated as the corps’ holiday.

In 1764 rules were adopted for “What uniform personnel serving in the fleet and at the admiralty should have,” on the title page of which Catherine II wrote in her own hand, “Make it so.” For officers on ships a white coat was introduced, with green lapels, cuffs, and collar. The waistcoat and breeches were of yellow cloth. Senior flag officers first had rank denoted by buttons sewn onto the cuffs. Admirals were prescribed three buttons, vice-admirals two, and rear-admirals one.

Coats and waistcoats for mid-grade officers were richly embroidered with gold lace and had large gilt buttons. Rank distinctions were also introduced for other officers. Along the edges of the waistcoat and on the pocket flaps 1st-rank captains sewed wide and narrow galloon, 2nd-rank captains sewed one row of galloon onto the edges of the waistcoat and two onto the pocket flaps, and captain-lieutenants’ waistcoats had a single row of narrow galloon. Captains of major-general rank had the same embroidery as 1st-rank captains, but they also had one admiral’s button sewn onto the cuffs.  For ships’ officers the new rules introduced a strap on the left shoulder according to pattern, braided from lace cord with a small gold or silver tassel. The design of the lace was determined by the ship’s commander.

The exact same uniforms as for ships’ line officers were introduced for ranks in the Corps of Marine Artillery, but collars, cuffs, and lapels for them were of black velvet, and they had black lining on the coat instead of green. On their black hats they had gold cord sewn on instead of galloon. The general master-of-ordnance [general-tseikhmeister] wore an admiral’s uniform but instead of a green collar and cuffs—black velvet.

For ranks in the Corps of Naval Navigators a green coat was introduced with white collar and cuffs and green waistcoat and breeches. With this navigators were instructed to sewn four rows of galloon onto their cuffs, junior navigators—three rows, and navigator students—one row. Boatswains were to sewn three rows of narrow wavy galloon on their cuffs, boatswains’ mates the same galloon in two rows, and quartermasters—in one row.

Sailors’ uniforms consisted of a cloak [yepanchi], holland shirt with breeches, hat, Dutch jacket [bostrog] with breeches of green cloth, a white waistcoat with green lapels and cuffs, and a waistcoat of striped ticking.

Sometimes the appearance of new kinds of uniform clothing represented the influence of very unusual circumstances. For example, during the winter blockade of the French fortress of Corfu, the cold led to too many cases of illness, so Admiral F. F. Ushakov was compelled to buy a large lot of Albanian cloaks for his squadron’s lower ranks. These were similar to a short Caucasian burka cloak of thick cloth. When worn over the shoulders the cloak protected a sailor from rain and wind. This clothing so pleased the sailors that many of them kept it and wore it when standing night watch even back in Sevastopol.

One easily detects that there was already the tradition in Russia of introducing new uniforms when a new tsar came to power. Paul I had barely ascended to the throne when General-Adjutant G. G. Kushelev at a meeting of the Admiralty Collegium on 17 November 1796 announced that “His Imperial Majesty deigned to forward to the Admiralty Collegium a regulation for what kinds of uniforms and clothing there shall be for personnel in the fleet and other places, by which one command may be distinguished from another...”

Seeking to reduce extravagance and introduce economies wherever possible, Paul I ordered his officers to “always be in undress uniform” [“byt’ vsegda v vits-mundire”], this replacing the waistcoats and kaftan coats richly trimmed with gold embroidery. For admirals and officers he introduced dark-green coats with a white collar and white waistcoats and pants.

Under Paul I the Baltic Fleet was divided into three divisions, each of which consisted in turn of three squadrons. Officers of each squadron and division were prescribed their own rank insignia to be sewn onto the sleeve on special small flaps. For officers of the first division these were gold, of the second—silver, and of the third—silver-gold. Along with this, in the first squadron the sewn-on stripes [nashivki] had small hanging tassels, in the second—tassels sewn flush, and in the third—stripes without tassels. Officers in the galley fleet had no sewn-on stripes.

Navigators, skippers, commissars, and other ranks in the divisions were given the same uniforms as fleet officers, but with a green collar and without sleeve stripes. They received black hats with gold galloon, a bow, and a button. The marine artillery wore a dark-green coat with a collar of the same color, a white waistcoat, and white pants.

For lower ranks in the navy a new uniform was confirmed on 1 January 1798. petty officers received a kaftan coat of dark-green cloth with green cuffs, white waistcoat, white cloth pants, work waistcoat of ticking, holland work shirt, deerskin gloves, and black shoes. They wore back hats with galloon, worsted tassels, a black bow with an orange edge, and a button. Non-commissioned officers of the marine artillery had shoulder straps sewn onto their dark-green coats, while their cuffs were trimmed with gold galloon.

Sailors wore black hats, dark-green Dutch bostrog jackets, similarly colored breeches, a white waistcoat with green collar and cuffs, a work waistcoat of ticking, and a work shirt with hempen breeches.

Petty officers and sailors of the first division had white stripes sewn onto the sleeves, of the second—dark-blue or sky-blue stripes, and of the third—red. Attachment to one or another of the squadrons was shown, as in the case of offices, by the arrangement of tassels.

Always striving to impose order everywhere and in everything, Paul I demanded that all military personnel strictly conform to the established uniform. During Catherine’s time no one thought it strange when Rear-Admiral N. L. Palibin appeared on his ship’s quarterdeck in a Schlaffrock (domestic dressing gown), slippers, pink neck cloth, and white night cap. And this was the quarterdeck, since Peter’s time the most respected place on the ship. This was where religious services were held, the crew had naval regulations read aloud to them, orders were announced, and sentences from trials were pronounced.

Baron V. I. Steingel, graduated from the Naval Corps in 1795, wrote in his memoirs:

At that time there was no strict regard for uniforms: everyone dressed as he pleased, or as it used to be said, ‘according to the nobility’s prerogative.’ One could encounter the captain in a white coat with a colored waistcoat and short black satin netherwear on which flashed in your eyes a long watch chain, gold and decorated with enamel and cornelian and chalcedony signets. White silk stockings and shoes with big silver buckles, or short goatskin boots, always squeaking so as to show his importance; scarlet, sky-blue, or particolored kerchief around the neck and a round hat to complete the captain’s costume.

An orderly from the oarsmen always carried a sword with a gold sword knot (if it was a gold sword inscribed “For Courage”) and white cloak with gold tassels, following some five or ten steps behind the commander, depending on whether he was an angry or kindhearted man. Mostly, I recall, they walked ten steps behind. The captain waited for his launch under a green cloth or velvet parasol with a gold fringe and his coat-of-arms drawn on top. The rowers’ round hats had large badges also adorned with the captain’s coat-of-arms. The rowers formed a kind of guard for him and always had to live at his house, while the quartermaster of the sloop was a kind of maître d’hôtel, if another junior petty officer was not appointed to this task. Paul I needed just over a year to have his ukase carried out, and only in distant garrisons was it possible to meet an officer or sailor with uniform violations.

During Catherine II’ reign the tradition of instituting new awards was revived. In 1769 the order of St. George the Great Martyr and Bearer of Victory was established in four grades. According to its charter it was given only for actual and specific deeds during wartime “to those who... distinguished themselves by an especially brave act or gave wise advice beneficial for our military service.” This was a exceptionally prestigious award. Beginning with the third class, the order was only given to admirals, generals, and field-grade officers, and from 1838 only those who already had the order in fourth class. The order of St. George 1st class was extremely rare and honored. Only two men received it for actions in naval combat: General-in-Chief A. G. Orlov of Chesmen and Admiral V. Ya. Chichagov.

The first-class order had three insignia: cross, star, and ribbon. The St.-George ribbon consisted of three black and two orange stripes and was worn over the right shoulder under the coat. The gold four-pointed star, worn on the left side of the breast, had the monogram of St. George in its center on a yellow field, and around it on a black field was the inscription “Za sluzhbu i khrabrost’”[“For service and courage”].

The second-class order also had a star and large cross, worn at the neck on a narrower St.-George ribbon. The third-class order was worn at the neck and the fourth-class in a buttonhole. Both classes had the shape of a small cross. (It is noteworthy that knights of this order had the right to wear military uniform when in retirement, even if they had not served the regulation ten years normally required.)

In September of 1782 Catherine II instituted the order of the Apostolic Saint, Prince Vladimir. This order also had four classes. By the way, the first knight of the order of St. Vladimir 4th class was Captain-Lieutenant D. N. Senyavin, the future admiral.

Knights of the order in first class wore the cross on a ribbon over the right shoulder and the star on the left side of the breast. In the second class there was the same cross at the neck and also a star. Persons awarded the third class of the order wore a smaller cross at the neck, while those awarded the fourth class wore a cross in a buttonhole. The ribbon of the order was red with wide black stripes along the edges.

In 1797 the order of St. Anne joined the suite of Russian awards. It was given for both military and civil services. The order’s first-class insignia was worn on the thigh on a red ribbon with yellow edges. The ribbon was worn over the left shoulder. An embroidered or stamped silver silver was fastened to the right side of the breast. The order’s second-class insignia was worn at the neck, and the third—in a buttonhole as well as on the breast. The St.-Anne order’s fourth-class insignia, established in 1815, was fixed to the hilt of a sword, saber, broadsword, or naval dagger.

Since Petrine times it had become the tradition in Russia to generously reward flag officers for zeal in service and for the victories they won. Thus, in spite of the lost second battle of Rochensalm, the conclusion of peace with Sweden was an occasion for Catherine II to award Rear-Admiral K. Nassau-Siegen a gold sword decorated with brilliants, and a medal was cast to commemorate the services of the commander of the Baltic Fleet, Admiral S. K. Greig, who died on 15 October 1788. Captain 2nd Rank G. G. Kushelev was the advisor for naval matters to Paul I, who over four years awarded him, besides many valuable gifts and estates, the rank of admiral, the orders of St. John of Jerusalem, St. Andrew the First-Called, and St. Alexander Nevsky, and elevated him to Graf. When the monarch was informed of the deeds of Captain-Lieutenant G. Belli, he awarded him, a mere mid-grade officer, the general’s order of St. Anne 1st class, saying, “Belli thinks to surprise me, so I will surprise him.”

 

Does Russia Need a Navy?

Firmly established in the Baltic and Black seas, by the end of the 18th century Russia had become of the world’s strongest maritime powers. But with the coming of Alexander I to power the development of the Russian Imperial Navy took a sharp turn. In his manifesto of 8 September 1802 the emperor announced the creation of a Ministry of the Navy [Ministerstvo voennykh morskikh sil], naming the former vice-president of the Admiralty Collegium, Admiral N. S. Mordvinov as the first minister of the navy.

Soon there was formed a “Committee for bringing the navy to an improved state,” whose membership included Actual Privy Councilor and 1st-class Senator Graf A. R. Vorontsov (chairman), Admirals V. P. Fondezin, I. I. Balle, and M. K. Makarov, Vice-Admiral P. K. Kartsov, Rear-Admiral P. V. Chichagov, and Captain 1st Rank A. S. Greig. A. R. Vorontsov himself was a convinced opponent of the idea of a navy and rejected the need to create a strong military fleet. He was able to incline members of the committee to a similar point of view. Only N. S. Mordvinov, not agreeing with the opinion of the chairman, submitted a request to be released, having been in the position of minister of the navy for only three months.

A. R. Vorontsov wrote in a report to Alexander I:

Our direct power and strength must lie with the army... It would be sufficient if our naval forces were arranged for only two tasks: defending our coasts and harbors in the Black Sea with forces comparable to those of the Turks, and a fleet in the Baltic adequate to dominate it. Sending our squadrons to the Mediterranean and other long-range expeditions cost the government much and bring only a little glory and no benefit.

P. V. Chichagov, the son of the famous admiral of Catherine, V. Ya. Chichagov, fully agreed with this analysis. He was especially trusted and as early as 1801 included in Emperor Alexander I’s suite. He was also assigned to the post of minister. Unlike N. S. Mordvinov, the new naval minister was partial to  the army, having begun his military career in the guards as a lieutenant and only afterwards transferring to the navy. In regard to P. V. Chichagov one of his contemporaries wrote, “...a spoiled child of good fortune, he knew everything from books and nothing from experience, was always in command positions and never under anyone else’s authority... He considered himself able to do anything while others were incapable of anything...”

In 1805 a proposal for reorganizing the naval administration was drafted by P. V. Chichagov and approved by the committee. At this time when the navy was being reorganized P. V. Chichagov, in the rank of vice-admiral, only provisionally occupied the position of minister of the navy, and it was only in 1807 that he was confirmed in that high post. But P. V. Chichagov became ill and had to hand over control of the ministry to the Marquis de Traversay, who officially became minister in 1811. Accepted into Russian service as a captain from the French navy, de Traversay quickly reached the rank of admiral and by 1802 occupied the posts of commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports and military governor of Sevastopol and Nikolaev.

Under him the navy fell into terminal decline. During these years, because ships did not sail farther than the mouth of the Neva, in naval circles that body of water began with heavy irony to be called “the marquis’ pond.” Uniform clothing also suffered. The historian of the Russian navy F. F. Veselago wrote:

Since many officers did not have their own dress coats, they went on guard duty in frock coats and at the guardhouse donned an official coat kept for everyone’s use. In regard to this practice there comes to us the following story: when waiting for some important person or other to visit Kronstadt, the commandant was inspecting the guard mounts at at one of them found an officer of such small stature that his coat’s long sleeves interfered with his saluting with his sword. To fix this irregularity the commandant immediately sent an official message to the équipage commander telling him to assign to this guard post another officer “of the same size as the coat.”

In April 1805 a naval museum was established by Highest Authority at the Admiralty Department, and its first director was Major Graf K. K. de Mestra, who was on close and friendly terms with the naval minister, P. V. Chichagov. In the following year Lieutenant A. Ya. Glotov, an expert in naval history, was assigned as assistant to K. K. de Mestra. Glotov was the author of the well-known fundamental work Explanation of Requirements for Equipping the Ship [Iz”yasnenie prinadlezhnostei k vooruzheniyu korablya], dedicated to “young Russian mariners” and published by Highest order in 1816.

A. Ya. Glotov unleashed a storm of activity in collecting naval relics, repairing models, and creating new ones. Thanks to A. Ya. Glotov the museum began to acquire items of uniform clothing for naval personnel. In almost twenty years of activity he produced many articles on naval themes, and by 1825 he had become an honorary member of the Admiralty Department, an active member of the St. Petersburg Society for Science, Literature, and the Arts, a member of the Free Economics Society, and of the Imperial Marine College.

As a result of the committee’s work defensive organization tables were adopted in November of 1803, by which it was planned to build 27 ships of the line and 26 frigates for the Baltic Fleet, and 21 ships of the line and 8 frigates for the Black Sea Fleet. But even such modest organization tables remained only on paper. Ships were built so slowly that their losses exceeded the rate that new ones were started. In the first quarter century in St. Petersburg and Archangel a total of 26 ships of the line were built, and in Kherson—16, in Nikolaev—7, and in Kronstadt—just 1. The whole number of ships and frigates built hardly exceeded 100.

As a rule, ships were built with fresh wood and their hulls were not always sheathed in copper. It was a little better in regard to ship construction for the Black Sea Fleet, especially since 1816 with the A. S. Greig coming to the position of commander in chief of the Black Sea Fleet and ports. He made sheathing hulls in copper mandatory, ordered that iron fixtures be used more widely, replaced stone ballast with pig iron, brick ovens with iron ones, under him portholes appeared in cabins, and he replaced tallow candles with oil lamps. However, a general deficiency in naval shipbuilding was an inadequately decisive shift to the creation of a steam fleet.

Since 1804, the Baltic Fleet was organizationally grouped into three divisions, while the Black Sea Fleet was at first a single division and later two. Each division contained three squadrons—the corps de bataille, arrière-garde, andavant-garde. In 1810, in place of the earlier commands [komandy], ship’s and galleyéquipages[ekipazhi] were formed, as well as a Guards Naval Équipage. The Baltic Fleet included 52 ship’s and 8 galley équipages, the Black Sea Fleet—31 ship’s and 4 galley équipages, and the Caspian Flotilla—3 ship’s équipages. But soon, in 1816, ship’s and galley équipages were unified and all were called naval équipages [flotskie ekipazhi]. In the Baltic they were given the numbers 1 through 27, in the Black Sea—from 28 through 44, and in the Caspian—45. Later one équipage each were created for the Okhotsk and White Sea flotillas.

As before, training of officer cadres was conducted in the Naval Corps, which was made to conform to an army-style organization, as was the navy as a whole. Close-order drill was introduced and a long reign of the rod was inaugurated. The interest of young people in the navy that had existed previously vanished completely. Without the right connections it was difficult to advance one’s career and obtain promotion to the next rank. From cadet [gardemarin] to midshipman, and from midshipman to lieutenant, was by examination, as before, but from lieutenant to captain-lieutenant, from captain-lieutenant to captain, and from captain-commodore to rear-admiral—were by ballot. Additionally, promotion from cadet to midshipman required five sea voyages as well as passing the examination, and from midshipman to lieutenant—at least four years service in the former rank. Balloting used only black and white balls representing a vote for whether a person was worthy of promotion or not. If an officer earned two-thirds black balls, he as counted as voted down [zaballotirovannyi], and two such ballots in a row released an officer from service with half pension. For moving the required persons up the rank ladder, up to half of the vacancies for flag officers were filled by Highest orders and the rest by ballot. One-fourth of promotions to captain were reserved for Highest prerogative, and one-sixth of promotions to captain-lieutenant.

An important landmark in the history of the Russian navy was the opening of the Kronstadt Noble Association in 1802 upon a proposal by Lieutenant I. P. Bunin. This laid the basis not only for the Kronstadt Navy Association, but also for analogous organizations in Russia’s other ports. Libraries, balls, concerts, evening socials, and so on had a great cultural significance, especially for young naval officers.

With Alexander I’s coming into power there were basic changes in the uniforms of all navy ranks. On 18 May 1801 the emperor gave the Highest order:

Generals and field and company-grade officers serving in the navy are to have a uniform of the previous color (dark green – V. D.), but closed by two rows of six buttons, and with a standing collar (white -  V. D.), turned back skirts, and white piping around around the skirts, cuffs, and cuff flaps; white waistcoat and pants; black hat with a gold buttonhole loop and small white plume. For generals and field-grade officers the plume is of ostrich feathers, and simple for company-grade officers. Sewn-on stripes for personnel on ships are to be two on each cuff flap, in gold, but in silver for the galley fleet. Flag officers have the same sewn-on stripes on the collar, with admirals having three, vice-admirals—two, and rear-admirals—one.

A Highest ukase of 28 May 1802 introduced for petty officers a round semi-felt [polupoyarkovaya] hat with one side of the brim turned up, a black bow of worsted tape with an orange edge, and a button. The coat had a standing collar, and dark-green slit cuffs with cuff flaps. Gold galloon was sewn onto the collar and cuffs. buttons were covered. Dark-green pants were issued. A gray greatcoat had a white collar and shoulder straps colored according to the division: white shoulder straps in the 1st Division, dark blue in the 2nd, and red in the 3rd. Non-commissioned officers in the marine artillery wore a tricorne hat, dark-green coat with brass buttons and gold galloon on the collar and cuffs. Their greatcoat was also gray, but with a black standing collar rather than white.

Sailors had the same uniform as petty officers but without galloon, and their hat was a simple round one. The uniforms of bombardiers and cannoneers [bombardiry i kanoniry- lower ranks in the marine artillery – M. C.] were distinguished by black cuffs and a black collar.

In an ukase of 2 May 1803 Alexander I introduced for all naval personnel a dark-green uniform that completely retained the previous pattern but without the white piping. On the collars of admirals’ and officers’ coats there was embroidered in gold thread a large admiralty anchor fouled with rope, and on the cuff flaps—three such anchors, but smaller in size. Gold embroidered tracery was also sewn onto the collar and cuffs of admirals’ coats. For the first time the navy was given gold shoulder straps with and without embroidered black eagles. Admirals’ shoulder straps had three embroidered eagles, vice-admirals had two, and rear-admirals had one. Captain-commodores had the admiralty shoulder straps but without embroidered eagles. Captains of the 1st and 2nd rank wore gold shoulder straps on both shoulders without eagles, while captain-lieutenants had the same strap only on the left shoulder. For lieutenants the shoulder straps were made of green cloth with narrow gold lace around the edges. Midshipmen had no shoulder straps. Officers in the Admiralty wore navy uniforms with silver embroidery and white tinned buttons. Officers of the marine artillery also had the navy uniform, but with a black collar and black turnbacks on the skirts. Navigators’ uniforms were distinguished by not having sewn-on adornment nor shoulder straps.

By an ukase of 4 October 1807 epaulettes were introduced for navy officers, marine artillerymen, and and admiralty officials. For navy officers and marine artillerymen they were gold, and for admiralty officials—silver. The epaulettes were worn on dress coats as well as on undress coats. Admirals’ epaulettes were trimmed with a fringe of thick gold cord, while mid-grade officers had a fringe of thinner cord. Three eagles were embroidered on admirals’ shoulder straps, two on vice-admirals’, and one on rear-admirals’. Captain-commodores wore admiralty shoulder straps but without eagles. Captain-lieutenants wore an epaulette only on the left shoulder, lieutenant’s epaulettes had no fringe—the so-called contre-epaulette, while midshipmen had a contre-epaulette only on the left shoulder. However, at the end of 1807 civilian officials in the navy and all retired persons were forbidden to wear epaulettes.

At the very end of 1807 medical officials in the navy administration were also given embroidery on their collars and cuffs, except in silver thread instead of gold. From 7 March 1808 flag officers and generals of the naval administration were permitted to wear standard general-officers’ embroidery on the coat, and since in this case oak leaves occupied almost the entire space available on the collar, the anchor had to be embroidered at the very bottom, becoming almost lost and barely noticeable.

In the first years of Alexander I’s reign uniform regulations began to be more strictly enforced. The most widespread violations were the wearing of variously colored vests and non-regulation shoulder straps and epaulettes. By an ukase from the tsar, violators of uniform regulations were put under arrest for 24 hours, and the non-regulation uniform destroyed. Lower ranks’ uniforms were also inspected for conformity to regulations. Thus, in one ukase it was noted that “flag officers are dressing sailors on cutters and sloops at variance from the uniform, adorning their clothing in various ways and giving the round hats,” and then followed a list of measure to eliminate this. But gradually this strictness began to subside, and many deviations from the established uniform began to become almost traditional. For example, in the 1820’s officers in undress coats [vitse-mundiry] began to replace the uniform pants with riding trousers [reituzy] of gray cloth with wide black stripes down the sides, these double stripes sometimes having an additional silver piping placed between them.

In February 1811 epaulettes on both shoulders were also introduced for captain-lieutenants, midshipmen, artillery 3rd-rank captains [artilleriiskie kapitany 3 ranga], sublieutenants [unter-leitenanty], and marine artillery ensigns [konstapeli]. To distinguish members of one équipage from another, there were instituted variously colored shoulder straps and epaulettes with the embroidered  number of the équipage. In the Navy Guards Équipage shoulder straps and epaulettes were red, for ships’ équipages—dark green, galley équipages—light green, barge équipages [lastovye ekipazhi]--white, artillery brigades—black, and in companies of naval master craftsmen [roty flotskikh masterov]--gray.

On 1 November 1811 there came into force a new regulation entitled “On Uniforms and Accouterments.” Lower ranks began to wear a dark-green coat, warm jacket [fufaika], and pants, a hempen cloak [yepancha] lined with wool, and a gray greatcoat with collar and shoulder straps.  The cloth-covered buttons introduced in 1802 were again replaced with brass ones. Also new were a dark-green cloth forage cap [furazhka] with a white piping, and a black neck cloth with a dickey, or false shirt front[manishka]. In summer white pants could be worn instead of dark green. A sailor’s work dress consisted of a holland shirt and hempen pants. His feet were shod with boots, and his weapons and equipment consisted of a musket with bayonet, cartridge pouch, knapsack, and water flask.

Artillery commands were uniformed like sailors, but shoulder straps, bands on the forage caps, collars, and cuffs were black. Bombardiers were distinguished by gold galloon on the cuffs, while non-commissioned officers additionally had galloon sewn onto the collar. These ranks were permitted to wear gloves and carry a cane, along with a short sword [tesak] in a black lacquered scabbard, with a woolen sword knot.

In 1810, during a time of far-reaching reorganizations in the navy, Alexander I ordered the formation of a special naval équipage drawn from the court yacht and galley commands. It was included in the guards and called the Navy Guards Équipage [Morskoi gvardeiskii ekipazh]. At first it consisted of four

combatant companies, a choir[muzykantskii khor], and an artillery command. The best men in the fleet were brought into this équipage. During the course of the year they were uniformed and instructed in close-order drill. On 6 January there was a Highest inspection of the whole équipage. The sovereign was satisfied with the équipage’s external appearance and awarded orders to all the officers and 10 paper roubles to each sailor. In this same year the Guards  Équipage was moved from the Galley Harbor to the Lithuanian Castle. The équipage received its baptism of fire in the Patriotic War of 1812, and the naval guardsmen especially distinguished themselves at the battle of Kulm.

In 1812 the Admiralty Collegium issued a description of the uniforms of personnel in the Admiralty administration. Lower ranks of barge équipages received a coat and pants of dark-green cloth with white buttons and white shoulder straps with the équipage’s number. On petty officers’ coats the collar and cuffs had white galloon. Every man was given a neck cloth with dickey, of black cloth, a green forage cap with white piping, and shoes. Non-commissioned officers received a greatcoat of gray cloth while privates had cloaks. In addition, lower ranks were given a work uniform consisting of a sailcloth jacket with pants.

A new uniform was also given to craftsmen and workers at manufactories and works, the printing house, hospitals, stables, etc. For example, master craftsmen at works and manufactories received a coat of gray cloth with white buttons and light sky-blue [svetlo-golubye] shoulder straps, and artillery metal workers—the same coat but with black shoulder straps. All craftsmen and workers were prescribed either a gray cloth greatcoat or a cloak. Master craftsmen holding petty officer rank had silver galloon on the collars and cuffs of their coats.

In 1807, “to inspire courage and bravery” on the part of soldiers, sailors, and non-commissioned officers, there was instituted the medal of the military order of St. George. Persons decorated with this order received a number of privileges: immunity from corporal punishments, a increase in pay of one-third, and removal from the soul-tax paying class. After the Crimean War four classes were established for the medal of the military order: the 1st and 2nd had gold crosses, and the 3rd and 4th—silver. This medal was not taken off upon promotion to officer rank and was worn on both the dress and undress coat.

 

The fleet rises again.

The unsatisfactory condition of the navy was so apparent that in the very first month of his reign Nicholas I was compelled to form a committee for reorganizing the fleet, “in order to extract our naval forces from the neglect and insignificance into which it has decayed in recent times.” The committee included the navy's finest minds: A.V. Moller, D.N. Senyavin, P.V. Pustoshkin, A.S. Greig, I.F. Kruzenshtern, F.F. Bellinsgauzen, M.I. Ratmanov, and P.M. Rozhnov. In a rescript of 31 December 1825 the emperor wrote: “Russia must be third in naval strength after England and France, and must be stronger than an alliance of second-rate naval powers.” This was the basis of a new statute adopted in 1826, in which the Russian fleet was to have more than 400 ships of various kinds when at wartime strength.

At the beginning of the Crimean War the Baltic Fleet had 26 ships of the line and the Black Sea Fleet had 16, but by this time naval power was determined not by sailing vessels, but by steamships, which Russia had greatly delayed in building.

In August 1827 preliminary reorganization of the Ministry of the Navy was confirmed, by which the naval high command was to consist of the navy minister's chancellary, the Admiralty council, the offices of the hydrographer-general, duty general, intendant-general, and staff-doctor general, as well as the Naval Technical Committee. A naval staff was created the following year and soon changed its name to the Main Naval Staff [Glavnyi Morskoi shtab].

Ships were organized into divisions, each of which consisted of three brigades. In the Baltic there were three such divisions while the Black Sea Fleet was made up of two. Each brigade had three ships of the line, four or five frigates, and several support vessels. As before, personnel were organized into naval, barge, and labor équipages, naval engineer commands, penal companies, military labor companies for naval construction, laboratory and arsenal companies, the topographers’ surveying company, and also instructional équipages.

In 1827 a corps of naval navigators was finally organized, and from this time navigators had the possibility to rise in rank up to and including general officer. Similarly to the navigators, there was also created a corps of ship engineers, and in 1831 a corps of marine artillery. All naval ranks received increases in pay, and ship commanders were authorized awards for keeping their vessels in good condition for an extended number of years. Ship engineers began to receive prize money for building, launching, and timbering a vessel.

Basic changes also occurred in the Naval Cadet Corps, the director of which was the famous navigator and scientist rear-admiral I.F. Kruzenshtern. Students were divided into a garde-marine and several cadet companies. Using a reduced size version of the 16-gun brig Navarino erected in the dining hall, they were taught how to handle sails and artillery, and develop the habits of command. A museum was established at the corps, to which the Admiralty sent medals, portraits of admirals, flags, model ships, and other items. The library was expanded, and a science laboratory and astronomical observatory were built. A squadron of four frigates was formed at the corps, in which the cadets sailed between St. Petersburg and Kronstadt. At Kruzenshtern’s suggestion a higher officers’ class was opened in 1827 that was the beginning of academic education in naval science.

Notable changes also occurred in naval personnel’s outward appearance. Admirals and officers started wearing a dark-green single-breasted coat confirmed on 30 December 1825, when at the same time undress coats and frock coats remained double-breasted as before. Also, équipage numbers began to be embroidered on the epaulettes of junior and mid-grade officers.On 25 June 1826 shakos were introduced, to be worn only on specially listed holidays, at parades, and on guard duties. Shakos were made of felt, Russian leather, hardened leather, oilcloth, and cloth, and decorated with a plated, cockade, or badge. On top of the shako was affixed a plume or pompon. Some shakos weighed up to 2 kilograms with a total height including plume of 60 to 70 centimeters.

Although these headdresses were attractive in appearance, sailors did not like them because of their complex construction and awkwardness when worn. Yet the authorities were in no hurry to withdraw them, and on 22 May 1850 they even confirmed a new badge and regulation describing 18 separate occasions on which to wear the shako. This was the period when badges for distinction in battles were worn on the shako. Thus, on 19 March 1829 the 42nd Équipage, for the fighting when crossing the Danube on 27 May 1828, was awarded shako badges marked “For Courage.” In 1855 all participants in the defense of Sevastopol were awarded shako badges with the inscription “For Sevastopol from 13 September 1854 to 27 August 1855.” Sailors were no less proud of the award of a distinction on the shako than of medals and orders.

Finally in December 1855 shakos were replaced by a dark-green forage cap with white piping, lacquered black leather visor, and metallic cockade with one white, two orange, and two black oval rings. Shakos were kept for parades by the Naval Guards Équipage, Naval Cadet Corps, and couriers in the Ministry of the Navy.

In 1828 the Admiralty council defined lists of uniform articles for lower ranks in fleet, barge, and labor  équipages, and other subunits of the fleet. Lower ranks in fleet équipages started wearing a dark-green coat with the same color for cuffs and shoulder straps. White piping ran along the upper edge of the collar. Sailors in barge équipages had a coat of the same color but with white shoulder straps, and in labor équipages they wore a coat with gray cloth collar and cuffs while the shoulder straps were dark-green. In fleet équipages the number on the shoulder straps was yellos, in barge équipages—light green, and in labor équipages—white.

All lower ranks wore pants of dark-green cloth or of linen (summer pants), a gray cloth greatcoat, work shirt, neckcloth with dickey, and boots. It may be mentioned here that until 15 May 1833 boots for lower ranks in the navy were sewn on a square form “so that each boot might be worn on either foot.”

From 16 January 1830 all navy personnel were ordered to sewn on buttons with images incorporating state and marine symbols. Thus, the buttons of all ranks in the Naval Guard Équipage had a two-headed eagle over two crossed admiralty anchors. The buttons of all ranks in fleet or instructional équipages and in the Corps of Fleet Navigators had a single vertically positioned admiralty anchor. Personnel in the marine artillery sewed on buttons with an anchor and two crossed cannons, and ship engineers and personnel in the instructional labor équipage—with an anchor and two crossed axes.

From 21 November 1830 rank distinctions were introduced on the epaulettes of fleet officers in the form of small stars: midshipmen were to have one star, lieutenants—three, captain-lieutenants—two, 2nd rank captains—three, and no stars were on the epaulettes of 1st rank captains. Six days later the small stars were also introduced for officers in barge and labor équipages, but since these held army ranks the scheme for rank stars followed that for land forces. Ensigns had one star, sublieutenants—two, lieutenants—three, staff-captains—four, majors—two, lieutenant-colonels-three, while captains and colonels had none. From 7 January 1831 marine artillery officers also began to use army ranks, and therefore their rank distinctions likewise corresponded to those in barge and labor équipages. For admirals and generals the embroidered two-headed eagles remained on the epaulettes, as before.

On 11 May 1831 the chief of the Main Naval Staff, Prince A.S. Menshikov, ordered that officers and lower ranks of the 1st Finnish Naval Équipage, located in Sveaborg, sew dark-blue piping on the their coat collars and put the Cyrillic letter “F” on their epaulettes and shoulder straps.

In an attempt to give a more splendid appearance to the navy and in particular to the everyday image of officers and lower ranks, Prince Menshikov required that flag officers and ship commanders strictly follow uniform regulations. When earlier the uniform for persons on duty watch was established by the ship commander, from the beginning of 1832 this privilege was given to flag officers. For example, on 25 May 1832, in and order of the division commander to all vessels standing in the Kronstadt road, a single uniform for watch officers was laid down: on holidays and other ceremonial days they were to wear parade coats and shakos; on regular days—undress coats and shakos; in cold or inclement weather—frock coats and shakos in oilcloth covers. And on 6 January 1833 Vice-Admiral M.P. Lazarev, in instructions regarding practical exercises by garde-marines in the Naval Cadet Corps, personnel wrote: “Garde-marines sent ashore on official business or to any of the squadron’s ships, must be in clean and properly dressed.”

During daytime in dry weather sailors on ships were allowed to go barefoot, but after sunset they had to wear boots or shoes. Trousers were worn “sailor style” [“po-matrosski”], i.e. turned up “so that the bottoms are not stepped upon and dirtied.” So that petty officers could ensure the cleanliness of necks and undershirts, in warm weather sailors were not allowed to button their collars. In 1st Rank Captain V.A. Kornilov’s signed instructions to the officers of the ship Twelve Apostles, it was ordered: “On night watch in summer, watch commandes are not to allow lower ranks to come out on deck undressed: this greatly increases the chances of chills and illness, and therefore it must be taken as a rule that when assigning berths it must be commanded that “men on watch wear warm coats [fufaiki]!” and along with this place a petty officer at the bow so that no man of the relief is allowed forward without being  dressed. In a following instruction Kornilov demanded neatness from the lower ranks and the  “necessary cleanliness which must distinguish a trained military serviceman,” and from petty officers he required “that they be directly responsible for any man I find unwashed, unshaved, or in torn clothes.”

On 25 June 1832 brass anchors were introduced on the epaulettes of garde-marines in the Cadet Corps, and from 3 November of that year there appeared on non-commissioned officers’ shoulder straps “small cross straps ” [“poperechniki”] that soon acquired the name “lychki” [strips of bark or bast – M.C.].  But it was only from 25 November 1843 that lychki became rank distinctions in their own right, after the example of land forces. Boatswains and sergeants had one strip of wide galloon sewn across, boatswain mates and section non-commissioned officers—three cross strips of narrow tape or lace, quartermasters and non-commissioned officers—two of the same narrow strips, and steersmen, topsail men, and corporals—a single lychka. By the color of the galloon or tape one it could be determined to what équipage, command, or company this or that man belonged.

On 12 June 1843 navy lower ranks serving in Astrakhan were allowed in hot weather to wear forage caps with visors and white linen covers, after the example of the troops in the Caucasus Corps. Afterwards, such forage caps began to be worn in other fleets, including by officers. Where an officer served could be determined by distinguishing details of his forage cap. Thus, officers in the Ministery of the Navy had red cap bands with two dark-green lines of piping, officers in fleet and instructional  équipages wore caps with a dark-green band and two lines of white piping, and officers in the Marine Artillery Corps had forage cap bands of black velvet with two lines of red piping. In May of 1844 it was definitely confirmed that only the top of the cap had a white edge.

One historical fact is not without interest: on 24 November 1843 flannel shirts were introduced for rowing detachments. There were fourteen varied color combinations. For example, oarsmen of the tsar’s launch wore a dark-blue flannel shirt with white sleeves, the oarsmen of the general-admiral’s cutter—white shirt with dark-blue sleeves, oarsmen of the commander of the 1st Naval Division—dark-blue shirt, of the 2nd Naval Division—white with a dark-blue collar, of the 3rd Naval Division—red shirt, and so on.

On 26 January 1850 there appeared sailors’ flannel shirts of dark blue with various collars: for sailors of the 1st and 4th Divisions collars were dark blue with red edging, in the 2nd Division—white without edging, in the 3rd and 5th Divisions—red with dark-blue edging. Personnel on merchant ships had dark-blue collars without edging. From 25 April 1851 oarsmen of the three newly formed steamship divisions were issued flannel shirts with dark-blue collars, which for the 1st Division had a single white edge on the collar, in the 2nd Division—two, and in the 3rd Division—three white stripes on the edge.

At almost the very beginning of the year 1852 there were several changes in the uniforms of officers and lower ranks in barge équipages, port companies, and the admiralty. On 15 February Emperor Nicholas I confirmed drawings submitted to him of uniforms for these personnel. For officers in barge  équipages the standard naval shako was introduced with a silver plate and the raised équipage number, but for the Astrakhan Barge Company—the letter A. The white filed on silver epaulettes was changed to black cloth on which the équipage number was embroidered in silver thread, but in the Astrakhan Barge Company—the letter A. buttons were silver with the image of an anchor.

Officers of port companies also received the naval shako but with the plate formerly for barge équipages with company number below anchors. Besides the crossed anchors, the shakos of officers at the admiralty had round cockades. The silver epaulettes of port company officers had a white cloth field with Cyrillic letter P and the company number, while officers at the admiralty had a black cloth field. For all these persons buttons were silver and smooth.

On 23 February 1852 the uniforms for lower ranks also changed. Sailors in barge équipages received black shoulder straps with the équipage number painted in red. Just as the officers, lower ranks had uniforms with white appointments. In addition to the gray greatcoat sailors in barge équipages received an overcoat [pal’to]. Sailors in port companies had white shoulder straps with the Cyrillic letter P and company number stenciled on them. Along with the shako, lower ranks of barge équipages and port companies wore a dark-green forage cap without a visor. By a single order the new uniform was also  announced for lower ranks of the St.-Petersburg stable companies, hospital companies, the company at theMain Admiralty’s building, and others.

A notable place in history is occupied by the Russian-American Company, not only as means of territorial expansion but for its role in a time of great geographical discoveries made by the Russian navigators V.I. Bering, A.I. Chirikov, G.I. Shelikhov, I.F. Kruzenshtern, and many others who sailed to the shores of Russian America, establishing new routes and discovering and studying new lands and bodies of water never previously visited by anyone. It is noteworthy that the seamen of the company, not carried on the navy’s lists, introduced their own uniform clothing of which, unfortunately, only very little information has been preserved. It is known that during maneuvers off Hogland on 9 July 1851, the chief of the Main Naval Staff delivered to Emperor Nicholas I drawings showing variations of uniforms for personnel sailing on the ships of the Russian-American Company. On the following day Highest permission was received for these personnel to wear dreass coats, frock coats, pants, vests, and forage caps of dark-green cloth. To distinguish them from naval personnel it was ordered that collars and the edging on the forage cap be made from blue [svetlo-sinii] cloth. Captains of large ships received corresponding distinctions: each corner of the collar had an embroidered gold anchor, and the cap band, edged with wide gold galloon, had a round cockade.

Senior mates and captains of lesser vessels had no embroidery on the collar, and only narrow gold galloon was affixed to the forage cap band. Students also had the narrow gold galloon on the cap band. For all ranks, brass buttons had the image of two crossed anchors and the letters A.K. They were also permitted to wear a naval dagger on a black leather swordbelt. In all circumstances the dagger was worn under the coat.

On 4 April 1854 Highest Authority ordered: “Until the issuance of a new table of uniforms for lower ranks in the navy, and having abolished canvas [kanifasnyi] greatcoats, greatcoats are to be sewn from the material heretofore used for pea jackets [brushlaty, bushlaty – V.D.]” Nonetheless, from 11 April 1858 lower ranks again began to be issued greatcoats. On 25 November 1855 a double-breasted dark-green half-tunic [polukaftan] with a rounded standing collar was introduced for lower ranks. The half-tunic with diagonnally open collar was closed with eight buttons while the one with a rounded collar used six. On their forage caps, lower ranks were to have affixed an oval tin cockade with one white, two orange, and two black rings.

In 1855 there were also some changes in officers’ uniforms. From 23 March it was directed to wear a dark-green double-breasted coat with a diagonally open standing collar, closed with eight buttons, and a likewise dark-green double-breasted coat with a rounded standing collar, closed with six buttons. For admirals, generals, and mid-grade and junior officers a hat was introduced which was called a tricorn [treugolka]. On it was fastened a fabric cockade with buttonhole loop and button. For admirals and generals the buttonhole loop was of braided gold or silver cord, and for officers—of gold or silver galloon with a black stripe. From 4 June 1855 all naval officers were given a double-breasted dark-green overcoat [plashch]. This overcoat was worn with shoulder straps. For general-adjutants, suite admirals, aides-de-camp, and adjutants for special assignments, the shoulder straps were red with white piping. General-Adjutants wearing an admiral’s uniform, admirals on the rolls of the Guards Naval Équipage, and officers of the Guards Équipage and its attached barge half-company, as well as officers of cadet conductor companies in the instructional naval labor équipage wore red shoulder straps. Military officials of the Ministry of the Navy had red with dark-green piping; officers of fleet équipages—dark-green straps; officers of the Marine Artillery Corps, Corps of Ship Engineers, Corps of Mechanical Engineers, and Corps of Naval Navigators—black with red piping; adjutants from a barge équipage, and medical officials—dark green with white piping. Along with this, admirals’ shoulder straps were covered with galloon over their entire width, mid-grade officers had one piece of galloon down the middle of the shoulder strap and two along its sides, and junior officers had just the two pieces along the sides. On these shoulder straps eagles, stars, and monograms were embroidered in gold or silver thread.

On 14 April 1855 civilian officials in the naval administration also received new uniforms. These consisted of a hat (for actual state councilors and higher), pants with galloon (for state councilors and higher), a half-tunic [polukaftan], and a saber and dagger with a swordbelt. Ranks lower than state councilor wore pants without galloon and a shako with cockade. In everyday uniform all ranks were allowed to wear a forage cap with cockade.

 

The fleet clads itself in armor.

The Crimean War hastened the transition from wooden to iron ship contruction. Beginning in 1858, the head of the Ministry of the Navy, General-Admiral Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich repeatedly reported to the emperor on the incipient important revolution in ship building and on the necessity of introducing armored vessels into the Russian fleet. However, Russia did not hurry to switch to armored ships. Only in 1861 as an experiment at the Baltic shipyards was a small ironclad boat built, which by the builder’s own request was called the Opyt[Trial].

In 1863 at Highest Order a commission was established at the War Ministry under the chairmanship of General-Adjutant N.A. Kryzhanovskii to work out defense measures for St. Petersburg. The members of this commission came to the conclusion that it was impossible to protect Russia with only coastal fortifications and no mobile armored defences. According to the commission’s reckoning, it was necessary to build at least 40 armored floating batteries, monitors, and gunboats. As a first priority they decided to realize the so-called “monitor program.” Just over 10 years passed in effecting a defensive program, after which the authorities in Russia began to also think of creating an active fleete made up of seagoing battleships and ocean cruisers. Subsequently, through great effort and expense, by 1878 a seagoing armored fleet managed to be created, consisting of the battleship Petr Velikii [Peter the Great]and armored frigates General-Admiral, Gertsog Edinburgskii [Duke of Edinburgh], Minin, Prince Pozharskii, Sevastopol, and Petropavlovsk. But even more important was the appearance in the Russian fleet in 1863 of Admiral G.I. Butakov’s New Principles of Steamship Tactics.

By the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, Russia possessed significant naval forces which, however, did not fulfill the hopes for them and was almost entirely lost in Far Eastern waters. But already by the outbreak of the First World War the Russian navy contained 9 first-line battleships and cruisers, 14 other cruisers, 66 destroyers, and 15 submarines.

Command and control of the fleet was in accordance with the 1885 Regulations for Naval Administrationand the 1888 Order for Naval Administration. The Ministry of the Navy comprised four main administrations (ship contruction and fitting, hydrography, medical, and justice), the Naval Construction Committee, Naval Technical Committee, Main Naval Staff, Admiralty Council, and Main Naval Court. After the Russo-Japanese War a Navy General Staff was created, and the process of perfecting it continued through the years of the First World War.

At first the period of service for lower ranks was shortened from 25 to 14 years, and in 1874 it was set at 10 years of which half was spent serving in the reserves. Abolished were naval labor équipages, penal companies, port companies, some barge équipages, and other units. Only fleet équipages were left to crew vessels, port équipages for the admiralty and naval establishments, and artillery companies, which took into themselves arsenal and laboratory commands.

Immediately after the Crimean War there was a significant reduction in the number of personnel in all categories. All generals, admirals, and officers who had served a set number of years were released with a promotion to the next rank and the pension due to the last rank held. Some officers were transferred to the merchant ships. The intake into instructional establishments was cut almost in half. Transfers to the reserves accounted for 21 generals and admirals and 640 officers, who kept the pay from their last ranks and had the right to wear the uniform with epaulettes. In 1885 the maximum age for service as a lieutenant was set at 47 years old, for a 2nd rank captain—51, 1st rank captain—55, rear-admiral—60, and vice-admiral—65. Midshipmen were to be released if not promoted in 10 years of service.

From 1855 through 1865 the number of naval personnel fell from 125,000 to 40,000. Befor this reduction over a third of the navy had no contact with a sailor’s service. This included clerks, musicians, couriers, orderlies, and others.

Special training for sailors and petty officers was conducted in the schools for steersmen and signalers, the mine, artillery, electrotechnical, and divers schools, and others. After the Russo-Japanese War schools for youths reopened in Kronstadt and Sevastopol.

With the increase in technical equipment onboard ships there was a greater demand for command and staff, who were prepared at the Nicholas Naval Academy, the Naval Cadet Corps, Emperor Nicholas I’s Naval Engineering School, as well as newly created officers classes.

In 1856 there were introduced new Uniform Regulations for Admirals, Generals, and Senior and Junior-Grade Officers of the Navy, according to which uniforms were classified as town (parade, holiday, Sunday, and normal), campaign (parade, holiday, and normal), and service (on duty, and on guard mount). It was traditional in the Russian navy upon the introduction of new pattern uniforms to permit old clothing to be worn out. A navy order of 12 July 1858 introduced the officers’ linen coat [polotnyanik]. It was the same pattern as the cloth half-tunic [polukaftan] but lighter since it was sewn from fine white linen for wear in warm weather. On 28 February 1859 the half-tunic and undress half-tunic [polukaftan and vits-polukaftan] were officially renamed the dress coat and undress coat [mundir and vits-mundir].

By an navy order of 1 April 1859 officers who had received a medal for combatant service, the order of St. Anne 4th class, or a gold weapon inscribed “For Courage,” were permitted to continue wearing military uniform after retirement, even if the officer had not served out the regulation 10-year period.

At the very beginning of 1863 new regulations were introduced for the wearing of uniforms by naval lower ranks. Uniforms were now classed as parade, normal, and work, and in turn these three were divided inot shore and ship, summer and winter. Thus, a sailor’s shipboard uniform consisted of dark-blue and white shirts with a dark-blue collar, dark-green and white trousers, af forage cap, and work clothing. In 1872 dark-blue cuffs with one white stripe began to be sewn onto the sleeves of the white naval shirt, and two white stripes appeared on the dark-blue collar. In that same year sailors began to be issued a form-fitting shirt [tel’nyashka] crossed white and dark-blue stripes, along with a visorless cap on the band of which was fastened a black silk ribbon with an inscription. On the ends of the ribbon were placed anchors.

At a session of the Admiralty Council on 8 November 1872 the inscriptions and their colors were laid down. It was decided to make the inscriptions and anchors gold except for lower ranks of non-combatant companies in the Guards Équipage, for whom inscriptions and anchors were to correspond to the color of their buttons and appointments, i.e. to be white. A ship’s crew members were to have the ship’s name inscriped on the ribbon, without indicating the class of vessel (DERZHAVA, PERVENETS, RYURIK, and so on). Ribbons for shore commands were to have the name of the command or équipage (GVARDEISKII EKIPAZH, 2-i FLOTSKII EKIPAZH, ARKHANGEL’SKAY ROTA, etc.), and ribbons for oarsmen—an inscription indicating the boat’s owner (KATER GENERAL-ADMIRALA, KATER GLAVNOGO KOMANDIRA, etc.). It is not without interest to note that from 8 March 1872 the black ribbon on the visorless cap had no inscription and its ends barely hung from the band. A flat oval cockade was fastened to the crown.

In January of 1864 hooded capes called bashlyki were introduced for naval military personnel and civilian officials, and officers were further allowed to wear black fur collars on their greatcoats. From May of that year officers’ greatcoats began to be made with the collar laying down.

On 13 October 1870 dark-green cloth frock coats were introduced for officers, garde-marines, and conductors (konduktory, i.e. officer candidates), of the pattern for civil officials with the collar laid flat. Six large brass buttons were sewn in two rows onto each side of the frock coat. For fleet officers, garde-marines, and medical officials the frock coat’s collar was dark green, for officers and officer candidates in the marine artillery, fleet navigators, ship engineers and engineer-mechanics—of black velvet. The frock coat’s cuffs were also dark green with a side slit and two small metal buttons. For officers and officer-candidates of the marine artillery and ship engineers the upper edge of the cuffs and the slit were piped red, while for medical personnel the piping was white.

A double-breasted dark-green vest with flat collar and lapels was closed with five small metal buttons. Under the lapels was sewn a sixth button for closing the vest up close. A single-breasted white vest without lapels was fastened with six small buttons. When worn with a sword as well as a dagger, the frock coat had to be always closed with the two lowest buttons and the weapon worn outside the coat. In circumstances where it was permitted to be without a weapon, the frock coat could be worn unbuttoned. Under the vest was worn a starched shirt with standing collar (when wearing the dress coat it was forbidden for this small collar to stick out). Over the shirt a narrow black silk cravatte was tied in  a bow.

According to Regulations for Uniform Clothing, published in the Naval Almanach for 1871, uniforms were now to be divided into “town” and “campaign.” In turn, town uniforms were subdivided into parade, holiday, Sunday, and normal.

For admirals and generals the town parade uniform consisted of a dress coat with epaulettes, pants with galloon, orders, ribbons, saber, and hat. Holiday uniform was the same but ribbons were not worn, and Sunday dress was further distinguished in that the pants had no galloon. When town normal dress was prescribed, admirals and generals put on an undress coat with epaulettes, pants without galloon, a white single-breasted vest, cravatte with small bow, saber, and hat.

Town parade uniform for naval officers consisted of a dress coat with epaulettes and orders, saber, and a headdress with plate and plume for Guards Équipage officers but hats for all others. Holiday and Sunday dress were in all respects the same as town parade, but normal dress included the undress coat with epaulettes and orders, a white single-breasted vest, narrow cravatee with small bow, saber, and hat.

Campaign dress was worn on shore only for taking part in parades, inspections, exercises, and guard mounts. For generals and admirals shore campaign dress consisted of the undress coat with shoulder straps, orders without ribbons, pants without galloon, narrow cravatte with small bow, and hat. Officers, however, when shore campaign dress was prescribed, wore the dress coat with shoulder straps and orders, saber, and hat.

The regulations described 13 different variations of service uniform dress: for wear on duty, on guard duties, on guard mount, when being presented to senior commanders, inspections, ship launchings, and so on. Additionally, there were separately established forms of dress for weddings, official dinners, balls, high court functions, visits to private homes, mascarades, theaters, concerts, public strolls, and outside town.

To distinguish commodores from other ranks, in 1870 they were prescribed red tape to be sewn on the shirt cuffs. In connection with this, an account from the Artillery Section of the Naval Technical Committee noted “...the necessity of distinguishing commodores by special insignia on their work clothes so that they are always visible on board ship, since in regard to the undress coat on ship—people do not wear it.”

As a trial, from 23 August 1874 sailors of the Guards Équipage and Baltic Fleet’s 8th Naval Équipage were given dark-gray shortened overcoats [pal’to] in place of gray greatcoats. On the overcoat’s collar were sewn black tabs, and an additional button for petty officers.

On 27 November 1876 a black overcoat with a lying-down collar was introduced for officer ranks. This overcoat served as the outer garment at sea and ashore in inclement weather. In winter it was permitted to fasten a fur collar to the overcoat made from black astrakhan. It was also allowed to make the overcoat from leather or other impermeable material. From 25 December 1876 naval generals began to put small stars onto their epaulettes and shoulder straps instead of embroidered eagles. Major generals wore two such stars on each epaulette, lieutenant generals—three, and full generals had epaulettes without stars.

After the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, Guards Équipage lower ranks were awarded cap badges for distinction, in the form of a St.-Andrew star with inscription. So that this distinction would also be visible when wearing the visorless cap, on 8 July 1878 the black silk ribbons were replaced by guards ribbons that kept the previous inscription and anchors. With the withdrawal of the shakos that had the badges awarded for the defense of Sevastopol, on 26 December 1887, “in order ot reestablish the memory of these glorious events,” the emperor granted St.-George ribbons for lower ranks’ visorless caps in Black Sea and Caspian équipages.

On 21 February 1881 for Guards Équipage lower ranks, and from 1 January 1882 for all others, new pattern white and flannel shirts and work clothing began to be issued. On the dark-blue collars and cuffs of the white shirts were three narrow white stripes.

From 25 June 1881 there was a change in the orders of dress for naval officers. Town, holiday, and Sunday dress were abolished and parade, normal, and shore dress introduced.

From 3 March 1891 sailor specialists began to sew trade badges on their sleeves. Steersmen used a wheel, topsailmen—two bowline knots [besedochnye yzly, two crossed ropes, each with a bowline on the bight - M.C.], signalers—two crossed flags, commodores—two crossed guns, stokers—two shovels, and so on. These badges were sewn in red thread and surrounded by a narrow stripe for plain specialists and by a wide stripe for senior specialists. Similar badges but made of metal appeared since 28 December 1895 on coat and overcoat collars of senior boatswains and navy conductors. These badges were quickly adopted by the navy and found widespread use. By the beginning of the First World War there were more than 30 official badges. They were also in the form of letters: a Cyrillic “P” in the center of a circle was used by clerks [pisarya], a Cyrillic “Sh”—by stores quartermasters [shkhiperskie soderzhateli], and so on.

An order of the Ministry of the Navy dated 1 August 1913 moved conductors’ insignia from coat and overcoat collars to the shoulder straps. These insignia began to be stamped from white metal. On the shoulder straps of senior boatswains there appeared an anchor, artillery conductors—crossed cannons, mine conductors—crossed torpedos, machinery storekeepers, hold storekeepers, and senior machinery storekeepers—propellor and toothed wheel, telegraph conductors—anchor and lightning bolts, and so on.

A Ministry of the Navy order of 12 June 1893 laid down the uniforms for reserve officers. Retired officers began to wear epaulettes of the color opposite to their appointments, and stripes were sewn across shoulder straps, also of the opposite color.

In 1899 in St. Petersburg there was first published “An illustrated description of uniforms for all officer ranks of the Navy,” in which all items of naval uniforms were described in detail, accompanied by 21 colored plates. In the general uniform regulation it was noted that “military naval personnel are prescribed dress coats: double-breasted and single-breasted. Double-breasted coats are closed with 6 or 8 buttons, and single-breasted by 8. All coats have standing collars with gold or silver embroidery. On coats closed with 8 buttons the collar has a diagonal opening, while on those closed with 6 buttons it is rounded.” Fleet officers wore coats of dark-green cloth, double-breasted with a rounded collar, closed with six buttons. Embroidery on the collar and cuffs was gold and the buttons gilt with the image of an anchor. Couter-epaulettes for attaching the epaulettes were of gold galloon. All naval ranks were prescribed dark-green cloth pants. As an undress coat they were authorized to wear a frock coat of civilian pattern, closed with four buttons, and worn with epaulettes, orders, saber, hat, and a white single-breasted or double-breasted vest. In inclement weather officers wore a double-breasted black cloth overcoat with a falling collar, and in winter—a black overcoat or gray greatcoat.

In parade and normal dress officers wore a three-cornered hat. buttonhole loops on the hat were prescribed to be the same color as the coat embroidery: for admirals and generals—of gold or silver cord as on the epaulettes, for senior and junior-grade officers—of galloon with a black stripe. The forage cap was made of fine dark-green cloth and had a lacquered leather visor, chinstrap, and cockade. In summertime a white cotton cover was worn on the cap. In cold weather officers wore a bashlyk hood of camel-hair cloth.

On 27 September 1904, to “mark the joyful birthday of the tsesarevich” (Alexei – V.D.) both the army and navy were given the right to wear buttons with the image of a two-headed eagle placed [for the navy – M.C.] over crossed admiralty anchors. Just a few days earlier there had been adopted “Regulations for uniforms of officers and officials of the Navy.” Orders of dress were now divided into parade, parade formation, shore campaign, normal (undress coat), landing, and service. All ranks were prescribed to wear moustaches and, if desired, sideburns or beards. In towns it was always mandatory to move about with a sword or similar weapon.

In parade dress senior and junior-grade officers wore a dress coat with epaulettes and orders, saber, hat, and short boots, and in parade formation—forage cap instead of hat and long boots instead of short. Shore campaign dress consisted of a coat with shoulder straps, saber, forage cap, and long boots. Normal dress included a frock coat with epaulettes and orders, white vest, narrow cravatte with bow, saber, hat, and short boots. In landing order officers wore the frock coat with shoulder straps and orders, saber, forage cap, and long or short boots. Either the frock coat or smock with shoulder straps, dagger, forage cap, and short boots ,was worn as service dress.

Over 100 variations in wearing uniforms were foreseen by the new regulations for different situations (balls, dinners, meetings, church services, visits, guard duty, inspections, parades, mourning, etc.). One contemporary wrote, “All these orders of dress had to be strictly observed, which was quite difficult not only when on duty, but also in everyday life. Each service situation and each activity demanded almost its own form of uniform.”

On 26 January 1908 a waistbelt with brass plate was introduced for all naval lower ranks. The plate had a two-headed eagle overlaying two crossed admiralty anchors. On 2 August 1912 it was ordered that the breast pockets on lower ranks’ work clothes have a stenciled number applied, indicating his unit within the crew as prescribed by shipboard orders.

On 25 January 1910 admirals and senior and junior-grade officers were allowed to wear a dark-blue smock in place of the frock coat. This soon became one of the chief items of wear for shipboard officers.

On 3 August 1911 the minister of the navy, Vice-Admiral I.K. Grigorovich, ordered new regulations for wearing the uniform. Firstly, for convenience orders of dress were designated by subgroups and numbers: parade (No. 1 and No. 2), parade formation (No. 3 and No. 4), normal (No. 5 and No. 6), normal formation (No. 7 and No. 8), service (No. 9 and No. 10), service formation (No. 11 and No. 12), and everyday (No. 13). Odd numbers referred to winter uniform, and even numbers to summertime. The everyday uniform (No. 13) was worn when not on duty in both winter and summer. It consisted of the frock coat or dark-blue smock (white in summer) with shoulder straps and orders. With the frock coat was worn a white or black vest, as desired. With this uniform were worn the forage cap (with a white cover in summer), dagger, white or gray gloves, overcoat or cape [plashch-nakidka] (greatcoat in winter), and short boots. The main items of uniform for admirals and senior and junior-grade officers of the Russian navy before the First World War were the greatcoat, overcoat, cape, dress coat, dark-blue and white smocks, frock coat, hat and forage cap, white and gray gloves, and short and long boots. With the appropriate orders of dress were worn epaulettes, shoulder straps, aiguilettes, orders, ribbons, medals, and saber or dagger.

The tradition of distinguishing navigators by a special form of dress, dating from the time of Peter the Great, was adhered to right up to 1917. Thus, on 3 June 1913 a new uniform was introduced for personnel in the Finland Pilots and Lighthouses Administration, consisting of a shortened black overcoat, black pants, black forage cap with white piping on the crown and two dark-blue lines of piping on the band. Navigators accredited with diplomas had a cockade fastened to the forage cap in the center of which was an anchor, while others had only the anchor. First class navigators fastened an anchor at the corners of their collars along with three small stars, 2nd class—an anchor and two stars, and 3rd class—an anchor and one star. Maste navigators [lotsmanskie starshiny] had an anchor on the collar surmounted by a crown, and a small star, while senior navigators [starshie lotsmany] had only the anchor and crown. Navigators qualified as a long-voyage captain or navigator, or as a short-voyage captain, wore four gold galloon stripes on their sleeves, the topmost of which was applied in the shape of a rhombus. If the qualification was as a navigator for short voyages, then two galloon stripes were sewn on, the upper one also laid on as a rhombus. Navigators without a diploma sewed on a signle galloon stripe. Navigators were also allowed to wear the standard navy coat with their own rank distinctions and a black velvet collar.

In 1907 the director of the Naval Cadet Corps confirmed instructions for the garde-marines and cadets that introduced leave, home, work, and formation orders of dress. When leave uniform was declared, corps students donned the dress coat, black pants, forage cap, sword belt, broadsword (sergeants—a saber and white gloves), sword knot, small boots, and greatcoat with or without bashlyk hood, and on freezing days added earmuffs. Formation uniform was in essence the same, but instead of the shortsword a cartridge pouch and rifle was carried, or a revolver for sergeants. Home dress consisted of a dark-blue flannel shirt, black pants, and small boots, while work dress was a white work shirt, white pants, and small boots. On the forage cap (visorless cap) garde-marines and cadets affixed a black silk ribbon with the Cyrillic inscription MORSKOI KORPUS. Sergeants, however, wore forage caps with leather visors. Sergeants and non-commissioned officers sewed a wide gold piece of galloon on the sleeves of their dress coats. On the shoulder straps sergeants sewd one cross-stripe of the same galloon, senior non-commissioned officers—three cross-stripes of narrow yellow tape, and junior non-commissioned officers—two narrow stripes.

Traditionally the Naval Corps students would deviate from the established regulation uniform to achieve a more flashy appearance. Thus, in corps instructions there would appear articles forbidding gold buttons on the coat and officer-style galloon, the wearing of silk cravattes, mufflers, rings, bracelets, galoshes, lacquered boots, canes, umbrellas, etc.

With the outbreak of the First World War wartime uniforms were established for personnel in the Baltic and Black Sea operational fleets and ports which, however, was not extended to Petrograd and its environs. According to a new announcement, admirals, generals, senior and junior-grade officers, doctors, and civilian naval officials the orders of dress for wartime were to be divided into parade (No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3), parade formation and normal formation (No. 4, No. 5, and No. 6), normal (No. 7, No. 8, and No. 9), service (No. 10, No. 11, and No. 12), service formation  (No. 13, No. 14, and No. 15), and everyday dress for wear when not on duty (No. 16, No. 17, and No. 18).

To be worn in winter parade dress (No. 1) were a dark-blue smock, shoulder straps, the highest ranking order, sash, forage cap, saber, short boots, brown doe-skin gloves, and greatcoat, overcoat, or cape. Sumer parad uniform was distinguished by officers being able to wear either the dark-blue or white smock, the choice of the brown doe-skin gloves or white chamois, and for an outer garment either the overcoat or the cape.

In wartime the basic item of uniform became the smock. The frock coat was worn only in everyday winter dress and only when off duty. The dress coat, and consequently epaulettes, tricorn, and pants with galloon, were in general not worn at all.

Only the highest ranking of an officer’s orders was worn, but in parade dress and in special circumstances all orders and medals were put on. Admirals and generals wore order ribbons only when specially ordered. A Highest ukase forbade the wear under any circumstances of orders and other insignia from Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. In regard to insignia on the chest, as a rule only badges for graduating from naval educational institutions were worn.

There were also new rules for the wearing of medals and badges by lower ranks. The highest ranking neck medal was worn at the smock collar and the others along the front opening. On the flannel shirt neck medals were hung one over the other, with the senior medal on top. Medals and awards worn on the chest were fastened to a medal bar wrapped in the ribbons.

 

In the corridors of power.

By the beginning of the twentieth century Russia had developed a rather complex but at the same time harmonious system of awards and decorations. For distinguished service naval officers could receive His Imperial Majesty’s gratitude and best wishes, promotions, knightly orders, gold weapons, additional income, gifts from the emperor, award money, bestowal of personal or hereditary honorary citizenship, medals, ceremonial robes, etc. For longtime command of ships commanders received significant monetary awards. Colonels and lieutenant-colonels of the navy’s Corps of Ship Engineers were rewarded for constructing, rebuilding, and refitting ships, while officers of the Corps of Ship Engineers and Engineer-Mechanics could receive cash prizes for the best designed ships and mechanisms, improving ship construction, and so on.

A sequential hierarchy was established for awarding knightly orders. An officer could first be awarded  the order of St. Stanislav 3rd class, then St. Anne 3rd class, St. Stanislav 2nd class, St. Anne 2nd class, St Vladimir 4th class, St. Vladimir 3rd class, St. Stanislav 1st class, St. Anna 1st class, St. Vladimir 2nd class, the White Eagle, St. Alexander Nevsky, and finally St. Alexander Nevsky with diamonds. The orders of St. Vladimir 1st class and St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle could only be awarded by the emperor’s personal permission, i.e. orders were bestowed strictly by their rank.

There were annual normal quotas for awards. Thus, for military personnel at the Ministry of the Navy and all admirals and generals the norm was expressed as the proportion 1:6. Recommendations for awards to sea-going officers were submitted by 6 December, and for shore service—by the Easter holiday, so documentation had to be at the Main Naval Staff by 15 October for sea-going officers and no later than 15 February for others. There were also established periods between being submitted for  decoration with an order that ranged from three to five years. Strict qualifications were laid down as to who could receive which order. For example, officers occupying positions lower than 4th class, i.e. below the ranks of rear-admiral and major-general, could not be recommended for St. Anne 1st class or St. Vladimr 2nd class. Only the order of St. Stanislav 3rd class for distinguished service could be given to persons regardless of their rank or duty position. The next higher order, St. Anne 3rd class, was given only to officers in the rank of midshipman or higher.

The bestowal of awards also took into account social class: in order to receive the order of St. Vladimir 4th class an officer not of noble origin had to have served at least 20 years in commissioned ranks. Persons in high positions could receive high-ranking orders and bypass the lower classes. For extraordinary services the periods between awards were shortened. In the history of the Russian navy hundreds of examples can be found of exceptions when awards fells down as if from a horn of plenty. This was especially able to be seen in wartime.

At the very beginning of the Crimean War G.I. Butakov received the rank of captain 2nd rank and the order of St. George 4th class for his victory over the steamship Pervas Bakhri, and for the defense of Sevastopol he was promoted to captain 1st rank, received the position of aide-de-camp, awarded the orders of St. Anne 2nd class with swords, St. Vladimr 4th and 3rd classes with swords and bow, and received a gold weapon inscribed “For Courage.”

For military feats during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, young Lieutenant S.O. Makarov received six awards in less than a year: gold weapons inscribed “For Courage,” order of St. Vladimir 4th class with swords, order of St. George 4th class, promotions to captain-lieutenant and captain 2nd rank, and the title of aide-de-camp. During the Akhal-Tekinsk expedition of 1880 its leader M.D. Skobelev exchanged St. George crosses with his naval deputy Captain 2nd Rank S.O. Makarov as a mark of recognition and respect. Vice-Admiral Makarov was killed at Port Arthur with his cross from Skobelev.

From the beginning of the nineteenth century admirals, generals, and officers especially close to the emperor formed his suite and had the suite titles of general-adjutant or aide-de-camp [general-ad”yutant, fligel’-ad”yutant]. In 1827 there were established the special titles “major-general of His Majesty’s Suite” and “rear-admiral of His Majesty’s Suite.” From this time the title of general-adjutant was given only to military personnel ranking in class II and III. Having received suite titles, such persons were looked upon as a combination of court and military, and promotions took place only under the emperor’s direct supervision. During the whole time, however, the number of persons in the suite was never limited. By the end of Alexander II’s reign there were 405 people in the suite, and under Alexander III—105. By 1914 the suite numbered 51 general-adjutants, 64 major-generals and rear-admirals, and 56 aides-de-camp.

The duties of suite members included carrying out special assignments from the emperor, escorting important foreign personages and military delegations visiting Russia, attendance at all “appearances, parades, reviews... where His Majesty deigns to be present,” and also being on duty for the emperor at court or at ceremonies outside court. The main service at court was to organize the presentation of persons to the emperor during general receptions, seeing to protocol when officials made reports to the emperor, and accompanying the emperor at parades and reviews, as well as to the theater. The majority of suite members occupied corresponding positions along military or civilian lines, but there were those who exclusively attended “to His Majesty’s person,” i.e. served in the suite.

All suite members enjoyed preferences in service. For example, aides-de-camp could be promoted to the next military rank regardless of vacancies.

Special uniforms distinguished all members of the suite, decorated with rich embroidery, aiguilette, and the sovereign emperor’s monogram on epaulettes and shoulder straps. Suite monograms were also worn on the left side of the chest. Monograms on epaulettes were of stamped metal, and on shoulder straps—of embroidered braid. For general-adjutants the monogram was silver on gold epaulettes, and for aides-de-camp gold on silver epaulettes. For rear-admirals and major-generals of the suite the monogram on their normal uniform was the same color as the epaulette. When in suite uniform, rear-admirals and major-generals of the suite had gold monograms.

General-adjutants from previous reigns wore on their epaulettes, shoulder straps, and ends of the aiguilette a combination monogram “of the names of the reigning Emperor and the one resting with God.” When an aide-de-camp was promoted to rear-admiral or major-general of the suite, or a rear-admiral or major-general of the suite to vice-admiral or lieutenant-general, as well as when they were named general-adjutants, they were permitted to wear the monogram of the deceased emperor on their left breast. This monogram was also allowed to be worn during retirement. For general-adjutants the silver monogram was framed by a gold wreath, while for rear-admirals and major-generals of the suite, as well as for aides-de-camp, the gold monogram was framed by a silver wreath.

It remains to note that there were many circumstances when members of the sovereign’s suite were obliged to wear just the suite uniform: presentation to members of the imperial family, attendance at Highest appearances at court, at reviews and parades on shore in the presence of the emperor, and at official assemblies, dinners, balls, and so on. For these same persons there were also rules dictating when they had to be in the uniform of the unit to which they belonged when serving outside the suite. For instance, when suite members were presented to the minister of the navy or other senior naval commanders they had to wear the naval uniform prescribed for shipboard holidays, the laying down and launching of ships, and so on.

When released from service into the reserve or retirement the suite uniform was not retained.

 

A time of troubles.

Under the Provisional Government Navy Order No. 125 of 16 April 1917, signed by Minister of the Navy A. Guchkov, announced changes in the uniforms for naval personnel. Part of this order read: “In accordance with the custom for uniform dress in the navies of all free countries, I declare the following uniform changes naval and fleet personnel until such time as a final determination can be established: 1) Remove from use all forms of braided shoulder straps; 2) Abolish the wear of sashes; 3) Eliminate monograms on weapons; 4) Paint the centers of cockades red until such time as a new pattern forage cap is established. In place of braided shoulder straps I establish rank insignia on the sleeve made from galloon, around the entire sleeve for frock coats, smocks, and everyday coats [tuzhurki], and for the overcoat—only on the outside.” This order contained a description of the sewn-on sleeve ranks. Ensigns were prescribed one narrow strip of galloon without any loop; midshipmen and shore lieutenants—one wide galloon stripe with a loop and one narrow without; fleet lieutenants and staff-captains—one wide galloon with a loop and two narrow without; senior lieutenants and captains—one wide galloon with a loop and three without; 2nd rank captains and lieutenant-colonels—one wide galloon with a loop and one wide galloon without; 1st rank captains and colonels—one wide galloon with a loop and two without; rear-admirals and major-generals—one wide galloon with a loop and two wide without, with a five-pointed star above; vice-admirals and lieutenant-generals—the same galloon stripes as rear-admirals but with two five-pointed stars above; admirals and generals—the same galloon but with three five-pointed stars above.

Sleeve rank was to be of either gold or silver galloon, but if galloon could not be obtained then on the dark-blue smock and everyday coat it was permitted to use black tape. Gold galloon was prescribed for fleet officers, engineer-mechanics who had passed the full officer’s examination, officers at the admiralty, ensigns, and hydrographers. Silver galloon was worn by admiralty officers who had not passed the full officer’s examination, officers in the judicial administration, ship engineers, and doctors. Piping sewn under the lower galloon served to designate specialties. This was red for ship engineers, raspberry for judicial administration officers, dark-blue for hydrographers, and white for doctors. Navy civilian officials had the same sleeve rank as doctors but without piping or galloon loop.

In order to distinguishe the military personnel of the navy from the sailors and administrators of the Volunteer and merchant fleets there was established a red embroidered anchor worn between the elbow and shoulder of the left sleeve of the overcoat, greatcoat, shortened overcoat, dark-blue smock, and dark-blue flannel shirt.

Although all uniform items under the Provisional Government remained as before, the result of reworking them was a substantially changed appearance for naval personnel. For example, the buttons were torn from the dark-blue smock, buttonhole loops were sewn closed, and the outer opening of the smock trimmed with black tape under which were fastened small hooks to cloe the garment. The collar was also trimmed with black tape, and if desired the smock’s standing collar could be replaced with a closed falling collar trimmed with black tape. The shaped flaps of all four pockets were torn off, and the pockets trimmed on all sides with black tape. Shoulder straps also disappeared from the smock. The naval everyday coat and overcoat underwent corresponding alterations, and only pants and shoes were unchanged.

A naval administration order introduced a forage cap of the so-called “American” type. The white edging had disappeared from the new cap, the band was covered with a black ribbon, the visor was made almost flat and straight, and the chinstrap replaced with a gold cord. In summertime the black crown had a white cover. A new cockade was established to replace the previous pattern. The cockade could be embroidered or metallic. If the sleeve rank was gold, then the cockade was to be the same, but the anchor silver. It was permitted to wear out old caps after painting out the center of the cockade in red.

In a change to Navy Order No. 125 of 16 April 1917 a new order from the Ministry of the Navy on 23 April declared that “officers of the shore contingent, officers at the admiralty, navy doctors, ship engineers, judicial administration personnel, and navy civilian officials are to have the upper galloon rank stripe with loop in silver and the lower ones in gold.” Along with this the piping under the lower galloon was established to be red for ship engineers, raspberry for judicial personnel, sky blue for doctors, white for civilian officials, and dark blue for hydrographers. Gold galloon was introduced for all sea-going personnel, but with the appropriate piping. But already on 1 May a new order was issued regarding uniforms. It announced that all the innovations were also extended to retired personnel but in order to distinguishe them from active serving members the upper galloon on the overcoat, frock coat, and everyday coat, and the upper black tape on the smock, were to be of a wave pattern without any loops.

And that would be be all the main changes in naval uniform that took place under the Provisional Government. But few persons were able to bring their uniforms into compliance with the published orders. On 31 May 1917 a telegram under the signature of Captain 1st Rank V.Ye. Yegor’ev directed to fleet and port commanders contained the following: “In view of numerous questions from all places regarding the proposed new uniform changes resulting from the work of the Kolomeitsov committee, Navy headquarters declares that until the end of the war no uniform changes are planned to be brought into effect besides those already announced.”

The Provisional Government strove to preserve the knightly orders after removing monarchal emblems from them. It was that regime that introduced into the St.-George order’s statute the award of the medal of the order of St. George 4th class to soldiers and the award of the soldiers’ cross to officers. In both instances a laurel wreath was affixed to the medal’s ribbon. In a directive from the Provisional Government on 25 June 1917, it was set forth that “for feats of personal courage and valor there is established the award of St. George crosses to officers upon the determination (decision – V.D.) of a general assembly of the ship’s crew.” The honor signified by this award was underscored by wearing it above all orders except that of St. George. Sailors who received the officer’s order of St. George 4th class were simultaneously promoted to the rank of lieutenant in the admiralty or wartime midshipman. It may also be noted here that on 30 May 1917 it was permitted to wear, instead of orders, strips of order ribbon on the left breast, 7 cm wide. Monarchal emblems were removed from the breast badges for graduating from one of the military educational institutions, as well as from orders.

On 5 March 1917 the new minister of the navy, A. Guchkov, signed Order No. 5, according to which the old forms of address were replaced with new ones. Lower ranks in conductor (officer-candidate) ranks began to be called conductors, and all others were called sailors. As we know, generals and admirals of rank classes I and II were previously addressed as “your high excellency” [“vashe vysokoprevoskhoditel’stvo”], and in classess III and IV as “your excellency” [“vashe prevoskhoditel’stvo”]. And those who were grafs or princes had the appropriate title additionally appended. Other ranks were addressed by adding the predicate “mister” [“gospodin”]. Lower ranks addressed senior-grade officers with “your high nobility” [“vashe vysokoblagorodie”], and junior-grade officers with “your nobility” [“vashe blagorodie”]. If an officer had the title of graf or prince, he could also be addressed by referring to that noble rank. But now all these forms of address were abolished. Only the predicate “mister” was retained, as in “Mister Admiral,” “Mister Lieutenant”, “Mister Doctor,”, etc.

 

Illustrations in the text:

Page 9. Top: The founder of the Russian Navy, Peter I. Bottom: Medal commemorating the taking of Azov in 1696. On the obverse is depicted Peter I wearing armor, with a laurel wreath on his head. Around the edge is the raised inscription PETER ALEKSEEVICH LORD OF MUSCOVY VERILY AND EVER. On the reverse is a scene of the taking of the Turkish fortress and the raised inscription CONQUERING WITH LIGHTNING AND WAVES.

Page 10. Peter I’s companion Admiral F. Ya. Leforte. Engraving by Shenk, 1698. Leforte is dressed in a non-regulation kaftan coat richly embroidered in gold, hat with plumage, short pants, stockings, and black German shoes. Since at this time there was no established uniform, the cut of the coat, the design of the embroidery, the number of buttons, and other details were all determined by the wearer himself.

Page 11. Peter I in sailor’s dress while a member of the so-called Great Embassy to Holland in 1697. The Russian tsar, using the name Peter Mikhailov, learned the art of shipbuilding on the wharves of the Dutch town of Saardam, in England he studied naval architecture, and in Königsberg—the science of artillery. The style of clothing in which Peter I is dressed appears to be the prototype for uniforms in the Russian navy. Engraving by N. Svistunov.

Page 14. Dutch-style sailor’s hat from the wardrobe of Peter I. Late 17th to early 18th century. The hat is woven from coarse wool.

Page 15. Dutch-style sailor’s dress from the wardrobe of Peter I. Late 17th to early 18th century. The bostorg jacket is sewn from dark-blue cloth, and the pants—from brown.

Page 16. Various examples of sailors’ dress in Peter the Great’s navy. During these years the style of hat  often changed, and stockings were dark blue, cornflower blue, red, gray, and white. In 1720 dark-green pants were worn with a dark-green jacket and red sash, dark blue stockings, black hat, and black shoes.

Page 17. Medal commemorating Peter I’s command of four fleets at the island of Bornholm in 1716. On the obverse is a bust of Peter I surrounded by an armature of naval flags, ship models, anchors, and arms. On a pedestal is the raised inscription PETER THE GREAT OF ALL THE RUSSIAS, with THE YEAR 1716 on the lower part. On the reverse Neptune drives a pair of horses as he flies across the sea in a scallop shell carriage adorned with English, Danish, and Dutch flags. In Neptune’s right hand is a trident on which is hoisted the Russian imperial ship’s standard. In the upper part of the medal is the raised inscription HE CONTROLS FOUR, and below—AT BORNHOLM. This medal was struck to commemorate Peter I’s command of a joint Russian-English-Danish-Dutch fleet on 5 August 1716 at the island of Bornholm.

Page 19. A cadet [gardemarin] of the Guards Naval Academy [Akademiya morskoi gvardii] in 1723 and a cadet [kadet] of the Naval Noble Cadet Corps [Morskoi shlyakhetnyi kadetskii korpus] in 1752. In 1723 Peter I established a special uniform for cadets, almost a complete replica of the clothing in the Life-Guards Preobrazhenskii Regiment. But when the Preobrazhenskii wore red stockings because they stood “in blood up to their knees” at Narva in 1710, the cadets had white stockings.

Page 21. Court oarsmen of the Petrine era. Artist O. Charlemagne. Judging by the so-called “free-floating” St.-Andrew’s flag, the scene dates to 1710-1712.

Page 22. Part of F. Zubov’s engraving “Panorama of St. Petersburg, 1716.” In the boat’s stern sit Peter I and his wife Catherine. The standing sailors give a good view of seamen’s dress in the Petrine navy.

Page 28. Navy uniforms of the 1745 patterns: 1) junior officers, 2) mid-grade officers, and 3) flag officers. The 1745-pattern uniform was the first to use galloon as a kind of rank insignia in the navy: for junior officers the waistcoat did not have embroidery, for mid-grade officers it was trimmed with one row of straight galloon, and for flag officers—galloon was sewn on in two rows.

Page 31. Brigadier P. P. Klement’ev, 1770’s. Unknown artist of the late 18th century. In Russian catalogs the portrait is said to be of I. M. Klement’ev, who was released from service in January 1765 as a captain 2nd rank. But in the picture the officer is dressed in the uniform of a brigadier of the admiralty, as evidenced by the turned-back coat lapels and the half-embroidery along the coat and waistcoat openings and on the cuffs. Such a uniform would belong to P. P. Klement’ev, released from service on 11 March 1768 with the rank of brigadier.

Page 32. Catherin the Great as the law giver in the temple of the goddess of justice, 1793 (?). Artist D. G. Levitskii. Over her right shoulder the empress wears the ribbon of the order of St. Vladimir 1st class. The artist indicated Catherine II’s relation to the navy by a ship under the St.-Andrew flag.

Page 33. Sailors of the court oarsmen’s command, 1770. From the collection of the TsVMM [Central Naval Museum].

Page 35. Rear-Admiral S. K. Greig, 1772-73. Artist I. P. Argunov. The presence of full embroidery along the coat and waistcoat openings and on the cuffs , and of large buttons on the cuffs, are evidence of rear-admiral’s rank. At Greig’s neck is the order of St. George 2nd class, received for the Chesmen battle. The order’s star is on the left side of his breast.

Page 36. General-in-Chief I. G. Chernyshov, end of the 1780’s to 1790’s. Artist D. G. Levitskii. I. G. Chernyshev wears an admiralty uniform. Two full rows and one half row of embroidery on the cuffs show the rank of general-in-chief. On his left shoulder can be seen a shoulder strap woven from gold cord, with a fringe. This strap is of a non-regulation style and appears to be a prototype of the epaulette. Across his right shoulder is the order of St. Vladimir 1st class on a red ribbon with black stripes. From 4 June 1769 to 20 June 1797 Graf I. G. Chernyshov was vice-president of the Admiralty Collegium.

Page 37. Captain, equivalent to brigadier, S. B. Shubin, 1774. Artist G. Serdyukov. Shubin wears the uniform of a mid-grade officer of the Naval Noble Cadet Corps, as evidenced by the green coat, white lapels and cuffs, cuff flaps, sash, and inscription on the shoulder strap: “Mor. sh. korpus” in Cyrillic letters. The color of the corps uniform was opposite to that of the uniforms of officers in the fleet. During these years only the coats in the Naval Corps were tailored with turned-back lapels and the characteristic cuff flaps. On 18 August 1764 S. B. Shubin was assigned to the Naval Corps with the rank of lieutenant colonel, which gave him the right to wear the uniform of this prestigious Russian educational institute.

Page 38. (From left to right.) Cadet (1793), grenadier (1793), and garde-marine [senior cadet] (1810) of the Naval Corps.

Page 40. Navy uniforms of the 1764 patterns: 1) rear-admiral, 2) vice-admiral, 3) admiral, and 4) general-admiral.

Page 41. Navy uniforms of the 1764 patterns: 1) junior officer, 2) captain-lieutenant, 3) captain 2nd rank, and 4) captain 1st rank.

Pages 42. Sleeve stripes for officers, 1796 pattern: I, II, and III—1st, 2nd, and 3rd Divisions; 1, 2, and 3—1st, 2nd, and 3rd Squadrons.

Page 43. Sleeve stripes for petty officers, 1796 pattern: I, II, and III—1st, 2nd, and 3rd Divisions; 1, 2, and 3—1st, 2nd, and 3rd Squadrons.

Page 43 (below). I. L. Golenishchev-Kutzov, director of the Naval Noble Cadet Corps. Ivan Loginovich is depicted in the Naval Corps’ undress coat [vitse-mundir]--dark green with white cloth lining. This was kept under Paul I almost without change when he changed it from an undress coat to full dress. The middle part of the Naval Corps’ embroidered coat-of-arms is clearly visible on the cuff flap. On the breast is the black ribbon of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, with which Paul I in 1798 began to decorate Russian subjects. The vestments of a knight of this Maltese order can be seen under the coat. Upon Paul I’s death the awarding of the Maltese order in Russia was stopped, and soon it was even forbidden for Russian subjects to wear the order’s insignia.

Page 44. General-in-Chief A. G. Orlov. Artist D. G. Levitskii. A. G. Orlov is dressed in the admiralty uniform of 1764, as seen by the gold embroidery in two full and one half rows of oak leaves. Over the right shoulder is the sky-blue ribbon of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called.

Page 46. Captain, equivalent to major general, M. L. Mel’nikov, 1790’s. Unknown artist of the late 18th century. M. L. Mel’nikov is shown in a rear-admiral’s coat. He may have received this rank upon release from service. On his breast is the order of St. George 4th class.

Page 47. Junior officer and cadet of the Naval Corps, 1812.

Page 48. (Above) Petty officer’s hat, 1802. From the collection of the TsVMM. (Below) Naval officer, 1802-1807. Unknown artist of the late 18th-early 19th centuries. Judging from the single gold shoulder strap on the left shoulder and the embroidered gold anchor on the collar, this picture shows a captain-lieutenant. A high standing open collar was characteristic for uniforms of this period. The picture clearly shows the three anchors embroidered on the cuff flaps, as well as a hat cockade of black ribbon edged with orange, with a gold buttonhole loop.

Page 49. (Above) Naval officer, 1800’s. Artist Bossi. This picture shows a midshipman in the 1803-pattern uniform. An large fouled admiralty anchor embroidered on a high standing collar was characteristic for this time. Under the coat can be seen a white vest with standing collar and a black neck cloth. During these years it was the fashion to tease the hair up and lightly powder it.

(Below) Admiral A. S. Shishkov, 1825. Artist O. A. Kiprenskii. The admiral is dressed in a double-breasted dark-green 1803-pattern coat. The epaulettes have a gentle oval shape that widens at the ends and are edged with gold cord and brilliants. On them can be seen three embroidered black eagles denoting the rank of admiral. For admirals’ coats the gold embroidery was in the form of intertwined ropes along the edge of the collar and cuffs. Over the left shoulder is worn the ribbon of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky.

Page 50. Major General of the Corps of Naval Construction Engineers [Korpus inzhenerov morskoi stroitel’noi chasti], late 1810. Unknown artist of the first half of the 19th century. Officers of this department wore the standard navy uniform but with white appointments. The style of shoulder strap depicted appeared in 1803, and was replaced in 1807 by epaulettes. The single embroidered black eagle signifies the rank of major general. Only from 25 December 1867 were stars instead of eagles sewn on general officers’ shoulder straps and epaulettes. Over the left shoulder is the ribbon of the order of St. Anne 1st class.

Page 51. (Above) Minister of the Navy Admiral P. V. Chichagov. On 7 March 1808 the standard general officers’ embroidery of oak leaves appeared on the collar and cuffs of admirals’ uniforms. On the collar the anchor began to be sewn on below these leaves and in a noticeably smaller size. This portrait illustrates the evolution of the 1803 shoulder strap to epaulette as to the former were added two rows of cord added and a fringe.

(Below) Captain-Commodore I. A. Baratynskii, 1808. Artist V. L. Borovikovskii. The rank of captain-commodore is indicated by the admiralty epaulettes without embroidered eagles. The picture clearly shows the standard gold general officers’ embroidery on the collar and cuffs, as introduced in 1808. The order of St. John of Jerusalem at the neck shoes that Baratynskii served under Paul I.

Page 52. (Above) Sailors of the Guards Équipage in full service uniform, 1810. Piping on the coat’s collar and cuffs was white, while the guardsmen’s shoulder straps were of red cloth. From the collection of the TsVMM.

(Below) Petty officer and sailor of the Guards Équipage, 1812-1816. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 53. (Above) Sailor and junior officer of the Guards Équipage, 1817-1823. From the collection of the TsVMM.

(Below) Naval officer with the order of St. Vladimir 4th class. Artist I. Batler (Butler). In 1811 dark-green epaulettes with a fringe appeared on navy uniforms. While during these years admiralty uniforms had standard gold general officers’ embroidery, the uniforms of junior and mid-grade naval officers kept the previous 1803-pattern embroidery in the form of a fouled anchor.

Page 54. Petty officer’s coat, Guards Équipage, 1812. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 55. (Left) Officer’s coat, Guards Équipage, 1812. A fleet officer’s coat differed from a guards officer’s by the absence of the gold edge on the collar and cuffs. From the collection of the TsVMM.

(Right) Vice-Admiral F. A. Klokachev, 1822. Artist with the monogram AVN. By the end of the first quarter of the 19th century the standard general officers’ embroidery on admirals’ coat collars had almost completely crowded out the anchor embroidered in gold thread.

Page 56. N. A. Bestuzhev. Self-portrait. End of January-March 1825. N. A. Bestuzhev is shown in the uniform of a captain-lieutenant of the 8th Naval Équipage, with the order of St. Vladimir 4th class and commemorative medal for the 1812 war. From 1812 the style of the collar changed as it became closed and the embroidery occupied a significantly greater area. Mid-grade officers’ epaulettes were made with a border of three rows of cord and had a fringe of thin braid. On the dark-green field of the epaulette was the équipage number embroidered in gold thread.

Page 57. (Above) Junior-grade officer and noncommissioned officer of the Guards Équipage, 1824-1825. From the collection of the TsVMM.

(Below) Guards Équipage sailor, cannoneer of the artillery command, and noncommissioned officer of the barge company (left to right). 1826-1828. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 58. Guards Équipage: Bombardier of the Artillery Command and junior-grade officer.

Page 59. Navy non-commissioned officer’s shako, 1828. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 60. Navy officer, 1837. Artist AM. This drawing shows a lieutenant of the 5th Naval Équipage. From 30 December 1825 navy dress coats began to be made single-breasted with nine buttons. The embroidery on the collar took up almost all the available space since to the tracery were added one wide and several narrow cables. Epaulettes became more substantial, and from 21 November 1830 small rank stars were added to them. In 1810 a black swordbelt for the saber was introduced.

Page 61. V.A. Kornilov on board the brig Femostokl. Artist K.P. Bryullov. Kornilov is depicted while sailing on the brig in 1835, wearing an undress uniform made regulation in 1826. The epaulettes show that at this time Kornilov was in the 40th Naval Équipage and held the rank of captain-lieutenant.

Page 62. Naval Cadet Corps: Garde-marine non-commissioned officer and senior-grade officer, 1852.

Page 63. Shako of a sailor in the Guards Équipage. Since 1844 the shako had the shape of a cylinder tapering upwards. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 64. (Above) Oarsmen of the emperor’s launchboat (left), and of the launch of the duty general of the Main Naval Staff and chief of staff for the Black Sea Fleet and ports. 1843-1858. From the collection of the TsVMM. (Below) Oarsmen of the general-admiral’s launch (left), and of the launch of the commander of the Baltic Fleet and commander of the Black Sea Fleet and ports. 1843-1858. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 65. (Above) Oarsmen of the launch of the chief of the Main Naval Staff (left), and of the launch of the general-intendant and chief intendant of the Black Sea and ports. 1843-1858. (Below) Oarsmen of the launch of the chief of the 1st and 4th Naval Divisions (left), and of the launch of the commanders of the Sevastopol, Astrakhan, and Danube ports. 1843-1858. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 66. (Above) Oarsmen of the launch of the commander of the 3rd Naval Division (left), and of the launch of the ports captain. 1843-1858. From the collection of the TsVMM. (Below) Oarsmen of the launch of the commander of the 2nd and 5th Naval Divisions (left), and of the launch of the chief port commanders. 1843-1858. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 67. (Above) Petr Koshka, hero of the defense of Sevastopol (center). Koshka is dressed in the uniform of a grade 1 sailor of the 30th Naval Équipage: a long gray sailor’s greatcoat, forage cap without visor, and black leather accouterments. For parade dress regulations stipulated an upward tapering shako. (Below) Shoulder strap of an engineer lieutenant who took part in the defense of Sevastopol, 1854. Such straps were also worn by officers of the Navy’s engineering units. Two silver galloon strips were sewn along the sides of a black cloth shoulder strap, resulting in a thin black “light”. Small stars and piping indicated an officer’s rank and branch. Naval artillery officers wore the same shoulder strap but with gold gallon instead of white.

Page 68. Forage cap of a participant in the defense of Sevastopol, 1855-1857. The numeral on the shield indicates belonging to the 29th Naval Équipage. A cockade is fixed under the badge’s crown. On 22 September 1855 personnel who took part in the defense of Sevastopol were awarded an inscription for the shako: FOR SEVASTOPOL FROM 13 SEPTEMBER 1854 TO 27 AUGUST 1855. With the introduction of the forage cap on 2 December the inscription was transferred to that item, while on 26 December 1887, in commemoration of the defense of Sevastopol, lower ranks of Black Sea and Caspian équipages were awarded a St. George ribbon for their caps without visors.

Page 70. Sailor of a barge équipage with the shortened double-breasted overcoat [pal’to] with falling collar, white pants, forage cap without visor, and black ankle boots with pointed toes. 1852. Senior-grade officer at the admiralty, 1852. The uniforms for admiralty officials had white appointments, while the counter-epaulettes (epaulettes) had a black cloth field.

Page 71. Sailor, non-commissioned officer, and junior-grade officer of the 1st Barge Équipage, 1852. The sailor is dressed in a gray greatcoat with standing collar and black cloth shoulder straps on which is painted the équipage number. On the collar and cuffs of the non-commissioned officer’s single-breasted coat can be seen sewn-on lace made from silver galloon, and on the shoulders—black shoulder straps with the équipage number. Besides a cartridge pouch on a black swordbelt, from 30 April 1835 non-commissioned officers wore guards sapper shortswords. From 15 February 1852 junior-grade officers began to wear counter-epaulettes with a black cloth field and an embroidered équipage number. Officers of barge équipages during these years wore a saber with a silver sword knot on a black leather swordbelt. On the shakos worn by these barge équipage personnel can be seen the standard navy plate with the cut-out number of the équipage.

Page 72. Pattern of the collar embroidery for the dress coat of a captain of a large ship in the Russian-American Compay; large, medium, and small buttons, and dagger with swordbelt. 1851.

Page 73. (Above) Junior-grade officer, senior-grade officer, sailor, and non-commissioned officer of the Guards Équipage, 1855-1870. The junior officer is dressed in a white coat [kitel’, or polotnyanik] introduced in 1858; the senior officer—in a frock coat along with is worn the dagger. The sailor is in ship’s uniform: dark-blue shirt with white collar on which are sewn two orange stripes. From 1870 there was a black silk ribbon on the sailor hat. The non-commissioned officer is dressed in a greatcoat with red shoulder straps on which can be seen small rank stripes [lychki], and on his left side the broadsword [palash] introduced in 1856. From the collection of the TsVMM. (Below left) Sailor of the 10th Stable Company [10-ya konyushennaya rota] in a frock coat, 1852. (Below right) Sailor of the 10th Stable Company in a gray greatcoat, 1852.

Page 74. (Above) Junior-grade officer and sailor of the 10th Port Company, 1852. The field on officers’ counter-epaulettes in port companies remained white. The number of the port company was embroidered on the epaulette in black thread. On the shako was affixed a plate in the form of crossed anchors and a cockade. The same plate was worn by officers in barge équipages until 1852. Below the plate was the company number. Lower ranks also wore white shoulder straps with the company number painted on them. In port companies as well as in barge équipages the coats had white appointments. (Below) Russian-American Company captains of large ships in dress coats, 1851. the style of the forage cap was characteristic, being made with a high crown of dark-green cloth, with dark-blue piping around the band and crown, with a black lacquered visor and round cockade. Company officials wore black neckcloths.

Page 75. (Above) Russian-American Company captains of large ships in frock coats, 1851. (Below) The uniforms of a captain of a small ship and of a chief mate to a captain of a large ship. Russian-American Company, 1851. Characteristic is the absence of embroidery on the collar of the dress coat and of a cockade on the forage cap, as well as the use of narrower galloon around the cap band.

Page 76. (Above) Russian-American Company captain of a small ship and a chief mate to a captain of a large ship in frock coats, 1851. (Below) Student seafarers [ucheniki morekhody] of the Russian-American Company, 1851. The uniform was distinguished by a narrow galloon edge on the cap band and the dark-blue standing collar.

Page 77. Senior-grade officer, sailor, and junior-grade officer of the Guards Équipage, 1855-1858. The senior officer is dressed in the parade formation uniform, as evidenced by his shako and the embroidery on his coat. The sailor is in the uniform for formations [stroevaya forma], while the junior officer is wearing an undress coat [vitse-mundir]. Along with the undress coat officers wore a hat (tricorn). From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 78. Forage cap with the badge of an officer in the Guards Équipage, 1855-1857. As there is no shield a cockade is fixed onto the band. Forage cap with badge, 1855 pattern.

Page 79. Forage cap for officers of port companies and the cap badges for officers of arsenal and laboratory companies (right), penal companies (center), and labor and machine-labor companies (left), 1855. On the cap band was affixed the company (équipage) number while the coackade was on the crown under the badge.

Page 80. Forage cap with badge for naval équipages, and shields for the badge. The cap was introduced on 2 December 1855 in place of the shako. It was made of dark-green cloth with a leather visor and chinstrap. For all ranks there was white piping around the top edge. The cap band’s color and piping denoted the officer’s type of unit. Marine Artillery Corps officers, fleet navigators, ship engineers, and engineer-mechanics had black velvet cap bands with red piping, while officers at the Ministry of the Navy had a red band with two lines of dark-green piping. Fleet officers had a dark-green cloth band with white piping. The badge was a smaller copy of that worn on the shako. The cockade was affixed to  the crown as well as the band of the forage cap. Fleet officers had their équipage number cut out on the shield, officers in barge équipages—a number with a period, officers of the Marine Artillery Corps—crossed cannons, officers of the Corps of Naval Navigators—an anchor, and officers of the Corps of Ship Engineers and Engineer-Mechanics—an anchor with crossed axes.

Page 82. Admiral P.S. Nakhimov on the Sevastopol bastions. Nakhimov is dressed in a lengthened dark-green frock with admiral’s epaulettes. Characteristic of Crimean War period frock coats were the wide cuffs and two pockets with two button on the back. During this time officers’ dark-green forage caps had three lines of white piping, a narrow cap band, high crown, and black leather lacquered visor descending at a steep angle.

Page 83. General-Admiral Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich (center) in standard naval undress coat. The aiguilette and stamped metal monograms on his epaulettes indicate his position as a general-adjutant. Behind him stands a staff-doctor general officer whose coat is characterized by white piping and shoulder straps of twisted white cord. On the gun sits an aide-de-camp of junior-grade rank, while leaning on the gun is a senior-grade officer aide-de-camp. Both are dressed in aide-de-camp uniforms. At far right is an aide-de-camp of senior-grade officer rank dressed in a standard naval undress coat. 1856.

Page 84. Guards Équipage officer’s dress coat of the 1855 pattern. This coat belonged to General-Admiral Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich. That this is for the Guards Équipage is shown by the embroidery on the diagonally open collar and cuffs and the red piping on the general-admiral shoulder straps. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 85. Coat belonging to a garde-marine of the Naval Cadet Corps. Single-breasted and closed with nine buttons, this coat was introduced on 30 December 1825, but on 25 June 1832 stamped brass anchors began to be fastened to garde-marine shoulder straps.

Page 86. Regulations for uniforms for admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers of the navy, confirmed in 1856.

Page 87. 1st Rank Captain P.V. Falk in the uniform of the Guards Équipage. Falk is dressed in an 1855 pattern double-breasted half-tunic [polukaftan] which in those years was tailored with a close fit and rather narrow sleeves. That the coat belongs to the Guards Équipage is shown by the pattern of the embroidery on the collar and the epaulette’s backing. While the collar on a standard navy coat was embroidered with just a fouled anchor, the collar of a Guards Équipage coat was additionally framed with a gold cable.

Page 88. (Top) Officers and crew on the upper deck of sidewheel steamer, 1866. The sailors are dressed in flannel shirts with small lay-down collars trimmed with two stripes of orange tape, indicated they belong to the Guards Équipage. Some non-commissioned officers are seen with long neckcloths or neckerchiefs. In accordance with a navy order of 24 November 1856, during this period all lower ranks wore forage caps with a visor. (Center) Sailor’s cap in the Guards Équipage, without a visor. On 8 July 1878 lower ranks in the Guards Équipage were awarded St.-George ribbons on their caps for their part in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. (Bottom) Sailor’s hat, introduced 19 July 1857. From 1870 it was worn with a black silk ribbon. The hat was abolished 14 July 1872. The white letters show that the hat belonged to a lower rank in the Navigator School. From the holdings of the TsVMM.

Page 89. Sergeant and sailor of the Guards Équipage, 1858-1862. The sergeant is dressed in summer uniforms. His rank is shown by his shako, sewn-on lace on his coat and shoulder straps, and his weapon (revolver and officers’ saber). The sailor is dressed in campaign uniform. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 90. Admiral G.I. Butakov in a frock coat, 26 August 1856. Butakov was promoted to rear-admiral and taken into His Majesty’s Suite. From that time he was prescribed to wear an aiguilette, and on his should straps and epaulettes—the emperor’s monogram.

Page 91. Captain-Lieutenant Z.P. Rozestvenskii in a civilian official’s pattern frock, 1880s. During this period the frock was sewn with large lapels, and among naval officers there spread a fashion for striped, i.e. non-regulation, neckties. On his breast is the order of St. George 4th class, received in 1877 for taking part in a fight with the Turkish armored corvette Fetkhi Bulend. In 1870 a black necktie with long ends was introduced for naval officers, and almost at once it began to be worn “a la Andrew,” which is to say not tied in a bow, but laid on the breast in the style of a St-Andrew cross, which also broke uniform regulations.

Page 92. (a) Civilian pattern frock coat [syurtuk, vits-mundir] for officials in the War Ministry, approved to wear with shoulder straps as well as epaulettes; (b)wartime frock coat for members of the suite or adjutants, also allowed to be worn with shoulder straps as well as epaulettes; (c) shortened officers cloth overcoat [pal’to]; (d) white officer’s smock [kitel’]; (e) double-breasted vests [zhilety] of white linen and dark-green cloth, and a single-breasted white vest. Late 19th century.

Page 93. Uniforms for navy admirals and generals, Late 19th century. (Left) Double-breasted coat of dark-green cloth closed with eight buttons. In addition to embroidered anchors on the open collar and cuffs with flaps there is standard general officer’s embroidery. Piping on the collar, cuffs, cuff flaps, and pocket flaps was dark green. On the gilt buttons was a two-headed eagle over crossed admiralty anchors. (Right) Navy officer’s coat of dark-green cloth closed with six buttons. On the closed collar and cuffs were embroidered fouled anchors.

Page 94. Vice-admiral A.P. Yepanchin in the standard naval coat. From 1877 he was authorized to wear the uniform of a member of the suite, and in 1901, in recognition of long service in the Naval Cadet Corps he was given the right to wear the corps uniform.

Page 95. Embroidery on collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps: (a) standard admiral’s coat and naval general’s coat; (b) general-adjutant’s coat and the coat for admirals and generals attached to His Majesty’s own person; (c) coat for rear-admirals and major-generals in the emperor’s suite, and for aides-de-camp; (d) Guards Équipage coat; (e) standard naval coat. Late 19th century.

Page 96. Embroidery on collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps: (a) adjutant’s coat for personnel at the admiralty; (b) adjutant’s coat for personnel in the fleet; (c) coat for personnel at the admiralty who had been reassigned from the fleet, the various naval corps, and other branches; (c) coat for personnel in the justice branch; (d) coat for personnel occupying official positions at the Emperor Nicholas I Naval Engineering School; (e) coat for admiralty personnel who are also on the rolls of the Guards Équipage; (f) coat for officers promoted from being a student at the Naval Cadet Corps and Naval Engineering School but separated for lack of proficiency; (g) buttonhole loop on the civilian pattern frock coat for officers at the admiralty who are also on the rolls of the Guards Équipage. Late 19th century.

Page 97. (Above) Embroidery pattern on naval coat cuffs (red piping indicates the coat is for an artillery officer). Early 20th century. (Below) Embroidery pattern for the collar of a standard navy coat. Early 20th century.

Page 98. Navy personnel practicing a naval landing, late 19th century. Officers and sailors are dressed in summer landing uniform [desantnaya forma].

Page 99. Lieutenant and non-commissioned officer of the Vladivostok cruiser group, 1904-1905. The lieutenant is dressed in an overcoat with the collar lying down. Shoulder straps on the pea coat [bushlat] of non-commissioned officer from the cruiser Rossiya show that he volunteered for the navy. From 6 February 1874 volunteers’ shoulder straps were distinguished from other personnel by being framed with white-black-orange coard and trimmed with narrow galloon.

Page 100. Rear-admiral and midshipman in the double-breasted black cloth overcoat [plashch]. This outerwear was worn at sea and ashore. In winter the overcoat [pal’to or plashch] was permitted to be worn with a black fur collar.

Page 101. This is how navy officers appeared in wintertime at the end of the 19th century. A gray great coat with flat collar was closed with six buttons. The officer’s position and assignment could be determined by the collor of the greatcoat’s collar, piping, and buttonhole loops. In winter the greatcoat was permitted to be worn with a fur lining and collar.

Page 102. Colors for collars, buttonhole loops, and piping on officers’ greatcoats: a,b) admirals and generals attendant upon His Majesty’s person, general-adjutants, rear-admirals, and major-generals of the suite; c) generals at the admiralty who had been transferred from from fleet officers, naval specialist corps and other departments; d) generals of the naval justice administration; e) aides-de-camp in suite uniform and adjutants in adjutant uniform, admiralty personnel serving as adjutants at the Main Naval Staff and staffs of main ports; f) military personnel wearing Guards Équipage uniform; g) officers of the Naval Cadet Corps serving at the admiralty, senior and junior-grade officers at the admiralty who had been transferred from fleet officers, naval specialist corps and other departments; h) personnel of the admiralty judicial administration; i) admirals and generals of the admiralty in standard general-officers’ uniform, senior and junior-grade officers of the Naval Cadet Corps; j) personnel at the admiralty promoted from lower ranks and from students at the Naval Cadet Corps and Naval Engineering School, who had been released for inability. Late 19th century.

Page 103. Boatswain and sailor of the Guards Équipage in formation uniform, 1881-1892. The boatswain’s arms consisted of a revolver and saber, and the sailor’s—a rifle. The coat for Guards Équipage lower ranks was distinguished by sewn-on tape and white piping on the collar and cuffs. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 104. (Above) Sailor in shipboard dress with broadsword, 1895. (Below) Sailor in shipboard dress with a Smith & Wesson revolver, 1895.

Page 105. (Above) Sailor in shipboard dress with Berdan rifle, 1895. (Below) A group of fleet officers with mourning armbands after the death of Emperor Alexander III, 1894.

Page 106. Epaulettes: a) 1st rank captain; b) midshipman; c) lieutenant of His Majesty’s Suite; d) 1st rank captain of the Guards Équipage; e) 2nd rank captain; f) lieutenant of the 5th His Imperial Highness General-Admiral Alexei Aleksandrovich’s Naval Équipage; g) midshipman of the 1st General-Admiral Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich’s Naval Équipage; h) midshipman of the 2nd Her Majesty Queen of the Hellenes Olga Konstantinovna’s Naval Équipage; i) captain of Emperor Nicholas I’s Naval Engineering School; j,k) counter-epaulettes for securing epaulettes. Late 19th century.

Page 107. Epaulettes: a) general; b) rear-admiral of the Tsar’s Suite; c) admiral; d) vice-admiral; e) rear-admiral; f) vice-admiral general-adjutant; g) lieutenant-general; h) major-general; i) rear-admiral of the Tsar’s Suite; j,k,l) counter-epaulettes for securing epaulettes. Late 19th century.

Page 108. (Above) Admiral’s epaulettes, 2nd Her Majesty Queen of the Hellenes Olga Konstantinovna’s   Naval Équipage. From the collection of the TsVMM. (Below) On board the squadron battleship Poltava. This is how officers and non-commissioned officers appeared when serving on ship at the end of the nineteenth century.

Page 109. (Above) Captain’s epaulettes, Emperor Nicholas I’s Naval Engineering School. From the collection of the TsVMM. (Below) Official insignia prescribed for dress coat and overcoat collars of a) mine machinery conductors [minno-mashinnyye konduktory], and b) conductor-electricians [konduktory elektriki].

Page 110. Shoulder straps: a) rear-admiral in retirement; b) general in retirement; c) 2nd rank captin in retirement; d) lieutenant in retirement; e) staff-captain in retirement. What identifies these as shoulder straps for retired personnel is the zigzag galloon in the color opposite the appointments on the dress coat, the crossways shoulder-strap galloon, and the shortenend form of the officers’ shoulder straps.

Page 111. 2nd rank captain in retirement. End of the 19th century.

Page 112. Court Councilor under the naval administration, early 20th century. The following shoulder straps were introduced in 1863 for civilian officials of the naval administration: (general-officers) for classes I to V the whole field was covered with galloon; (senior-grade officers) for classes VI to VIII a wide galloon stripe along the center of the shoulder strap and two narrow stripes along the edges; (junior-grade officers) for classes IX to XIV two galloon stripes along the edges of the shoulder strap. General officers’ shoulder straps were worn by actual privy councilors (without a star), privy councilors (with three small stars), actual state councilors (two small stars), and state councilors (one small star). Senior-grade officers’ shoulder straps were worn by collegial councilors (no stars), court councilors (three small stars), and collegial assessors (two small stars). Junior-grade officers’ shoulder straps were worn by titular councilors (no star), collegial secretaries (three small stars), gubernal secretaries (two small stars), and collegial registrars (one small star). Stars on shoulder straps of naval officials were embroidered and placed in a single row. In place of the star,on the shoulder straps of class I through V officials, from 1890 there was sens the so-called “little sun” [“solnyshko”].

Page 113. Actual state councilor in parade uniform, end of the 19th century. On 23 April 1861 medical officials in the navy were prescribed epaulettes with silver metallic edging and silver fringes. General-officers’ epaulettes were worn by state councilors (with one star), actual state councilors (two stars), privy councilors (three stars), and actual privy councilors (no star). Senior-grade officers’ epaulettes were worn by collegial assessors (with two stars), court councilors (three stars), and collegial councilors (no star). Junior-grade officers’ epaulettes were worn by collegial registrars (one star), gubernal secretaries (three stars), collegial secretaries (four stars), and titular councilors (no star). The dress coat for medical officials was distinguished by white piping doen the front opening, collar, and cuffs, and white appointments.

Page 114. Chief of the Naval General Staff, Vice-Admiral Prince A. A. Liven in standard admiral’s dress coat, early 20th century. At that time the general-officers’ embroidery covered almost the whole collar, and while the anchors began to be made a little smaller they were still hard to make out. The construction of the epaulettes is well shown here. Visible are the tricorn and, introduced on 26 April 1907, sash with buckle.

Page 115. Rear-Admiral K. p. Iessen in a navy undress coat. That Iessen was in the suite is evidenced by the monogram of Nicholas II on the epaulettes and the aiguilette. The undress coat was permitted to be worn with either epaulettes or shoulder straps.

Page 116. Rear view of the: a) standard admiral’s dress coat, b) standard naval fleet dress coat, and c) adjutant’s dress coat for adjutants in the Guards Équipage. Late 19th century.

Page 117. (Left) Senior-grade officer of the Guards Équipage, late 19th century. The double-breasted dress coat was closed with eight buttons. The diagonally open collar and cuffs had gold embroidery in the form of a border or edging of fouled anchors. Two small metal buttons were sewn on the each of the side-slit cuffs. On the gilt buttons were crossed admiralty anchors and a two-headed eagle. The counter-epaulettes for fastening the epaulettes were of gold galloon. (Right) Rear-admiral in dark-green frock coat of civilian pattern. The double-breasted frock coat was made with a open collar that lay down flat. The cuffs of officers in the Guards Équipage had two buttonhole loops on which were sewn buttons: gold for officers actually serving in the unit, and silver for admiralty officers.

Page 118. (Left) This is how a senior-grade officer of the admiralty appeared at the end of the nineteenth century. Admiralty personnel wore dark-green double-breasted dress coats closed with eight buttons. The standing red collar with diagonal opening and small red cuff flaps had silver embroidery. Uniform appointments for these personnel were silver, and the cross-strap for securing the epaulette was of silver galloon. (Right) Junior-grade officer of Emperor Nicholas I’s Naval Engineering School. Officers of this school  wore dark-green double-breasted coats closed with six buttons. A standing black collar with rounded edges had silver embroidery in the form of an anchor fouled with cables, and red piping. Uniform appointments for personnel of the Naval Engineering School was silver, and the counter-epaulette for securing the epaulette was of silver galloon.

Page 119. (Above) Lieutenant A. K. Bekman of the 2nd Her Majesty Queen of the Hellenes Olga Konstantinovna’s Naval Équipage, in the undress coat in the year 1909. The monogram on the epaulettes shows his unit. The photograph clearly shows the design on the buttons: a two-headed eagle over crossed anchors. (Below) Composite guard mount at the tent of Emperor Nicholas II, St. Petersburg, Baltic Factory Works, 1908. In front are lower ranks of the Guards Équipage. White piping along the edge of the collar and on the cuffs shows against the dark-green of the uniform, while the shoulder straps were of red cloth. That these guards are non-commissioned officers is shown by the wide gold galloon on the cuffs.

Page 120. Captain-lieutenant’s double-breasted dress coat with rounded collar, closed with six buttons. Introduced in 1855 and continued without change up to 1917. From the collection of the TsVMM.

Page 121. Parade hats (tricorns) for admirals and generals (b,d,v), and senior and junior-grade officers (g,a,e). buttonhole loops on the tricorn matched the color of embroidery on the coat: for admirals and generals they were made from thick gold or silver braid, and for senior and junior-grade officers from gold or silver galloon with a central black stripe. Forage caps for admirals and generals attendant upon His Majesty’s person, general-adjutants, rear-admirals and major-generals of His Majesty’s Suite, aides-de-camp in suite uniform, and adjutants in adjutant uniform (a.b); for admirals in standard admiral’s uniform, generals in standard general-officer’s uniform, officers of the Guards Équipage, fleet, and personnel of the Guards Équipage assigned to the admiralty or Naval Cadet Corps (v,d); admiralty personnel who had been transferred from fleet officers, naval specialist corps, other departments, who had held official staff positions in the Naval Engineering School (g); personnel at the admiralty who had been transferred from fleet officers, naval specialist corps, and other departments (e); justice administration personnel (zh); with a white cover, for all officers (z); for all officers of the Black Sea Fleet and Caspian Flotilla (i [sic, shows k – M.C.]). Late 19th century.

Page 122. Midshipman Graf A. M. Nirod in a standard naval 1855-pattern parade coat. The photograph clearly shows the embroidery on the collar and cuffs, and the cockade and buttonhole loop on the tricorn. On the left side of his chest is a badge commemorating 200 years of the Naval Cadet Corps. Taken in St. Petersburg, 1904-1905. (Below) Cockades for officers’ and lower ranks’ forage caps.

Page 123. Hat (tricorn) for a fleet admiral. Officer’s forage cap with white cover, black leather visor  and chinstrap, and oval cockade.

Page 124. (Above) Group of naval and army officers in landing dress on board the cruiser Ryurik. Late 19th century. (Below) On board the cruiser Ryurik, early 20th century. From 1902 to 1910 sailors were allowed to have the dark-blue collars over the pea coat.

Page 125. (Above) Group of infantry and naval officers on board the cruiser Ryurik, late 19th century. (Below) Changing the guard on the line battleship Rostislav. Judging by the number on the lower ranks’ work clothes, this episode was photographed no earlier than 1912.

Page 126. Shoulder straps (from left to right): midshipman of the Guards Équipage; midshipman of the 1st General-Admiral Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich’s Naval Équipage; midshipman of the 2nd Her Majesty the Queen of the Hellenes Olga Konstantinovna’s Naval Équipage; lieutenant of the 5th General-Admiral His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Alexei Aleksandrovich’s Naval Équipage; lieutenant of the Naval Cadet Corps assigned to the admiralty; lieutenant at the admiralty, occupying the position of adjutant; captain at the admiralty; staff-captain of the naval justice administration assigned to the admiralty; lieutenant of the Guards Équipage, assigned to the admiralty; sub-lieutenant at the admiralty who had been promoted from the lower ranks or from the students at educational institutions after being separated for inability; lieutenant of Emperor Nicholas I’s Naval Engineering School, assigned to the admiralty. Late 19th century.

Page 127. Shoulder straps (left to right): vice-admiral; rear-admiral; general-adjutant; rear-admiral of the suite; Guards Équipage rear-admiral in the suite; general; lieutenant-general; major-general; 1st rank captain; Guards Équipage 2nd rank captain; aide-de-camp. Late 19th century.

Page 128. (Above) 2nd rank captain (left) in the shortened double-breasted cloth overcoat with falling open collar. Midshipman (right) in a white smock with standing collar. From 1909 the smock was made without a white linen lining. (Below) Commander of the Baltic Fleet Vice-Admiral N. O. Essen distributes awards during the First World War.

Page 129. On the cruiser Rossiya (Vladivostok cruiser division), 1905.

Page 130. Fleet non-commissioned officer from the Coast Guard [Morskaya okhrana], early 20th century. The NCO’s assignment is indicated by the badge on the left side of his chest. On 24 December 1901 a badge was established for devoted service in the Coast Guard, the basis of which consisted of a ribbon with swallow-tail ends with the inscription in relief: MORSKAYA OKHRANA. Above the ribbon was a large imperial crown, and on the ribbon itself an admiralty anchor, on the shank of which was a star of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called with the motto FOR FAITH AND LOYALTY [ZA VERU I VERNOST’]. For officers this badge was made of gold, and for lower ranks—of white metal. The chevrons on the left sleeve refer to long and reproachless service in non-commissioned officer ranks. (Below) Presentation of awards to lower ranks during the First World War.

Page 131. Receiving a report (Vladivostok cruiser division), 1905. In cold weather shipboard officers were permitted to wear high boots and a shortened warm overcoat with fur collar.

Page 132. (Above) Student of the Naval Cadet Corps in gymnastic dress, early 20th century. In 1913 a navy general order first introduced a sports and atheletics order of dress for gymnastics, fencing, rowing, skiing, etc. For officers this uniform, as a rule, had a two-headed eagle fastened on the breast, while for others—an emblem in the form of the white-blue-red Russian flag. (Below) Students of the Naval Cadet Corps in various uniforms used during the 200-year history of the corps, 1901. This ensemble of uniforms was made to celebrate the 200-year jubilee of the Naval Cadet Corps.

Page 133. (Above) General-Admiral Grand Duke Alexei Aleksandrovich in suite uniform with general-adjutant’s embroidery. In addition to three embroidered eagles on general-admirals’ epaulettes are two crossed batons. On his chest—the order of St. Andrew the First-Called. (Below) Group of officers from the minelayer Il’men’ after receiving decorations, Baltic Fleet, 1915. The officers are dressed in the dark-blue smocks that became the main uniform in wartime. Over the smocks are the sashes with buckles introduced on 26 April 1907.

Page 134. (Above) Cadet in the Naval Cadet Corps, 1914. On 20 November 1914 gold monograms of the tsesareivch Alexei were awarded to personnel of His Imperial Highness the Heir and Tsesarevich’s Naval Corps for their shoulder straps and epaulettes. Garde-marines wore the monogram on their shoulder straps combined with their garde-marine anchor, while lower ranks had a stenciled monogram. The ribbon on the visorless cap had the inscription MORSKOI E.I.V. NASL. TSESAR. KORP. For lower ranks’ caps the inscription KOMANDA MOR. E.I.V. NASL. TSESAR. KORP. was introduced. (Below) Cadet V. Ye. Yegor’ev of the Naval Corps, 1897. Yegor’ev is dressed in a greatcoat with white shoulder straps. Wide cuffs were characteristic of the greatcoat. Under the belt were thrust the ends of the bashlyk hood made from camelhair cloth, introduced in 1862.

Page 135. (Above) Lieutenant M. M. Domershchikov. Dressed in the dark-blue cloth smock [kitel’] introduced in 1907. In the early twentieth century it became the fashion among fleet officers to wear a silver watch chain outside the breast pocket. On the left side of his chest are badges for graduating from the Naval Corps and in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of that educational institution. (Below) Naval Corps Garde-Marine V. Ye. Yegor’ev, 1900. Stamped brass anchors, introduced on 25 June 1832, are visible on the white garde-marine shoulder straps trimmed along the edge with galloon.

Page 137. General-Admiral Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich accompanied by his suite setting forth to the ships of the Baltic Fleet. When transporting high-ranking dignitaries the launchboat’s stern was covered with a carpet.

Page 138. This is the appearance of general-adjutants, generals, and admirals attendant on His Majesty’s person (left), and of rear-admirals and major-generals of the tsar’s suite, and aides-de-camp (right), The general-adjutant’s single-breasted dark-green cloth coat was closed with eight buttons. The diagonally open red cloth collar and red cuff flaps had gold embroidery. White piping ran along the left side of the coat’s front opening, the collar, cuff flaps and cuffs, and also the edges of the pocket flaps. Counter-epaulettes for securing the epaulettes had sparkles. The suite dress coat had silver embroidery and white appointments.

Page 139. Rear-admiral of the tsar’s suite (left) in single-breasted dress coat with suite embroidery and white piping. Senior-grade officer in suite frock coat of military pattern. This frock coat was closed with six buttons, and had a red rounded collar and white piping along the collar, above the cuffs, and on the pocket flaps.

Page 140. (a) Aiguilette; (b,v,g) details of the plaiting of the aiguilette and its fastening to the coat; (d) wide stripes [lampasy] for the pants of admirals and generals attendant upon the tsar’s person, general-adjutants, and navy admirals and generals in parade uniforms; (e) wide stripes for the pants of rear-admirals and major-generals in His Majesty’s Suite, as well as for aides-de-camp in parade uniforms; (zh) end piece of a suite aiguilette; (z,i,k,l) buttons for naval personnel; (m.n.o) monograms for the epaulettes of admirals and generals attendant upon the tsar’s person, general-adjutants, rear-admirals and major-generals of the suite, and aides-de-camp. Late 19th century.

Page 143. Suite aiguilette with the monogram of Emperor Nicholas II.

Page 144. The crew of the cruiser Ryurik meeting Minister of War and Navy A.F. Kerenskii. Baltic Fleet, 1917.

Page 145. A.N. Krylov and I.G. Bubnov (both sitting in the center) among instructors and graduates of the Naval Academy’s ship contruction department. Petrograd, May 1918.

Page 146. This is the appearance of fleet officers under the Provisional Government. Noteworthy is the variation in dress, especially in forage caps. Only the cap of the officer on the far right corresponds to the regulation pattern. Only the senior lieutenant in frock coat has sleeve rank. If all the officers have indeed carried out the order to remove their shoulder straps, they still all retain their buttons for some reason. Latitude in dress was characteristic of this period. Some officers sewed on black shoulder straps with galloon that mirrored the sleeve rank insignia.

Page 147. Cruier Ryurik. Tearing off shoulder straps, 1917.

Page 166. Insignia of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called: star, star for non-Christians; badge on neck chain, badge with swords for non-Christians. Insignia of the order of St. Catherine: star, 1st-class badge for “Women of the Large Cross,” 2nd-class badge for “Women of the Small Cross or Lady Knights,” reverse side of the badge.

Page 167. Insignia of the order of the military order of St. George: 3rd-class badge for non-Christians, 1st and 2nd-class badges, reverse side of the badge, star for 1st and 2nd classes, star for 1st and 2nd classes for non-Christians. Insignia of the order of St. Vladimir: star for 1st and 2nd classes, 4th-class badge with swords, 4th-class badge “For 35 years of service,” reverse side of the badge, badge for 1st and 2nd classes, 3rd-class badge for non-Christians.

Page 169. Medals of the military order of St. George 4th class “For 25 years of service” and “For 20 campaigns.” Reverse side of the medals of the military order of St. George 4th class “For 25 years of service” and “For 20 campaigns.”

Page 170. Insignia of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky: reverse side of the badge, badge of the order, badge with swords for non-Christians, star. Insignia of the order of the White Eagle: star, reverse side of the badge, badge.

Page 172. Insignia of the order of St. Anne: 1st-class star, 4th-class badge for wear on a sword, 1st-class star with swords, 1st-class badge, reverse side of the badge, 2nd-class badge with swords, 3rd-class badge for non-Christians. Insignia of the order of St. Stanislav: 1st-class star, 1st-class star for non-Christians, reverse side of the badge, 2nd-class badge for non-Christians, 1st-class badge, 3rd-class badge with swords.

Page 174. Naval officers’ blade weapons: a – saber in scabbard and drawn saber; b – drawn dagger and dagger in scabbard; c – gold saber with the inscription “For Courage” and the head of a swordknot tassel; d – gold saber with the inscription “For Courage” and the cross of the order of St. George (worn in place of a gold weapon decorated with diamonds), and a top view of the affixed cross of the order of St. George; e – gold saber and dagger with the inscription “For Courage”, belonging to a knight of the order of St. Anne 4th class (worn in place of a gold weapon decorated with diamonds); f – St.-Anne saber with a top view of the affixed badge of the order of St. Anne; g – gold dagger with the inscription “For Courage”; h – St.-Anne dagger and top view of the affixed badge of the order of St. Anne; i – gold dagger with the inscription “For Courage” and the cross of the order of St. George (worn in place of a gold weapon decorated with diamonds).

Page 175. Accouterments for carrying a naval officer’s blade weapons and firearms: a – swordbelt for saber and belt plate; b – belt for dagger; c – revolver holster and revolver lanyard.

Page 176. (Above) Gold saber with the inscription “For Courage.” (Below) Dagger with belt.

Page 177. (Above) St.-Anne saber for the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. (Below) Dagger with the inscription “For Courage.”

Page 178. Medals of the military order (four classes).

Page 179. Badges for completing the hydrographic, ship-building, and mechanical sections, and the naval section, of the Nicholas Naval Academy.

Page 180. Graduation badges from the Emperor Nicholas I Naval Engineering School and Naval Cadet Corps. Graduation badges from the Mines and Diving officers’ classes. Graduation badges from the Submarine and Aviation officers’ classes. Graduation badges from the Artillery and Electrotechnical officers’ classes. Graduation badges from the Navigation officers’ class and the combined badge for graduating from the Mines and Artillery officer classes.

Page 181. Graduation badges from the Wartime Midshipmen’s School and Navy Garde-Marine courses. Badge commemorating 100 years of the Navy’s Guard Équipage. Badge for “Participant in the defense of Port Arthur” (officer’s). Jeston commemorating Lieutenant-General A. M. Stessel’s command of the Kwangtun Fortified Region. Jestons commemorating the fight of the cruiser Varyag and gunboat Koreets with a Japanese squadron at Chemulpo.

Page 182. Badge for “Participant in convoy voyage.” Badge for a member of the “Committee of the Nizhnii-Novgorod River Police.” Badge of a member of the Kronstadt Navy Assembly. Jeton of a member of the Committee and Racing Commission of the Peter Yacht Club.

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

 

Appendix 1

Tables

 

Table 1

Table of Ranks for all Military Officers [1722 – M.C.]

Class

Army

Guards

Artillery

Navy

I

General-field marshal

 

 

General-admiral

II

General-of-cavalry or of-infantry

Governor

 

General-master of ordnance

Admirals of other flags

III

Lieutenant-generals

St. Andrew knights

General-Kriegs-Komissar

 

Lieutenant-general

Vice-admiral

General-Kriegs-Komissar

IV

Major-general

Colonel

Major-general

Major-general of fortifications

Schout bij nacht

Senior master of ordnance

V

Brigadier

Colonel-Kriegs-Komissar

General-provisions master

Lieutenant-colonel

Colonel of artillery

Captain-commodore

Captain of the port of Kronstadt

Senior surveyer of ship construction

Intendant

Master of ordnance

Colonel-Kriegs-Komissar

VI

Colonels

Treasurers

Senior provisions master

Senior commissary

General-adjutants

Procurator

General-quartermaster-lieutenants

Majors

Lieutenant-colonels of artillery

Colonel-engineers

Senior commissary

Captain 1st rank

Captains of other ports

Ship surveyor

Procurator

Intendant of commercial wharf in St. Petersburg

Treasurers

Senior provisions master

Senior commissary

VII

Lieutenant-colonels

General-auditors

General-provisions master lieutenants

General-wagonmasters

General-provosts

General-adjutants to a general-field marshal

Comptroller

Captains

Majors

Lieutenant-colonel engineers

Senior comptroller

Captains 2nd rank

Comptroller

VIII

Majors

General-adjutants to full generals

General-auditor lieutenants

Senior quartermaster

Senior fiscal officer

Paymaster

Inspector

Captain-lieutenants

Major

Engineer-captain

Stablemaster

Senior armorer

Comptroller

Captains 3rd rank

Ship masters

Paymaster

Senior fiscal office

IX

Captains

Aides-de-camp to a general-field marshal and full generals

Adjutants to lieutenant-generals

Senior provisions master

General staff quartermaster

Senior auditors

Field postmasters

General-provosts

Lieutenants

Captain-lieutenants

Captain engineers

Senior auditor

Quartermaster

Commissaries at powder and saltpeter works

Captain-lieutenants

Galley masters

X

Captain-lieutenants

Sub-lieutenants

Lieutenants

Engineer captain-lieutenants

Auditor

Armorers

Senior wagonmaster

Captain of craftsmen

Lieutenants

XI

 

 

 

Ship secretaries

XII

Lieutenants

Ensigns

Sub-lieutenants

Engineer lieutenants

Supply train lieutenants

Wagonmasters

Sub-lieutenants

Skippers 1st rank

XIII

Sub-lieutenants

Aides-de-camp to major-generals

 

Artillery ensigns

Engineer sub-lieutenants

Ship commissaries

Skippers 2nd rank

Constables

XIV

Engsigns

Aides-de-camp to lieutenant-generals and brigadiers

 

Engineer ensigns

 

 

 

Table 2

Dress regulations for admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers.

Ranks and positions

Clothing items that make up this uniform

I. Town orders of dress

a) Town parade dress

All admirals and generals in standard admiral’s and standard general’s uniforms

Parade half-tunic

Pants with galloon

Ribbons over the shoulder

Saber

Hat, in and out of formation

Notes: 1. On those days when it is determined to be in full parade uniform, but in regimental half-tunics and the half-tunics prescribed for positions or assignments, those officers with such half-tunics are to don the full parade uniform of that unit, position, or assignment whose uniform they prescribed. 2. With regimental half-tunics, or the half-tunics prescribed for positions and assignments, pants with galloon are not authorized. 3. With regimental half-tunics or the half-tunics prescribed for positions and assignments, admirals and generals of the Guards Équipage and educational institutions, when on duty or with troops, must be in the shako with or without plume, in accordance with the officer being authorized a plume or not. When not on duty or in formation it is permitted to wear the hat.

Admirals attendant upon His Majesty’s Person, general-adjutants, and admirals of His Majesty’s Suite, in standard admiral’s uniform

As indicated above for the standard admiral’s uniform.

Note: On those days when it is determined to be in suite half-tunics, the suite parade half-tunic and pants with galloon are to be worn.

Aides-de-camp

Suite half-tunic

Orders

Saber

Hat

Pants with galloon

Senior and junior-grade officers of the Guards Équipage, Naval Cadet Corps, Black Sea Garde-Marine Company, 1st Navigator Half-Équipage, Black Sea Navigator Company, and Conductor Companies of the Instructional Labor Équipage.

Parade half-tunic

Orders

Saber

Shako with or without plume, according to whether or not the officers is authorized one

Dark-green pants

Adjutants, staff duty officers, and officers for special assignments

Parade half-tunic

Orders

Saber

Hat

Dark-green pants

Military officers with the uniform of the Ministry of the Navy; of Naval, Finnish, and the Instructional Labor équipages; of Instructional and Craftsmen companies. Naval officers in the following corps: Marine Artillery, Fleet Navigators, Ship Engineers and Engineer-Mechanics

Parade half-tunic

Orders

Saber

Forage cap with badge

Dark-green pants

Officers of Barge, Labor, and Machinery Labor équipages, and Port companies; officers of Admiralty Arsenal, Laboratory, and Penal companies

Half-tunic with epaulettes

Orders

Saber

Forage cap with badge

Dark-green pants

b) Town holiday dress

As the parade uniforms described above for all units, ranks, and positions, but admirals and generals do not put on ribbons.

Admirals and generals with the prescribed half-tunics of regiments, positions, and places are to wear the parade dress of that unit, position, or place whose uniform they are prescribed.

c) Town Sunday dress

Admirals and generals in standard admiral’s and general’s uniforms

Half-tunic without embroidery, with epaulettes

Ribbons not worn

Orders

Saber

Hat

Pants without galloon

Admirals and generals with the prescribed half-tunics of regiments, positions, and places

Wear the Sunday dress (similar to parade dress throughout) of the unit, place, or position whose uniform they are prescribed, but without ribbons

Town Sunday dress for all units, ranks, and assignments is as town parade dress

d) Town normal dress

Admirals and generals in standard admiral’s and standard general’s uniforms

Half-tunic without embroidery, with epaulettes

Orders

Saber

Hat

Pants without galloon

Admirals attendant upon His Majesty’s Person, general-adjutants, admirals of His Majesty’s Suite, and aides-de-camp

Suite half-tunic

Orders

Saber

Hat

Pants without galloon

Adjutants, staff duty officers, and officers for special assignments

Parade half-tunic

Orders

Saber

Hat

Dark-green pants

Guards Équipage

Half-tunice with galloon, with epaulettes

Orders

Saber

Shako without plume

Admirals not on duty may wear the hat

Naval Cadet Corps, Black Sea Garde-Marine Company, 1st Navigator Half-Équipage, Black Sea Navigator Company, and Conductor Companies of the Instructional Labor Équipage

Half-tunic with galloon, with epaulettes

Orders

Saber

Shako without plume

Dark-green pants

Admirals not on duty may wear the hat

Military officers with the uniform of the Ministry of the Navy; senior and junior-grade officers of Naval, Finnish, and the Instructional Labor équipages; of Instructional and Craftsmen companies. Naval officers in the following corps: Marine Artillery, Fleet Navigators, Ship Engineers and Engineer-Mechanics

Half-tunic without embroidery, with epaulettes

Orders

Saber

Forage cap with badge

Dark-green pants

Senior and junior-grade officers of Barge, Labor, and Machinery Labor équipages, and Port companies; officers of Admiralty Arsenal, Laboratory, and Penal companies

Half-tunic with epaulettes

Orders

Saber

Forage cap with badge

Dark-green pants

Note: Normal town dress also comprises half-tunics without epaulettes, without orders, and with dagger, to be worn in those situations when the previous normal order permitted frock coats. Officers with suite half-tunics, and adjutants from the Guards Équipage, wear half-tunics with galloon. In general all officers retain with this the headdress prescribed for normal town dress, i.e. hat, shako without plume, or forage cap with badge. When off duty and in the above dress, all officers are allowed to wear the forage cap without badge, but are to always wear the dagger.

II. Campaign orders of dress

a) Parade campaign dress

All admirals and generals in standard admiral’s or general’s uniforms

As noted for town parade dress but pants without galloon

Notes: 1 On those days when it is determined to be in parade campaign dress, but in regimental half-tunics and the half-tunics prescribed for positions or assignments, admirals and generals with such half-tunics are on those days to don the parade campaign dress of that unit, position, or assignment whose uniform they prescribed.

Admirals attendant upon His Majesty’s Person, general-adjutants, admirals of His Majesty’s Suite, and aides-de-camp

As for town parade dress, but pants without galloon

Additionally, the campaign uniform for all units, ranks, and assignments is as for town parade dress. Officers authorized the shako with plume are, when on naval campaign, to wear the shako without the plume. Officers on permanent shore duty, however, are to wear the shako with the plume.

b) Holiday campaign dress

For all units, ranks, and assignments, as for parade campaign dress, but admirals and generals do not wear ribbons. Admirals and generals with regimental half-tunics or the half-tunic prescribed for an assignment or position, are to wear the holiday uniform of that unit, assignment, or position whose uniform they are prescribed.

c) Normal campaign dress

Admirals and generals

Half-tunic without embroidery and without epaulettes

Orders

Saber

Hat

Dark-green pants

Note: When admirals and generals wear a uniform specially prescribed for a unit, assignment, or position, they must conform to the prescribed normal campaign dress of the unit, assignment, or position whose uniform they are prescribed.

Admirals attendant upon His Majesty’s Person, general-adjutants, admirals of His Majesty’s Suite, and aides-de-camp

Suite half-tunic, with galloon

Orders

Saber

Hat

Dark-green pants

Adjutants, staff duty officers, and officers for special assignments, not from the Guards Équipage

Half-tunic without embroidery, without epaulttes

Orders

Saber

Hat

Dark-green pants

Guards Équipage

Half-tunic with galloon

Orders

Saber

Shako without plume

Dark-green pants

Naval Cadet Corps, Black Sea Garde-Marine Company, 1st Navigator Half-Équipage, and Conductor Companies of the Instructional Labor Équipage

Half-tunic without embroidery, without epaulttes

Orders

Saber

Shako without plume

Dark-green pants

Military officers with the uniform of the Ministry of the Navy; officers of Naval, Finnish, and the Instructional Labor équipages; of Instructional and Craftsmen companies. Naval officers in the following corps: Marine Artillery, Fleet Navigators, Ship Engineers and Engineer-Mechanics

Half-tunic without embroidery, without epaulttes

Orders

Saber

Forage cap with badge

Dark-green pants

Officers of Barge, Labor, and Machinery Labor équipages, and Port companies; officers of Admiralty Arsenal, Laboratory, and Penal companies

Half-tunic without embroidery

Orders

Saber

Forage cap with badge

Dark-green pants

Note: When normal campaign dress is designated, then in those situations where the previous frock coat had been allowed to be worn, it is permitted to be without orders and wearing the dagger. When off duty and in the above dress, all officers are allowed to wear the forage cap without badge, but are to always be armed.

 

 

Table 3

Uniform regulations for Navy lower ranks
(Confirmed 7 January 1863)

Parade

Normal

Work

Shore dress

Summer (15 May through 15 September)

Coat

White pants

Round hat

Broadsword

Greatcoat

Coat

White pants

Forage cap with white cover

Waistbelt

Greatcoat instead of coat

Waistbelt over the greatcoat

Work clothes with pants tucked into boots

Forage cap with white cover

Winter

Coat

Winter pants

Forage cap

Broadsword

Greatcoat

Coat

Winter pants

Forage cap

Greatcoat

Waistbelt

Work clothes

Knitted warm jersey

Winter pants tucked into boots

Greatcoat

Roads ship dress

Coat

Summer or winter pants

Hat

Waistbelt

White shirt with dark-blue collar

White pants

Forage cap with cover

In cold weather dark-blue flannel shirt and cloth pants

Work clothes

Forage cap

In cold weather knitted warm jersey

 

 

Table 4

Epaulettes for Naval Officers

Ranks, assignments, and positions

Field color

Admirals and generals attendant upon His Majesty’s Person, general-adjutants, rear-admirals and major-generals of His Majesty’s Suite, aides-de-camp and adjutants in suite and adjutant uniforms, Admiralty personnel holding positions as adjutants in the Main Naval Staff and the staffs of main ports, admirals and senior and junior-grade officers of the Guards Équipage and Admiralty personnel who are from the Guards Équipage, Admiralty personnel from fleet officers, the various naval corps, and other administrative departments

Red

Generals and senior and junior-grade officers in uniforms of the justice administration

Raspberry

Admirals in standard admiral’s uniform, fleet senior and junior-grade officers, Admiralty generals in standard general-officer’s uniform, Admiralty personnel promoted from lower ranks or from students at naval educational institutions having been separated for inability

Dark green

Admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers in the uniform of the Naval Cadet Corps, Admiralty personnel occupying official positions in the Corps

White

Note: Rear-admirals and generals of His Majesty’s Suite, generals of the Admiralty and Justice administration, aides-de-camp and adjutants in suite or adjutant uniforms, as well as senior and junior-grade officers of the Admiralty, wear silver epaulettes, and all naval personnel—gold.

 

 

Table 5

Shoulder Straps for Naval Officers

Ranks, assignments, and positions

Color

Shoulder strap

Lining

Piping

Admirals and generals attendant upon His Majesty’s Person, general-adjutants, rear-admirals and major-generals of His Majesty’s Suite, aides-de-camp and adjutants in suite and adjutant uniforms

Red

White

Generals and senior and junior-grade officers in uniforms of the justice administration

Raspberry

Dark green

Admirals in the uniform of the Guards Équipage, senior and junior-grade officers of the Guards Équipage

White

No piping

Admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers in fleet uniform

Dark green

No piping

Admirals and generals in the uniform of the Naval Cadet Corps, senior and junior-grade officers of the Corps, and Admiralty personnel occupying official positions in the Corps

White

No piping

Admiralty personnel occupying positions as adjutants in the Main Naval Staff and the staffs of main ports

Red

White

Admiralty personnel from fleet officers or naval specialisty corps and other departments

Red

Dark green

Admiralty personnel occupying official positions in the Emperor Nicholas I Naval Engineering School

Dark green

Red

Admiralty personnel promoted from lower ranks or from students at naval educational institutions having been separated for inability

Dark green

No piping

 

 

Table 6

Orders of dress for Navy admirals, generals, senior and junior-grade officers, and doctors

[as confirmed just prior to the First World War]

Parade

Parade formation

Winter

Summer

Winter

Summer

1

№ 2

№ 3

№ 4

№ 5

№ 6

Dress coat

White smock

Dress coat

White smock

Epaulettes

Shoulder straps

Epaulettes

Shoulder straps

Cravatte

Cravatte

Orders, stars, ribbons, and medals

Sash

Hat

Forage cap with white cover

Forage cap

Forage cap with white cover

Saber

Short boots

High boots

White chamois gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Overcoat

 

Normal

Normal formation

Winter

Summer

Winter

Summer

7

№ 8

№ 9

№ 10

№ 11

№ 12

Frock coat

White smock

Dress coat

White smock

Shoulder straps

Narrow cravatte with small bow

Cravatte

White vest

Orders, stars, ribbons, and medals

Sash

Forage cap

Forage cap with white cover

Forage cap

Forage cap with white cover

Saber

Short boots

High boots

White chamois gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Overcoat

 

Service

Service formation

Winter

Summer

Winter

Summer

13

№ 14

№ 15

№ 16

№ 17

№ 18

Frock coat

White smock

Frock coat

Dark-blue smock (for the Guards Équipage - khaki)

White smock

Shoulder straps

Narrow cravatte with small bow

Narrow cravatte with small bow

White vest

White vest

Orders, stars, and medals

Orders as worn on everyday uniform

Sash

Forage cap

Forage cap with white cover

Forage cap (with white cap in summer)

Forage cap with white cover

Dagger

Saber

Short boots

High boots

White chamois gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Overcoat

 

Visiting

Everyday winter and summer – not in formation

Winter 19

20

21

22

23 for the Guards Équipage

Frock coat

Dark-blue smock

White smock

Khaki smock

Epaulettes

Shoulder straps

Narrow cravatte with small bow

Narrow cravatte with small bow or with wide ends tucked into the vest

White vest

White or black vest

Orders as worn on everyday uniform

Forage cap

Forage cap (with white cover in summer)

Forage cap with white cover

Forage cap (with white cover in summer)

Dagger

Short boots

White chamois gloves

White or gray gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Notes: 1. In Order of Dress № 7 epaulettes and hat are worn only when specially directed, as well as in exchanges of visits between admirals and commanders of Russian and foreign ships, in official circumstances outside Russia. 2.For all admirals and generals pants with galloon are worn only in parade dress. 3.When in formation and the command is equipped with rifles, it is prescribed to carry a revolver. 4.In summertime the winter order of dress is worn only on special orders. 5.When presented to Their Majesties or any member of the Imperial family, under all circumstances officers are to wear the dress coat. 6.The cravatte is not worn when wearing a neck order with the dress coat, or when wearing the smock. 7.These orders of dress were defined and confirmed just prior to the First World War.

 

 

Table 7

Orders of dress for general-adjutants, rear-admirals and major-generals of His Majesty’s Suite, and aides-de-camp in suite uniform

[as confirmed just prior ot the First World War]

Parade

Parade formation

Winter 1

Summer 2

Winter 3

Summer 4

Dress coat

Khaki smock

Dress coat

Khaki smock

Epaulettes

Shoulder straps

Epaulettes

Shoulder straps

Aiguilettes

Cravatte

Cravatte

Orders, stars, ribbons, and medals

Sash

Hat

Winter suite forage cap, in camps and on maneuvers—khaki

Forage cap

Winter suite forage cap, in camps and on maneuvers—khaki

Saber

Short boots

High boots

Pants with galloon

Pants with wide red stripes

White chamois gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Overcoat

 

Normal

Normal formation

Winter 5

Summer 6

Winter 7

Summer 8

Suite undress coat, for aides-de-camp—adjutant’s dress coat

Khaki smock

Suite undress coat, for aides-de-camp—adjutant’s dress coat

Khaki smock

Shoulder straps

Aiguilettes

Cravatte

Cravatte

Orders, stars, and medals

Sash

Forage cap

Winter suite forage cap, in camps and on maneuvers—khaki

Forage cap

Winter suite forage cap, in camps and on maneuvers—khaki

Saber

Short boots

High boots

Pants with wide red stripes

White chamois gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Overcoat

Service

Service formation

Winter 9

Summer 10

Winter 11

Summer 12

Suite frock coat

Khaki smock

Suite frock coat

Khaki smock

Shoulder straps

Aiguilettes

Cravatte

Cravatte

Orders as worn on everyday uniform

Sash

Forage cap

Winter suite forage cap, in camps and on maneuvers—khaki

Forage cap

Winter suite forage cap, in camps and on maneuvers—khaki

Dagger

Saber

Short boots

High boots

Pants with wide red stripes

White chamois gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Overcoat

 

Visiting

Everyday winter and summer – not in formation

Winter 13

14

15

Suite frock coat

Khaki smock

Epaulettes

Shoulder straps

Aiguilettes

 

Cravatte

Orders as worn on everyday uniform

Orders

Forage cap

Suite winter forage cap, in camps and on maneuvers—khaki

Dagger

Short boots

Pants with wide red stripes

White chamois gloves

White or gray gloves

Greatcoat, overcoat, or cape

Overcoat or cape

Notes: 1. On ship in normal parade and service orders of dress—the khaki smock and black cloth forage cap are replaced with the white or dark-blue smock and forage cap with white cover, following the rules for the orders of dress for officers not in the suite. 2. The cravatte is not worn when neck orders are worn with the dress coat or frock coat, and under no circumstances with the smock. 3. These orders of dress were defined and confirmed just prior to the First World War.

 

 

 

Appendix 2

Regulations for wearing orders, medals, and other awarded badges. General directives.

 

  1. 1. The star of the highest-ranking order is fastened to the right or left side of the chest about 3-3/8 vershoks [10-1/2 inches] (as measured from the center of the star) from both the center of the chest (in a horizontal line) and from the coat’s or smock’s collar hook (in a vertical line). Other stars are fastened under the first star down to the top edge of the sword belt, with the ends of the stars a certain, perhaps small, distance from each other. If stars and other badges are not placed in a single (vertical) line, then the lesser ones are fastened in a second line parallel to the first, 1-1/8 vershoks [2 inches] from the center of the senior orders’ stars, so that the upper edge of the star’s or other badge’s ray that is at the top of the second row must be on a line with the lower ray of the senior orders’ stars. (Note 1: Orders awarded with diamond decorations are worn or removed on the same basis as orders without decoration.) 


  2. 2. The ribbon of the high-ranking order is worn over the shoulder, over the dress coat (undress coat or smock) in all circumstances established by the regulations for orders of dress, but when it is not prescribed to have a ribbon over the coat, then the cross of the senior order, worn on the ribbon, is not worn at all. (Note 2: Ribbons of the orders of St. George 1st class and St. Vladimir 1st class are worn with the dress coat and undress coat in all situations without exception, and along with this, when the ribbons of these orders are to be under the dress coat (undress coat) at the same time as dress regulations prescribe being with ribbons, then the ribbon of the senior of these orders is worn over the dress coat (undress coat), and if an officer is not a holder of that order—then the ribbon of the more junior order. The ribbon over the shoulder is worn under the frame holding orders and other medals on the chest. The ends of the aiguilette must be under the ribbon. The ends of the ribbon are put under the sword belt, fixing the ribbon’s bow with the order insignia below the sword belt. The ribbon over the shoulder must be under the orders frame if the length of the frame, due to the number of orders and medals held, as related below (para. 4), is so great that the shoulder ribbon would cover orders and medals worn on the frame.) 


  3. 3. The order of the senior class, worn at the neck, is let out through the coat, military pattern frock, or smock collar’s front opening, with the order’s ribbon being somewhat visible. The orders of other classes worn at the neck are let out along the coat’s front opening, so that the senior order’s upper edge is in line with the upper edge of 3rd class orders. At the same time, the upper edge of orders of lower classes must be 1/2 vershok [1-3/8 inches] from the lower edge of orders of higher classes. Every order’s ribbon must be pushed out a little from the front opening. (Note 3: With the civilian pattern frock coat (open collar), established for naval officers and officials, only one order of the senior class is worn at the neck, while orders of other classes worn at the neck are not put on.) 


  4. 4. Orders and medals worn on the chest are fastened to a frame or bar 1-1/2 vershoks [2-5/8 inches] wide, with the upper edge of the ribbons worn on the frame 1-1/8 to 1-1/4 vershoks [2 to 2-3/16 inches] from the hook on the coat collar. The orders and medals bar is affixed: a) on double-breasted coats—in the middle of the chest; b) on single-breasted (suite) coats and smocks—on the left side of the chest, with the center of the orders and medals bar being positioned at the center of the left side; c) on undress coats of civilian pattern (open collar), orders and medals worn on the chest (in buttonholes), are worn parallel to the elongated left lapel, with junior orders and medals being nearer to the shoulder. 


  5. 5. The pin for reproachless service is positioned under the center of the orders frame, below it at a distance of 3-3/4 vershoks [6-1/2 inches] from the hook of the coat collar to the pin’s upper edge. 


  6. 6. Academic badges for successful completion of studies at the Nicholas Naval Academy and other military academies, as well as other badges without ribbons worn on the chest, are to be worn as related below (paras. 24-42). But when stars are worn, these badges are to be affixed in the same manner as established for stars. 


  7. 7. Foreign military orders are worn my Russian holders below all Russian orders and medals, with the highest order for each foreign country worn above other foreign orders. Foreign order ribbons are worn over the shoulder when being presented to HIGHEST personages, or at the direction of the appropriate authorities or the minister of the IMPERIAL court. However, foreign order chains are worn in the above mentioned circumstances only in accordance with the rules established by the foreign orders’ statutes. 


  8. 8. The wearing by lower ranks of award badges and medals is governed by the rules below. Medals worn at the neck and the chest are worn on the coat in the manner described above (paras. 3 and 4) for the wear of orders and other awards. For medals worn at the neck, though, it is prescribed that only the most high-ranking one be put through the collar’s front opening, and the rest are to along the coat’s front opening. In addition, lower ranks also wear the badges and medals awarded to them on the greatcoat when it is worn with arms in sleeves. In regard to this, if there are several medals worn at the neck, only the single most highest-ranking one is put through the greatcoat collar’s front opening, while lesser ranking medals, worn along the coat’s front opening, are prescribed to be worn underneath the greatcoat. 


  9. 9. When the white linen shirt is the outer garment being worn, then only the medal of the military order, senior class, is to be worn. 


  10. 10. Lower ranks from demoted or separated naval officers and civilian officials are deprived of the right to wear, for the whole time they are in military service in lower ranks, any chest badges received while in officer ranks for graduating from courses at military academies. 


  11. 11. Chest badges established for persons who have completed courses in certain higher or specialist civilian educational institutions, are worn in accordance with the rules set forth for the wearing of such badges: a) for officers—on the dress coat, undress coat, frock coat, and smock; b) for lower ranks—on the dress coat, dark-blue flannel or white linen shirt, and greatcoat. 


  12. 12.  Insignia of the orders of the Apostle Saint Andrew the First-Called (one class). 

  13. Cross on ribbon, worn over the right shoulder; star worn on the left side of the chest, on the dress coat and undress coat, and addtionally a chain worn with parade dress along with the ribbon in the following situations:

  14. a) On the date of the order’s holiday, when directed to be at HIGHEST court for an appearance  or for some other event, when the ribbon of the celebrated order is worn over the shoulder under the chain.

    b) For an appearance at HIGHEST court, when a special HIGHEST Order is issued in this regard, with the ribbon of the next ranking order is worn over the shoulder under the chain: St. George, St. Vladimir, or St. Alexander Nevsky. (Note 4: For the undress coat as well as the frock coat and smock, when the ribbon is not worn, only the cross of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called with swords is worn, at the neck on order ribbon (narrow) if at the neck there is no cross of the order of St. George 2nd or 3rd class.)

    On all occasions when orders are to be worn, Knights of the order of the Apostle St. Andrew the First-Called do not remove the orders of St. Anne 1st class nor St. Stanislav 1st class, but wear them in a buttonhole below, which is to say to the left of the order of the White Eagle worn in a buttonhole, with the size of these orders corresponding to the dimensions of orders worn on the chest.


  15. 13.  Insignia of the order of Saint George (four classes) 

    1st class. Cross on ribbon worn over the right shoulder, star worn on the left side of the chest on dress coat, undress coat, frock coat, and smock. The ribbon of this order is worn over the coat only on the date of the order’s holiday, 26 November, or, as explained above, with the chain of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called at appearances at Highest court. In all other situations when wearing the dress coat or undress coat the ribbon of the order of St. George 1st class is worn under the dress coat (undress coat), with its ends and the cross passed to the outside through a sideways slit in the left side of the dress coat (undress coat), a little below the waistline. The star is worn with the dress coat and undress coat along with all other orders—below the star of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called, but with the frock coat and smock—alone. (Note 5: In all circumstances when dress order regulations prescribe being with ribbons, but the ribbon of the order of St. George is to be worn under the coat, then above the coat is to be worn the ribbon of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called or, if that order is not held, the ribbon of the highest-ranking of the lesser orders that is held, except the ribbon of the order of St. Vladimir 1st class which is worn over the coat only in accordance with the special directives set fort below.) 

Knights of the order of St. George 1st class, when ribbons are to be worn, wear this order’s ribbon over the dress coat (undress coat), with those who are also knights of the order of the Apostle St. Andrew the First-Called wearing the chain of that order in conjuction with the ribbon of the order of St. George. In those situations when it is prescribed to wear orders without ribbons, as well as on the holidays of other orders, the ribbon of the order of St. George 1st class is worn under the dress coat (undress coat). (Navy Order No. 325 of 9 December 1909.)

  1. 2nd class. Cross at the neck and star worn on the left side of the chest on the dress coat and undress coat.

    The cross is always worn with the dress coat, even when with the 1st class of this order, and worn at the neck above all order insignias. The star is worn if there is no order of St. George 1st class, and is positioned on the dress coat (undress coat) below the star or the order of St. Andrew the First-Called, but aboe the stars of the other orders.

    With the frock coat and smock only the cross is worn.

    3rd class. The cross is always worn at the neck with the dress coat and also along with higher classes of this order, and is placed above all order insignias that are worn at the neck, but below the cross of the order of St. George 2nd class, when the cross of St. George 3rd class is let out of the coat’s front opening.

    With the undress coat, when the ribbon is not worn, as well as with the frock coat and smock, the cross of St. George 3rd class is worn only when there is no 2nd-class cross of this order.

    4th class.The cross is worn on the chest along with all orders and all higher classes of this order, with this cross being worn: a) in first place on the dress coat (undress coat), counting from the right hand to the left, even in those cases when the knight has an order’s 1st class crossing over the chest; b) on the frock coat if there is no medal of the military order—but second from the top buttonhole on the left side. If there is a medal of the military order—then it is in the center of the chest alongside this medal and to it right; c) on the smock—on the chest, with the medal of the military order as well as without it; d) on the overcoat—only when in formation, and when not in formation then it is only permitted to wear the ribbon of this order in the second buttonhole from the top.


  2. 14. Insignia of the order of the Blessed Apostolic Prince Vladimir (four classes) 

    1st class. Cross on ribbon worn over the right shoulder, and star worn on the left side of the chest on the dress coat and undress coat. 

    The ribbon of this order is worn over the dress coat on the order’s holiday, 22 September, and at HIGHEST appearances, with the chain of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called if the knight does not have the ribbon of the order of St. George 1st class; in all other situations it is worn under the dress coat (undress coat) in the same way as the ribbon of St. George 1st class. 

    With the undress coat, when the ribbon is not worn, as well as with the frock coat and smock, only the cross of St. Vladimir 1st class is worn, at the neck on a narrow order ribbon, if at the neck there is no cross of the order of St. George 2nd or 3rd class or of St. Andrew the First-Called with swords. (Note 6: Knights of the orders of St. George 1st class and St. Vladimir 1st class wear the ribbons of these orders simultaneously, so that: a) with the ribbon of the order of St. George 1st class, worn over the dress coat, the ribbon of the order of St. Vladimir 1st class is worn under the coat, and vice versa—when the ribbon of the order of St. Vladimir 1st classs is put on over the dress coat (on the date of the order’s holiday, 22 September), then the ribbon of the order of St. George 1st class is worn under the coat; b) in all circumstances where the ribbons of these orders are prescribed to be under the dress coat (undress coat), both of the ribbons are worn simultaneously, and the ends of the ribbons, with the crosses, are passed to the outside through a cross slit on the left side of the coat, a little below the waist, with the ribbon fo the order of St. George 1st class put over the ribbon of the order of St. Vladimir 1st class; c) in all situations when ribbons are to be worn but the ribbons of the orders of St. George 1st class and St. Vladimir 1st class are prescribed to be under the dress coat, the ribbon of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called is worn over the coat, and if that is not present, then the ribbon of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky.) 

    2nd class. Cross at the neck and star worn on the left side of the chest—with the dress coat and undress coat. 

    The star is worn when there is no order of St. Vladimir 1st class, and is placed on the dress coat (undress coat) below the star of the order of the White Eagle. 

    The cross at the neck is worn with the dress coat and undress coat below the crosses of the orders of St. George 2nd and 3rd classes and the insignia of the order of the White Eagle, but above the cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class, with the cross of the order of St. Vladimir 2nd class with and without swords being worn with all higher orders and the highest class of this order. 

    With the frock coat and smock only the cross is worn, if at the neck there are not the order insignia of: a) St. George 2nd or 3rd class; b) St. Andrew the First-Called with swords; c) St. Vladimir 1st class; d) St. Alexander Nevsky with swords; e) White Eagle with swords. 

    3rd class: Cross at the neck, worn with the dress coat below the cross of the order of St. Stanislav 1st clas and above the cross of the order of St. Anne 2nd class, with the cross with and without swords being worn with all higher orders and all higher classes of this order. 

    With the undress coat, frock coat, and smock the 3rd-class cross is worn if at the neck there are not the insignia of the orders of: a) St. George 2nd or 3rd class; b) St. Andrew the First-Called with swords; c) St. Vladimir 1st or 2nd class; d) St. Alexander Nevsky with swords; e) White Eagle with swords; f) St. Anne 1st class with swords; g) St. Stanislav 1st class with swords. 

    4th class: The cross with and without swords is worn on the chest with the dress coat and undress coat along with all higher ranking orders and the higher classes of this order, exactly as the cross of the order of St. George 4th class but to the left of that order. 

    On the frock coat the 4th-class cross with or without swords is worn in the second buttonhole loop on the coat’s left side, if there is no cross of the order of St. George 4th class or medal of the military order, irregardless of higher classes of the orders of St. George and St. Vladimir worn at the neck. 

    On the smock the 4th-class cross with or without swords is worn in the same manner as the cross of the order of St. George 4th class, when the latter is absent. 


  3. 15. Insignia of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky (one class) 

    Cross on ribbon, worn over the left shoulder, and star worn on the left side of the chest, on the dress coat and undress coat, below the stars of the orders of St. George 1st and 2nd class and St. Vladimir 1st class. 

    With the order of St. Andrew the First-Called the star of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky with and without swords is not worn, but the cross is worn at the neck on a narrow order ribbon, except for the situations referred to in paragraph 12, when the cross must be on the ribbon worn over the shoulder. When worn at the neck, the cross of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky is placed below the crosses of the order of St. George 2nd and 3rd classes and above other order insignia. 

    With the undress coat, when the ribbon is not worn, as well as with the frock coat and smock—only the cross with swords of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky by itself is worn, at the neck, if there are not insignia of the orders of: a) St. George 2nd or 3rd class; b) St. Andrew the First-Called with swords; and c) St. Vladimir 1st class with or without swords. 

    In all circumstances where knights of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky are prescribed to wear their orders, they wear the order of St. Stanislav 1st class in the buttonhole below—which is to say to the left of—the order of St. Anne 1st class that is in the buttonhole, with the size of this order corresponding to the dimensions for orders worn on the chest. 


  4. 16. Insignia of the order of the White Eagle (one class) 

    Badge on ribbon worn over the left shoulder, and star worn on the left side of the chest—on the dress coat and undress coat, below the star of the order of St. George 2nd class and above the star of the order of St. Vladimir 2nd class. 

    The star of the order of the White Eagle with and without swords is not worn at the same time as the order of St. Alexander Nevsky. With other orders, the badge of this order is worn on the dress coat as follows: a) with the order of St. Alexander Nevsky—worn at the neck on a narrow order ribbon, belwo the crosses of the order of St. George 2nd and 3rd class and above the cross of the order of St. Vladimir 2nd class; b) with the order of St. Andrew the First-Called—worn on the chest to the left of the orders of St. George 4th class and St. Vladimir 4th class, with the badge of the order of the White Eagle being of the same dimensions as insignia prescribed to be worn on the chest. (Note 7: If the order of the White Eagle was awarded for military deeds, then with the dress coat its insignia with swords is worn at the neck and along with the order of St. Andrew the First-Called, and is positioned below the cross of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky and above the cross of the order of St. Vladimir 2nd class.) 

    With the undress coat, when the ribbon is not worn, as well as with the frock coat and smock—only the badge of the order of the White Eagle with swords is worn, if there are not the order badges of: a) St. George 2nd or 3rd class; b) St. Andrew the First-Called with swords; c) St. Vladimir 1st class with and without swords; and d) St. Alexander Nevsky with swords. 


  5. 17. Insignia of the order of St. Anne (four classes) 

    1st class: Cross on ribbon worn over the left shoulder, and star worn on the right side of the chest, on the dress coat and undress coat. 

    When the order of the White Eagle and other senior orders are awarded, the star of the order of St. Anne 1st class with and without swords is taken off, but the cross with swords of this order is worn at the neck along with all higher orders, below the crosses of the order of St. George 2nd and 3rd class and the order of St. Vladimir 2nd class. The cross without swords is worn: a) with the order of the White Eagle at the neck, as the cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class with swords; b) with the order of St. Alexander Nevsky—on the chest to the left of the orders of St. George 4th class and St. Vladimir 4th class, with the cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class being of the same size as badges prescribed for wear on the chest. When the order of the White Eagle is transferred to the buttonhole due to the award of the order of St. Andrew the First-Called, the cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class without swords is taken off. 

    With the award of the order of the White Eagle and other higher orders, the ribbon of the order of St. Anne 1st class is worn over the shoulder only as exaplained in paragraph 12, on the date of the order’s holiday, 3 February, if on this day there is an appearance at HIGHEST court. 

    With the undress coat, when the ribbon is not worn, as well as with the frock coat and smock—only the cross with swords of the order of St. Anne 1st class is worn if there are not the following order insignia worn at the neck: a) St. George 2nd and 3rd classes; b) St. Vladimir 1st and 2nd classes; and c) other higher orders with swords. (Note 8: In the presence of insignia of the order of St. Anne decorated with an IMPERIAL crown, this order’s other badges without such decoration and without swords are removed. With the award of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky, the cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class (without swords) with an IMPERIAL crown is worn on the chest, with this cross with crown being of the same dimension as for crosses intended for wear in the buttonhole, but when the badge of the order of the White Eagle is worn on the chest, the cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class with IMPERIAL crown (without swords) is taken off. The cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class without an IMPERIAL crown, without swords, is not worn on the chest if at the same time there is a 3rd-class cross with swords of this order. With an IMPERIAL crown, it is worn on the chest to the right of this order’s 3rd class with swords and to the left of the order of St. Vladimir 4th class. 

    2nd class: The cross is worn at the neck on the dress coat, and: a) the cross with swords is worn along with all higher orders and highers classes of this order and placed at the neck below the cross of the order of St. Vladimir 3rd class; b) the cross without swords (with and without an IMPERIAL crown) is removed in the presence of the order of St. Anne 1st class. 

    With the frock coat and smock only the cross with swords of the order of St. Anne 2nd class is worn, if at the neck there are not the order insignia of: a) St. George; b) St. Vladimir; c) St. Stanislav 1st class with swords, and other higher orders with swords, but on the undress coat also without swords, as well as there being no higher orders. 

    3rd class: The cross with swords is worn on the chest along with all higher orders and along with higher classes of this order, with the 3rd-class cross with swords replacing the cross of the order of St. Anne 1st class without swords and without crown when in the presence of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky, and being worn on the chest, as related above, to the left of the orders of: a) St. Vladimir 4th class; b) White Eagle without swords when with the order of St. Andrew the First-Called; c) St. Anne 1st class without swords, but with crown, when with the order of St. Alexander Nevsky. The cross of the order of St. Anne 3rd class without swords is taken off in the presences of higher classes of this order. 

    On the frock coat only the cross of the order of St. Anne 3rd class with swords is worn, in the second buttonhole of the left side of the coat, if there are not: a) the order of St. George 4th class; b) medal of the military order; c) order of St. Vladimir 4th class; d) higher classes of the order of St. Anne with swords, worn at the neck. 

    On the smock the cross of the order of St. Anne 3rd class with swords is worn in accordance with the same rules as for the frock coat, but instead of in the second buttonhole from the top—on the chest. 

    4th class: Cross with crown, worn on the sword hilt with the inscription “For Courage”, and swordknot of St.-Anne ribbon. 

    This sword is worn along with all orders and replaced only by a gold sword, when the cross of the order of St. Anne 4th class is worn only on the gold sword decorated with diamonds, or on the weapon that replaces it. (Note 9: A sword with the order of St. Anne 4th class must always correspond to the pattern of weapon prescribed for the uniform being worn.) 


  6. 18. Insignia of the order of St. Stanislav (three classes) 

    1st class: Cross on ribbon worn over the right shoulder, and star worn on the right side of the chest, on the dress coat and undress coat. 

    When the order of St. Anne 1st class and other higher-ranking orders are awarded, the star of the order of St. Stanislav 1st class with or without swords is removed, but on the dress coat the cross with swords of this order is worn at the neck along with all higher orders below St. George 2nd and 3rd classes and St. Vladimir 2nd class, while the cross without swords is worn: a) with the order of St. Anne 1st class—at the neck in the same manner as the cross of the order of St. Stanislav 1st class with swords; b) with the order of the White Eagle—on the chest, to the left of the orders of St. George 4th class and St. Vladimir 4th class, with the cross of the order of St. Stanislav 1st class being the same size as badges prescribed for wear on the chest. When the order of St. Anne 1st class is transferred to the buttonhole (on the chest) consequent to an award of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky, the cross of the order of St. Stanislav 1st class without swords is taken off. 

    With the award of the order of St. Anne 1st class and other higher-ranking orders, the ribbon of the order of St. Stanislav 1st class is worn over the shoulder only on the order’s holiday, 25 April, if that day is designated for an appearance at HIGHEST court. 

    With the undress coat, when the ribbon is not worn, as well as with the frock coat and smock, only the cross of the order of St. Stanislav 1st class with swords is worn at the neck, if there are not the orders of: a) St. George 2nd and 3rd class; b) St. Vladimir 1st and 2nd class; and c) other higher-ranking orders with swords. (Note 10: Badges of the order of St. Stanislav are prescribed to be worn, and removed in corresponding situations, in the same way as badges of the order of St. Anne.) 

    2nd class: The cross is worn at the neck in the same way as the cross of the order of St. Anne 2nd class. 

    3rd class: The cross is worn on the chest on the same basis as the cross of the order of St. Anne 3rd class. (Note 11: The cross with swords of the order of St. Stanislav 3rd class is worn on the frock coat in the second buttonhole of the left side, if there are not the orders of: a) St. George 4th class; b) medal of the military order; c) St. Vladimir 4th class; d) St. Anne 3rd class with swords; e) other higher classes of the order of St. Stanislav with sword, worn at the neck. With the smock the cross with swords of the order of St. Stanislav is worn in accordance with the rules for the frock coat, but on the chest rather than in the second buttonhole from the top.) 


  7. 19. Gold weapons decorated with diamonds. 

    This weapon is worn without a swordknot in parade uniform: a) in formation, if the awarded weapon is of the pattern prescribed for the designated uniform, but when at indoor parades at court, the gold weapon with diamonds is worn in all cases even though it may not correspond to the pattern of sword established for the uniform; b) when not in formation—in all circumstances. 

    In all other situations the weapon with diamonds is replaced by a gold weapon without decoration, but with the cross of the order of St. George and with a St.-George swordknot, with the gold weapon without decoration always corresponding to the pattern prescribed for the proposed uniform. (Note 12: On the gold weapon replacing the weapon decorated with diamonds, the cross of the order of St. George is placed on the bottom of the hilt, for sabers and daggers. When the gold weapon decorated with diamonds is awarded to persons already holding the order of St. Anne 4th class, the badge of the order of St. Anne 4th class is placed under the hilt to appear just above the scabbard, on both the saber and the dagger. The also applies to a gold weapon replacing a gold weapon decorated with diamonds. Generals and admirals awarded a St.-George weapon decorated with diamonds have the right to wear, instead of a weapon fitting the full description, the same sword without decorations, and in that case placing on the hilt only the order badge decorated with diamonds.) 


  8. 20. Gold weapons inscribed “For Courage.” 

    This weapon is worn with a St.-George swordknot and may by replaced only by a weapon decorated with diamonds. (Note 13: Order insignia are not prescribed for this weapon. The gold weapon must always correspond to the sword pattern prescribed for the proposed uniform. On 21 January 1914 persons awarded gold weapons were given the right to place on the hilt a smaller-sized cross of the order of St. George. The small cross of the order of St. George was placed on the pommel of the hilt for sabers and daggers, and for épées—on the hilt’s outside guard on the side turning inward. The inscription “For Courage” is placed on the facing side—on all hilt guards for the saber, on the crossguard of the dagger, and on the arc of the guard for the épée.) 


  9. 21. Medals of the military order (four classes) 

    The medal in all classes is awarded to lower ranks. It is not taken off when promoted to officer rank, and is worn on the dress coat and undress coat along with all orders without exceptions, to the left of the order of St. Stanislav 3rd class (with or without swords) and to the right of the all medals. Persons holding several classes of the medal of the military order wear them as follows: a) officers—only the higher classes, removing the lesser classes in the presence of higher: the 2nd in the presence of the 1st and the 4th in the prescence of the 3rd, but leaving the 3rd-class medal with the medals awarded for the 1st and 2nd classes; b) lower ranks—all classes of this medal, without removing lesser classes in the presence of higher. (Note 14: On the frock coat, smock, and overcoat, the medal for the military order is worn in the same manner as the order of St. George 4th class. When the order of St. George 4th class is worn on the frock coat or smock, the medal of the military order is not removed and is worn on the chest, in the center next to this order but to its left. Persons holding several classes of the medal for the military order wear them as follows: a) on the frock coat and smock—only two of the classes, as for the dress coat, on the chest alongside and to the left of the order of St. George 4th class, if that is also held; b) on the overcoat when in formation—if there is no order of St. George 4th class, then only the highest class, and when not in formation, then only the ribbon of this medal, in the second buttonhole from the top, on the left side of the garment.) 


  10. 22. St. Anne medal 

    This medal, awarded to lower ranks, is not removed upon promotion to officer rank, and is worn on the dress coat and undress coat if there is no order of St. Anne 4th or 3rd class. The St. Anne medal is worn on the left of medals for the military order and to the right of all other medals. However, if the badge of the order of St. Anne 4th or 3rd class is received, then this medal is removed. 


  11. 23. Medals from various categories and the Polish medal for distinction in military merit. 

    All these medals are worn only on the dress coat and undress coat, on the chest to the left of all crosses, in the order in which they were awarded. 

    Similarly to what was established by Highest wish for participants in the Russo-Japanese War, all persons who have been wounded or contused in battle are given the right to wear the medal instituted in commemoration of any past war or campaign with a bow made from the ribbon prescribed for that medal. 

    Medals that are worn on the chest on coats (buttonhole medals), are worn on flannel shirts on the left side of the chest horizontally and so that the highest ranking on the medal bar comes to the left side of the collar’s chest opening. (Note 15: Medals awarded to lower ranks for years of non-commissioned officer service and worn at the neck, are still worn at the neck in the presence of all orders, but below them.) 

    On the flannel shirt, neck medals are worn so that the medal with its ribbon tucked under the shirt comes to the center of the chest, to which end the button on the flannel shirt must be fastened. When there are several medals at the neck, they are worn one under the other, the most senior on top. 

    Medals are worn on the overcoat in the same way as on greatcoats. 

    The St. George medal is never taken off. Lower ranks with the St. George medal wear it to the left of all classes of the St. George cross and to the right of all other medals and badges, with those persons holding several classes wearing them arranged by rank. Officers with the St. George medal wear it to the left of all orders and the St. George cross, but to the right of all other medals and badges for distinction. 


  12. 24. Badge for Reproachless Service. 

    This badge, awarded for active service in officer ranks for no less than 40 years in decade increments, is worn on the dress coat and undress coat on the chest, below crosses and medals. 


  13. 25. Red Cross badge. 


  14. 26. Caucasus Cross.  


  15. 27. Militia (mass levy) cross or badge for non-Christians. 


  16. 28. Monogram of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY and the departed EMPERORS: Alexander I, Nicholas II, Alexander II, and Alexander III.  


  17. 29. Badges established for: a) commemorating service in the Combined-Guards Company (later Battalion); b) service in HIS MAJESTY’s Own Convoy. 


  18. 30. Medal for participation in the freeing of the serfs. 


  19. 31. Badge awarded to navy personnel for zealous service in the coast guard, and badge commemorating the completion of the survey measurements at the Spitzbergen Islands. 


  20. 32. Jubiliee medals commemorating: a) 200 years of the Naval Cadet Corps; b) 100 years of the St.-Petersburg police. 


  21. 33. Medal commemorating 100 years of the Imperial Military-Medical Academy. 


  22. 34. Badge for pages. 


  23. 35. Medal for participants in the defense of Port Arthur.  


  24. 36. Badge marking the voyage and work of the Hydrographic Expedition to the Northern Ice Ocean in search of the Great Northern Passage. 

    All these crosses and medals are worn on the dress coat and undress coat, on the left side of the chest at a level halfway from the waist to the collar, and to the left of stars, if any are held. When more than one of these crosses and medals are worn they are arranged in order they are cited. (Note 16: The crosses and medals named here are not worn on the frock coat or smock, with the exception of: a) suite monograms of the EMPERORS Alexander II and Alexander III; b) the medals mentioned in paragraphs 31, 32, 33, and 34. Badges awarded to lower ranks in commemoration of service in the Combined-Guards Company (or Battalion) and for service in HIS MAJESTY’S Own Convoy are worn when promoted to officer rank, but are not replaced by the badges established for officers.) 


  25. 37. Badge for successful completion of studies at the Nicholas Naval Academy, other military academies, and the intendance course 

    These badges are worn on the dress coat, undress coat, frock coat, and smock on the right side of the chest, but in the presence of stars worn on the right side, these badges are worn below them. 

    If courses have been completed in two or three military academies, or in military academies and the Nicholas Naval Academy—the badge worn is unified, so that this badge corresponds to the badge established for the specialist branch but with the addition of an armature of the other academies. The badge of the Nicholas Naval Academy and other military academies is worn only by persons in officer rank. 

    Not allowed is the combination of military academy badges with the badges of civilian higher and specialist educational institutions, or with the badges established for achieving: a) the rank of doctor and magister of IMPERIAL Russian universities; b) the level of an academician of the IMPERIAL Academy of Arts. Admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers with the badge of the Nicholas Naval Academy and other military academies and the badge of civilian educational institutions or academic rank wear these badges separately. 


  26. 38. Badges for successful completion of officers’ classes and other similar badges. 

    These badges are worn on the dress coat, undress coat, frock coat, and smock in the same place prescribed for academic badges, but if these are present—then 1/2 vershok [7/8 inch] below them. 


  27. 39. Badges for graduates of the full course of studies at the Naval Cadet Corps and the Emperor Nicholas I Naval Engineering School. 

    These badges are worn on the left side of the chest on the dress coat, undress coat, frock coat, and smock. 

  28. 40. Badges for degree-holding medical doctors and physicians 

    These badges are worn in the same way as a badge for graduates of the Nicholas Naval Academy and other military academies. 


  29. 41. Badges for persons awarded: a) academic degrees of doctor and magister of Imperial Russian universities; b) the rank of academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts. Also, badges for successful completion of courses at various higher and specialist civilian educational institutions. 

    These smaller-sized badges are worn on the dress coat, undress coat, frock coat, and smock on the right side of the chest, below badges for graduating from military academies. 


  30. 42. Red Cross badge 


  31. 43. Life-Saving Association badge 


  32. 44. Badge established for persons who served at the introduction of civilian rule in the Bulgarian territory 

    These badges are worn on the dress coat and undress coat on the left side of the chest. In the presence of stars and other badges cited above, the Red Cross badge is worn below stars and the badge for taking part in the freeing of the serfs; the Life-Saving Association badge—below the Red Cross badge, and the badge for the introduction of civilian rule in the Bulgarian territory—below the badge of the Life-Saving Association. 


  33. 45. Jubilee badges: a) commemorating 100 years of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’S Corps of Pages; b) commemorating 50 years of the Nicholas Main Physics Observatory; c) monogram badge commemorating the 100 years of Empress Maria institutions; d) commemorating the 100th anniversary of the IMPERIAL Military-Medical Academy; e) commemorating the 200th anniversary of the EMPEROR Peter the Great Admiralty Hospital; f) commemorating 100 years of the pilots and lighthouse administration in Finland; g) commemorating 300 years of the Romanov dynasty; h) commemorating 300 years of Archangel navigators. 

    These badges are worn on the dress coat, undress coat, frock coat, and smock on the right side of the chest, below an academic badgein the order they are cited. The badges commemorating 200 years of the Admiralty hospital, 100 years of the navigation and lighthouse administration in Finland, and 300 years of Archangel navigators are worn on the left side of the chest. 


  34. 46. Breast badge and jeton for contributions to the military aeronautical fleet. 

    This badge is worn on the left side of the chest while the jeton is on a watch chain. 

     

 

Rules for the wearing of badges and medals by lower ranks

 

  1. 1. The wearing of badges and medals by lower ranks is governed by the following rules. 

    a) The senior medal worn at the neck is let out of the front collar opening of the coat or smock, with a small part of the order’s ribbon being visible. Lesser medals worn at the neck are put through the coat or smock’s front opening, with the upper edge of the senior medal being on line with the upper edge of the badges and medals worn on the chest. The upper edge of medals less in rank must be 1/2 vershok [7/8 inch] from the lower edge of the senior medal; The ribbons of each medal must protrude a bit from the front opening. 

    b) On the flannel shirt, neck medals are worn so that the medal with its ribbon tucked under the shirt comes to the center of the chest, to which end the button on the flannel shirt must be fastened. When there are several medals at the neck, they are worn one under the other, the most senior on top. 

    c) Orders and medals worn on the chest are fastened to a frame or bar 1-1/2 vershoks [2-5/8 inches] wide, with the upper edge of the ribbons worn on the frame 1-1/8 to 1-1/4 vershoks [2 to 2-3/16 inches] from the hook on the coat or smock collar. The orders and medals bar is affixed: a) on double-breasted coats and smocks—in the middle of the chest; b) on single-breasted coats and smocks—on the left side of the chest, with the center of the orders and medals bar being positioned at the center of the left side; c) on flannel shirts—horizontally on the left side of the chest so that the most senior medal on the bar comes to the left side of the collar’s chest opening. 


  2. 2. On greatcoats or overcoats, when worn with the arms in the sleeves, lower ranks wear their medals and badges in the same way as on the coat. When there are several medals worn at the neck, only the higher-ranking medal protrudes from the collar’s front opening, while lesser medals usually worn on the coat’s or flannel shirt’s front opening are prescribed to be worn under the greatcoat or overcoat. 


  3. 3. When used as the outer garment in parade dress, the white linen shirt has all medals and badges worn according to the rules for wearing them on the flannel shirt. In all other situations only the highest class that is held of the medal of the military order is worn. 

  4. 4. Chest badges established for persons who have completed courses at various higher and specialist civilian educational institutions are worn by lower ranks on the coat, dark-blue flannel or white linen shirt, greatcoat, and overcoat, following the rules laid down for the wearing of these insignia. 


  5. 5. Lower ranks who are demoted officers, or officers or navy civilian officials dismissed from the service, lose the right, for the whole time they are in military service, to wear chest badges for the completing courses at military academies while they held officer rank. 


  6. 6. Foreign medals and badges are worn by lower ranks below all Russian medals and badges, with the highest-ranking medal as deterimined by the foreign government placed above other foreign medals and badges. 


  7. 7. The badge awared to naval lower ranks for zealous service in the coast guard, the badge commemorating the survey measurements at the Spitzbergen Islands, the Red Cross medal, the militia (mass levy) cross or badge for non-Christians, badges instituted to commemorate service in the Combined-Guards Company (or Battalion) and for serving in HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY’S Own Combined Infantry Regiment, and anniversary and similar badges, are worn by lower ranks on the left side of the chest of the coat, dark-blue flannel and white linen shirts, and greatcoat or overcoat, midway from the waist to the collar. When several are worn simultaneously, these badges are arranged in order of their award, from top to bottom. 

 

 

Appendix 3

 

Evolution of Russian Naval Uniforms 1696-1917 (Chronological Table)

 

1696 – Officers, sailors, and soldiers of the regular navy created by Peter I wore the uniforms of the Semenovskii and Preobrazhenskii regiments.


1711 April 1 – Manufacture of the first true naval uniform for lower ranks.


1716 – Establishment of a uniforms office [mundirnaya kontora]

1719 September 12 – Establishment of wear-out periods for some articles of sailors’ uniforms; inauguration of making uniforms through a centralized system and according to confirmed patterns.


1719 December 7 – Introduction of bostrogi jackets and pants of striped ticking.


1720 – Introduction of sailor’s uniform of dark-green jacket [bostrog] with a red sash, dark-green pants, dark-blue stockings, black hat, and black shoes.


1722 April 5 – First introduction of a table defining the wear-out periods for the uniforms of sergeants, corporals, gunners, quartermasters, and sailors.


1722 October1 – First introduction of clothing for guard duty, consisting of a long kaftan coat lined with coarse peasant cloth.


1723 May 20 – Uniform clothing introduced for cadets.


1723 September 10 – Introduced for lower ranks are cornflower-blue, red, gray, and white stockings, and also shoes with blunt toes and pointed toes.


1724 June 3 – Cornflower-blue coat with red cloth lining introduced for ships’ non-commissioned officers and soldiers.


1726 January 14 – For petty officers on galleys there was established a service uniform consisting of a cornflower-blue coat and pants with red cloth lining and a red waistcoat trimmed down the front opening with silver lace.


1728 March 5 – For sailors of the ship and galley fleets, marine soldiers, and artillery crews there was confirmed a dark-blue coat with red cloth lining. Non-commissioned officers’ coats were trimmed with lace.


1728 June 5 – For cadets there was introduced a cornflower-blue coat with red cloth lining, a red waistcoat, and red pants. Sergeants’ coats were trimmed with straight gold galloon down the front opening and around the flaps, collar, cuffs, and turnbacks.; corporals’ coats were trimmed around the collar, cuffs, and flaps; privates’ coats—around the collar and cuffs.


1728 June 28 – For cadets there were established gilt brass buttons, buckles, and badges, while the buttonholes of the coat, waistcoat, and pants began to be trimmed with worsted the same color as the coat.


1728 September 19 – Flat brass buttons were introduced for marine artillerymen.


1728 December 21 – A table was confirmed, entitled “for naval personnel and artillerymen, the kind of uniform and how many years between issues.”


1729 August 28 – Flat brass buttons were introduced for the uniforms of all ranks.


1729 October 17 – To distinguish them from army regiments, non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the ship and galley fleets, tassels and galloon were confirmed for the hat.


1730 April 30 – Lace was introduced for the cuffs and collars of non-commissioned officers’ coats.


1730 November 10 – For watchmen of the Admiralty Collegium there were introduced red coats trimmed with lace and the Admiralty coat-of-arms under a large imperial crown, and red pants.


1730 December 16 – For cabin boys and deck boys [kayut i dek-yung] there were established green coats and red waistcoats with pants.


1731 March 16 – Lace was introduced for cadets of non-commissioned officer rank.


1732 July 03 – A table was confirmed, entitled “on the uniform for naval personnel, namely: quartermasters, commissars’ assistants, sailors, cannoneers, and cabin boys.”


1732 July 25 – Non-commissioned officers and soldiers were ordered to have cloaks of cornflower-blue cloth instead of red.


1733 January 14 – The first regulation officer’s uniform was introduced.


1733 November 12 – Field and company-grade officers of the 1st and 2nd Naval Regiments [1-i i 2-i morskie polki]] were granted swords with sword belts and sword knots.


1734 January 31 – To distinguish soldiers in naval regiments from army soldiers there were introduced cords, tassels, and buttons for the hat.


1735 June 11 – For naval officers there were established a green coat with red cloth lining and red waistcoats and pants. The coats of mid-grade officers were trimmed with gold galloon, and those of junior officers had no galloon.


1736 May 17 – To distinguish lower ranks in the marine artillery from others the collar and cuffs began to made from black cloth, the buttonholes trimmed with black thread, and black horn buttons sewn on.


1738 November 29 – For cadets there were confirmed a green coat with small red slit cuffs, a red waistcoat with lapels, red pants, cornflower-blue cloak, black gaiters, and felt hats with galloon.


1739 February 8 – Lace was introduced for the coat collars and cuffs of non-commissioned officers of the senior cadet company [gardemarinskaya rota].


1744 March 5 – The green cadet coat began to be made with small green cuffs sewn closed up.


1745 February 11 – For soldiers of naval regiments a hempen coat was introduced in place of the cloak, and in place of the waistcoat—a bostorg jacket of ticking.


1745 July 12 – For admirals and officers there were established a white coat with green cloth lining, a green waistcoat, and white pants. Flat gilt brass buttons were sewn onto coats and waistcoats. For the first time galloon on the uniform began to be used as a kind of rank distinction.


1747 November 11 – The uniform of the Preobrazhenskii Regiment was confirmed for non-commissioned officers and cadets of the cadet company.


1747 December 8 – White gaiters, sewn from canvas, were introduced for non-commissioned officers and cadets of the cadet company.


1748 July 4 – For midshipmen of petty-officer rank, 3rd-rank skippers, and navigators there were established a white coat with green cloth lining, a green waistcoat, and white pants. On the coat collar gold lace was sewn on in one row, and on the cuffs—in four rows. For under-navigators [podshturmany], boatswains, and skippers there were introduced a green coat with white cloth lining, a white waistcoat, and green pants. Three rows of lace were sewn onto the coat’s cuffs. For boatswains’ mates,  assistants to the master of rigging and sails, and ships’ clerks—the same uniform except with two rows of lace; for quartermasters, commissars’ assistants, and clerks—the same uniform except with ­only one row of lace. For sailors there was introduced a hempen bostorg jacket with green collar and cuffs, and the ha­t brim was bound up with red material.


1752 December 15 – For personnel of the Naval Noble Cadet Corps there were confirmed a green coat with white collar and white cuffs, green pants, and white waistcoats. For everyday wear there was introduced a frock coat made from green soldier cloth with white cuffs and a white collar. Privates were allowed to sewn narrow lace onto their uniforms: cadets [kadety]—one row on collar and cuffs; garde-marines [senior cadets, gardemariny]—one row on the collar and cuffs and one row on the cuff flaps. For all cadets hats were also trimmed with narrow lace. Sergeants sewed four rows of lace on their cuffs; supply sergeants [kaptenarmusy], sublieutenants, and train sergeants [fur’era]—three rows; and corporals—two rows.


1754 July 23 – An ukase was published: “that military personnel wear uniforms according to established patterns and that retired personnel are forbidden to wear uniforms.”


1762 February 28 – An order was issued forbidding military personnel to wear civilian clothing.


1762 October 25 – Short swords [tesaki] were confirmed for cadets and garde-marines of the Naval Noble Cadet Corps.


1764 October 30 – For flag officers there were introduced richly embroidered coats of white cloth with a green collar and cuffs, a green waistcoat, and green pants. Admirals sewed three buttons onto the coat’s cuffs, vice-admirals—two, and rear-admirals—one. Officers of the ships’ fleet received white coats with a green collar and cuffs, green pants, green waistcoats, and hats with galloon. Mid-grade officers’ coats were trimmed with gold galloon depending on rank. For ships’ officers there was introduced for wear on the left shoulder woven tape with a small gold or silver tassel. For artillery officers the standard naval uniform had the collar, cuffs, and lapels made of black velvet. Navigators received green coats with white cloth lining, green pants, and white waistcoats. Navigators of petty-officer rank had the same uniform as navigators, except with one row of galloon on the collar and three on the sleeves. Under-navigators had one row of galloon on the collar and three on the cuffs, while apprentice navigators [shturmanskie ucheniki] and just one rows of galloon on both the collar and cuffs. For officers of the galley fleet five buttons were sewn onto the lapels, and onto the right shoulder—tape.


1769 December 5 – Sashes were introduced for navy flag officers.


1796 November 12 – An ukase was published forbidding naval officers to wear uniforms with gold embroidery.


1796 November 17 – Silver sword knots were established for flag, mid-grade, and junior officers. A dark-green naval uniform was introduced, without lapels, and with a white collar and dark-green cuffs. Stripes were sewn onto the sleeve flaps, by which it could be determined in what division and squadron the officer was serving. Pants and waistcoat were white; buttons, swords, and buckles were gilt. Sashes for flag officers were discontinued. For battalion field and company-grade officers dark-green uniforms  introduced, with a red collar, lapels, and cuffs; white waistcoat; white pants; on the sleeve flaps—sewn-on stripes as prescribed for the battalion (red, sky blue, white, dark blue, yellow, violet, orange, green, black, or gray); a silver sash. Naval officers on shore duty wore uniforms without sewn-on stripes and with white buttons. Navigators also did not have stripes, and had a green collar instead of white.


1798 August 20 – An official authorization table was confirmed for accouterments and items of uniform clothing for all naval lower ranks. For petty officers there were introduced: black felt hat with gold galloon, woolen tassels, black bow with orange edges, and a button; dark-green kaftan coat with green cuffs and brass button; white waistcoat; white pants; deerskin gloves; shirt; neck cloth; black gaiters. Sailors were prescribed to wear: Dutch hat; dark-green bostrog jacket; dark-green pants; white waistcoat with green collar and cuffs; work waistcoat of ticking; holland work shirt with hempen breeches; cloak lined with coarse peasant cloth; linen shirt; stockings; boots. Boots for sailors were introduced on 3 February 1797. From that same date officers were allowed to wear boots made from thin leather.


1798 December 28 – An ukase was published, entitled “on prohibiting officers from wearing sheepskin coats [shuby] in place of the uniform greatcoat.”


1801 May 18 – A dark-green dress coat [mundir] was introduced for admirals and officers, with a standing white collar, turnback skirts, and white piping around the skirts, cuffs, and cuff flaps. The coat was fastened by six buttons. The waistcoat and long pants were of white cloth; black hat with a gold buttonhole loop and small white plume. On the stripes sewn onto the sleeve there were embroidered, for ship personnel, two anchors in gold thread, but in the galley fleet—in silver thread. On the collars of admirals’ coats were embroidered three of the same anchors, on those of vice-admirals—two, and of rear-admirals—one.


1802 March 26 – A dark-green coat was introduced for lower ranks in naval battalions, with a standing collar, slit cuffs with flaps, white pants, and short boots. Shoulder straps were confirmed for both shoulders, as prescribed for the battalion. In the Baltic Fleet: 1st – red, 2nd – white, 3rd – yellow, 4th – light raspberry, 5th – turquoise, 6th – rose [rozovyi], 7th – light green, 8th – gray, and 9th – lilac [lilovyi]. In the Black Sea Fleet: 1st – dark blue, 2nd – straw colored [palevyi], and 3rd – orange. The same shoulder straps were worn on gray cloth greatcoats with a white standing collar.


1802 May 28 – New uniforms were introduced for naval lower ranks. Petty officers and commissars’ assistants were prescribed: round half-felt hat with the brim turned up on one side, on which was fixed a bow of black tape with an orange edge, and a button; dark-green coat with standing collar, slit cuffs, and cuff flaps, all of dark-green cloth (gold galloon on the collar and cuffs); dark-green cloth pants; white warm coat or sweater [fufaika]; buttons covered in cloth; gray greatcoat with a white collar and shoulder straps in the division color; boots. Sailors received the same uniform but without galloon.


1803 May 2 – A uniform coat was established for admirals and officers, with embroidery on the collar and sleeves, the white piping removed, and new gold shoulder straps. Officers in the marine artillery received the same uniform but with a black cloth collar and black turnbacks on the skirt tails. The navy uniform was confirmed for navigators, but without embroidery and shoulder straps. Officers in the Admiralty had embroidery and white buttons on their coats. All personnel were prescribed waistcoats and pants made from white cloth, black silk neck cloths, hats with buttonhole loops, dark-green frock coats [syurtuki] with lapels, slit cuffs, and straight or curved skirts, not with a bent angle [pryamye ili kosye nezagnutye poly]. Gray greatcoats were introduced for all, with collars the same color as on the dress coat. Dark-green work pants were also introduced for all.


1803 October 1 – For officers of the Naval Cadet Corps there was introduced a coat of dark-green cloth with gold embroidery around the edge of the collar and on the cuffs, as for personnel in the 1st and 2nd Cadet Corps. Gold shoulder straps, as for fleet officers, white waistcoats and pants, black silk neck cloths, hats without plumes, with a cockade and buttonhole loop. Also introduced were dark-green frock coats of the same color as the pants, and gray greatcoats. Cadets and garde-marines received the same uniform, but without embroidery and with gold shoulder straps on which were embroidered anchors in yellow thread. Their hats were three-cornered with small white worsted tassels and no plume. Instead of short swords they were given a naval dagger [morskoi kortik].


1804 June 14 – It was laid down that non-commissioned officers of the marine artillery have the naval uniform with black collar and black cuffs.


1807 October 4 – Epaulettes were confirmed for Admiralty officials, marine artillerymen, generals and admirals, and mid-grade and junior officers.


1807 November 12 – Retired generals and generals, mid-grade and junior officers, and field and company-grade officers, were all forbidden to wear epaulettes.


1807 December 31 – For medical officials in the naval administration there was introduced silver embroidery on the dress coat’s collar and cuffs.


1808 March 7 – For naval admirals and generals, as well as generals of the marine artillery and Naval Cadet Corps, the standard general-officer’s embroidery was established for the collar, cuffs, and cuff flaps (the anchor on the collar was retained below the embroidery).


1809 June 5 – The plumage around the hats of generals and officers was removed.


1810 January 7 – Permission was issued to wear epaulettes on the undress coat and frock coat.


1810 February 1 – Naval generals and admirals, mid-grade and junior officers, and field and company-grade officers were all permitted to carry a saber [sablya] in place of the épée [shpaga].


1810 February 16 – Colored shoulder straps and epaulettes were introduced, with the embroidered number of the équipage: Guards Équipage – red, ships’ équipages – dark green, galley équipages – light green, barge équipages – white, artillery brigades – black, companies of naval craftsmen – gray.


1811 February 9 – Persons awarded a gold sword inscribed “For courage” were permitted to wear it instead of a saber.


1811 April 14 – For privates of marine artillery in the Baltic and Black Sea fleets, and in naval artillery brigades, there were introduced short swords with a black sword belt worn over the shoulder.


1811 April 27 – Line officers [lineinye ofitsery] of the Naval Cadet Corps were allowed to dark-green pants with the dress and undress coat, and instead of a sword—a saber. On ceremonial days they were allowed to wear a shako.


1811 April 29 – Confirmation was given to a pattern of short sword for cadets of the Naval Corps.


1811 November 1 – Official authorization tables were introduced for accouterments and uniform items of lower ranks in ships’ and galley équipages, artillery brigades, and companies of the Caspian Flotilla.


1812 – An official authorization table was confirmed for accouterments and uniform items for lower ranks of the Admiralty administration.


1825 December 30 – A single-breasted coat closed with nine buttons was introduced for navy line generals and marine artillery generals.


1826 14 April – A new regulation was confirmed for navy uniforms. Single-breasted coats with nin buttons were prescribed for all naval ranks, while undress coats and frock coats remained double-breasted. Generals and senior and junior-grade officers without shakos were to wear tricorn hats.


1826 29 May – Generals of barge équipages and senior and junior-grade of the line have a navy uniform with white appointments, with epaulettes with white cloth.


1826 25 June – For naval and marine artillery, line senior and junior-grade officers of the line, shakos are introduced for wear on officially designated holidays, parades, and guard duties.


1826 14 Deceber – Uniforms are confirmed for officers and conductors of the Corps of Ship Engineers. Senior and junior-grade officers—dark-green dress coat with black collar and black cuffs, with silver embroidery, silver buttons, and silver epaulettess; saber with a black leather swordbelt; hat. Work dress consisted of a frock coat with epaulettes and a forage cap. Conductors—jackets with silver non-commissioned officer galloon, white buttons and red shoulder straps; artillery short sword with a black swordbelt worn over the shoulder; forage cap with an emblem in the form of crossed axes and an anchor.


1827 27 January – Regulations for the Instructional Naval Labor Équipage are confirmed. Lower ranks are prescribed shoulder straps of tape, officers—silver epaulettes.


1827 10 March – Regulations for the 1st Navigators Half-Équipage are confirmed. For the lower ranks of the half-équipage red shoulder straps are introduced, and for officers’ and lower ranks’ shakos—an anchor badge.


1827 13 April – Regulations for the Corps of Naval Navigators are confirmed. Officers of the corps are to have red piping around the coat collar, gold epaulettes and a saber with a black swordbelt worn over the shoulder. Conductors of the corps received red shoulder straps and an artillery short sword with a black swordbelt worn over the shoulder.


1828 17 March – Sword knots are withdrawn for the short swords of all lower ranks in the navy.


1828 16 September – For lower ranks, tape and galloon to be sewn onto the slevee is introduced to mark long and reproachless service.


1828 16 October – Sewn-on tape is introduced for lower ranks to mark years of service.


1829 19 March – the 42nd Naval Équipage is awarded shako badges of distinction for the fighting on 27 May 1828 during the crossing of the Danube.


1829 July 29 – Officers’ sabers with swordbelts are introduced for naval medical officials and skippers.


1829 25 October – Red cloth piping around the lower edge of the collars of jackets and greatcoats is introduced for the conductor companies of the Instructional Labor Équipage.


1830 16 January – For all military ranks in the navy, buttons are confirmed depicting state and naval symbols.


1830 15 October – For Guards Équipage personnel, white piping is introduced in place of the two red lines of piping around the forage-cap band.


1830 21 November – In order to distinguish rank, small stars are introduced for the epaulettes of officers in naval équipages, the Guards Équipage, and Instructional Naval Équipage.


1830 27 November – Undress coats are abolished for officers in barge and labor équipages, as well as the tape sewn onto coats. Small stars on officers’ epaulettes are introduced to distinguish rank.


1831 7 January – Small stars on officers’ epaulettes in the Marine Artillery Corps are introduced to distinguish rank.


1831 7 May – Oilskin covers are introduced for the tricorn hat and shako.


1831 11 May – For the naval coat of officers of the 1st Finnish Naval Équipage dark-blue piping is established for the collar and the same color for the lining of the shoulder straps and epaulettes. On the epaulettes is the Cyrillic writing 1 F.


1832 1 January – It is ordered that gold sabers and swords decorated with diamonds and inscribed “For Courage” be worn without swordknots.


1832 25 May – A single common uniform is introduced for all watch officers.


1832 13 June – All admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers in the navy are ordered to wear moustaches.


1832 25 June – Stamped brass anchors are established for the shoulder straps of gardes-marine of the Naval Cadet Corps.


1832 5 October – Canes are introduced for officers and non-commissioned officers of Marine Artillery companies.


1832 3 November – Small cross-stripes (“lychki”) of narrow tape are introduced on the shoulder straps of navy non-commissioned officers.


1833 8 February – Swordknots are withdrawn from gardes-marine and cadets of the Naval Cadet Corps, leaving them only for sergeants.


1833 16 October – Permission is given to officers of the Corps of Ship Engineers to wear the uniforms prescribed for officers of the Marine Artillery Corps.


1834 20 December – For the lower ranks of bard équipages is introduced a dark-green forage cap with white piping around the band, and for lower ranks of labor équipages—a dark-green forage cap with ab black band and red piping. On the bands of these forage caps are the équipage numbers in white cloth.


1835 30 April – Guards sapper short swords are introduced for the non-commissioned officers of barge and labor équipages.


1835 23 July – It is ordered to have red piping around the top edge of the black collars of coats in naval labor équipages, and to have dark-green cloth cuffs and cuff flaps. A table of uniform items is introduced for lower ranks in barge and labor équipages.


1835 24 July – It is ordered that the coat collars of the Instructional Naval Labor Équipage be of black cloth with red piping.


1836 11 March – A table of uniform clothing items is confirmed for pilots: gray forage cap with dark-green band and red piping; simple coat [kaftan] with gray cloth girdle, dark-green collar and red piping around the top of the collar; tin chest badge; gray bants; black neckcloth; gray greatcoat with dark-green collar and red piping around the top of the collar; boots; linen summer pants.


1836 15 April – Conductors of the Corps of Naval Navigators and Ship Engineers are allowed to wear moustaches.


1837 18 March – For the shakos of naval équipages and Marine Artillery Corps brigades a new plate in introduced, with anchors and the équipage or brigade number. Cords are removed from officers’ shakos, but silver cord with a tassel is put around the upper edge (for senior-grade officers this tassel has thick braid).


1843 11 June – For lower ranks in the Naval Cadet Corps the canvas cloaks are replaced by cloth and canvas greatcoats.


1843 12 June – For officers of the Caspian Flotilla white linen covers are confirmed for the forage cap with visor.


1843 24 November – Flannel shirts in 14 colored variations are introduced for oarsmen in the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets.


1843 25 November – Galloon and tape cross-stripes are introduced to be sewn onto lower ranks’ shoulder straps according to rank.


1843 2 December – In the Guards and naval équipages English signal bugles are introduced in place of horns.


1844 25 March – The standard naval shako is granted to personnel of the Naval Cadet Corps (with a corps front plate).


1844 5 May – It is ordered to have white piping around the upper edge of the forage cap.


1844 9 September – A shako with plume is confirmed for personnel of the Guards Équipage.


1845 7 February – A cockade is introduced for the shako, affixed just above the plate under the crown, to that the center of the cockade aligns with the center of the crown.


1850 22 May – Regulations for admirals’, generals’, and senior and junior-grade officers’ shakos are confirmed.


1850 29 April – When transferred from the Guards Équipage it is permitted to wear the équipage uniform.


1851 25 April – For oarsmen in steamship divisions flannel shirts with dark-blue collars and white edges are introduced.


1851 10 July – Uniforms are confirmed for personnel serving on vessels of the Russian-American Company.


1851 5 November – Students in the conductor company of the 1st Navigator Half-Équipage were prescribed new uniforms: the half-équipage’s shako; on the coat—red cloth shoulder straps with white anchors; short swords of the pattern for cadets (sergeants and senior non-commissioned officers wore them with silver swordknots); overcoat of dark-green cloth with shoulder straps of the same color, on which were affixed white anchors.


1852 15 February – Barge équipages and the Astrakhan Barge Company are ordered to wear the naval uniform without piping on the collar and with white appointments. The white field on the epaulettes was replaced by black cloth with the embroidered number of the équipage, or for the Astrakhan Barge Company—the letter A. Port companies and admiralty personnel were ordered to wear the former barge équipage uniform. The epaulette field for port company personnel was to be white (with the Cyrillic letter P and the embroidered company number), and for Admiralty personnel—black (without a number).


1852 14 March – Court physicians (leib-khirurg, pochetnyi leib-medik, andleib-khirurg dvora) from the navy are given a Guards plate for the shako and shoulder straps of thick silver general-officer’s braid. The same shoulder straps are permitted to be worn by the general-staff-doctor of the navy, his assistant, the chief doctor of the Black Sea Fleet, medical inspectors in ports, and chief doctors of naval hospitals, if these persons have a rank no lower than actual state councilor.


1852 31 December – Persons awarded a gold weapon are ordered to have a gold handle on the dagger and the inscription “For Courage.”


1853 1 May – Navy clerks are ordered to have letters on the shoulder straps of the greatcoat and frock coat, and also on the band of the forage cap.


1853 21 July – Non-commissioned officers and gardes-marine in the Naval Cadet Corps are allowed to sew gold galloon stripes on the greatcoat’s shoulder straps.


1854 4 April – Pea coats [bushlaty] were introduced for lower ranks in place of canvas greatcoats.


1854 31 October – Shoulder straps of plaited silver braid are confirmed for navy doctors of senior-grade officer rank, for junior-grade ranks—of unplaited silver braid, and for doctors’ assistants—of dark-green cloth. White piping on the pants is abolished for navy doctors.


1855 24 January – Red piping on the cuffs and cuff flaps is introduced for officers and conductors of the Corps of Ship Engineers.


1855 9 February – Officers in shore batteries are allowed to wear soldiers’ greatcoats.


1855 8 March – Silver aiguilettes are confirmed for rear-admirals of the suite.


1855 23 March – Half-tunics [polukaftany] are introduced in place of tailcoats: double-breasted with eight buttons on each side, diagonally open collar closed with one small hook; double-breasted with six buttons on each side, with a rounded collar closed by two small hooks. Dark-green cloth sharovary pants are introduced in place of the pantalon pants.


1855 14 April – Uniforms are confirmed for civilian officials under the naval administration: hat (for actual state councilors and above); sharovary pants with galloon (state councilors and above); shako (state councilor and below); half-tunic; sharovary pants; saber with swordbelt; dagger with belt; cockade on the shako and forage cap.


1855 21 April – Sapper short swords with a blunt scabbard end are introduced for non-commissioned officers and musicians of the Guards Équipage.


1855 29 April – It is permitted to have silver and order-ribbon swordknots on the half-saber. On gold naval sabers it is ordered to inscribe “For Courage” on the hilt’s two arches.


1855 8 May – Black velvet shoulder straps with a red edge are established for conductors and cadets of the 1st Navigators Half-Équipage. For students in the conductor companies of the Instructional Naval Labor Équipage there are introduced a black velvet collars with red piping and red shoulder straps.


1855 17 May – Monogram chest badges of the late Emperor Nicholas I are introduced for general-adjutants, generals and admirals of the suite, and aides-de-camp.


1855 4 June – A double-breasted cloak of dark-green cloth is confirmed for navy officers. In winter the cloak is allowed to be worn with a fur collar.


1855 11 June – It is ordered that when lower ranks are in white pants, officers are to wear white sharovary pants.


1855 21 September – Engineers of the naval construction section are allowed to wear infantry sabers.


1855 22 September – Participants in the defense of Sevastopol are awarded an inscription on the shako: “For Sevastopol from 13 September 1854 to 27 August 1855.”


1855 17 October – An infantry shako with red pompon is introduced for engineers of the naval construction branch.


1855 10 November – The uniforms of navy civilian officials are changed.


1855 12 November – Buttons with two crossed spades and the company number are established for officers and lower ranks of military labor companies of the naval construction branch. For officers and lower ranks of the Baltic Machine Labor Équipage there are introduced buttons with a raised numeral 1, and for the Black Sea Macine Labor Équipage—the numeral 2. For officers and lower ranks buttons are introduced with an anchor and crossed axes.


1855 25 November – New uniforms are confirmed for navy lower ranks: the shako as before with the addition of an iron cockade with one white, two orange, and two black circles; double-breasted half-tunic, with six and eight buttons; cloth pants and summer (linen) pants; cloth sharovary pants (winter) and summer sharovary (linen); belt with frog (instead of swordbelt); forage cap with cockade and chinstrap; boots.


1855 2 December – Instead of the shako a forage cap is introduced, with a badge (the wearing of which was discontinued in 1857), oval iron cockade, and white piping around the top. Shakos were kept for personnel of the Naval Cadet Corps, Black Sea Garde-Marine Company, 1st Navigator Half-Équipage, Black Sea Navigator Company, conductor companies of the Instructional Naval Labor Équipage, Guards Équipage, couriers of the Ministry of the Navy and staffs of main commanders of ports, and all orderlies. For the shako there was introduced an oval cockade with one white, two orange, and two black circles, fastened to the upper part of the shako.


1855 13 December – Admirals, generals, and officers are allowed to wear the forage cap without the badge (with only the cockade).


1855 30 December – Changes were made to the uniforms of navy admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers, and of civilian officials in the Guards Équipage.


1856 7 May – Students at naval educational establishments are permitted to wear white linen shirts in summertime. To distinguish them from navy lower ranks, these shirts were girded with colored cords (replaced by narrow belts).


1856 2 August – For personnel of the Guards and naval équipages, sapper shortswords were replaced by boarding cutlasses.


1856 24 November – Lower ranks and officers in the Naval Cadet Corps were ordered to wear the forage cap without a badge and always with a visor.


1857 15 April – Navy personnel were ordered to wear a round cockade on the forage cap instead of oval.


1857 19 June – The navy was ordered to wear hats instead of the forage cap with badge.


1857 31 July – An order was issued that eagles on all uniforms were to be with raised wings.


1857 31 October – Retired admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers are ordered to wear uniforms without shoulder straps or epaulettes.


1857 7 December – For all personnel, sapper and artillery shortswords are replaced with boarding cutlasses.


1858 9 January – White plaited cords are introduced for the shoulder straps of lower ranks to mark leave status: one cord—temporary leave, two cords—indefinite leave.


1858 9 March – Boatswains and sergeants are allowed to carry officers’ sabers.


1858 11 April – Greatcoats are again introduced instead of pea coats for navy lower ranks and students in naval educational institutions.


1858 18 April – A new uniform is established for St.-Petersburg pilots: round hat with a wide brim and black ribbon with the Cyrillic inscription LOTSMAN; dark-green forage cap with visor and chinstrap; loose half-tunic; waist belt; dark-green (winter) and white (summer) pants; neckcloth; greatcoat; boots.


1858 25 April – Consequent to their receiving revolvers and officers’ sabers, boatswains and sergeants no longer have galloon stripes sewn onto their sleeves.


1858 22 May – The variously colored shirts of oarsmen are abolished.


1858 12 July – The officer’s linen coat [polotnyanik] is introduced.


1858 22 December – For personnel of the His Imperial Majesty the General-Admiral’s 1st Naval Équipage a monogram K with crown is introduced for shoulder straps and epaulettes.


1859 28 February – Half-tunics and undress half-tunics are replaced by full dress and undress coats Officers’ frock coats are introduced.


1860 20 February – Équipage, company, and command numbers on shoulder straps and epaulettes are removed.


1861 23 April – Epaulettes with silvered edges and silver fringe are established for navy medical officials.


1861 29 April – Shoulder straps with white backing are introduced in place of shoulder cords for navy medical officials.


1862 20 March – Camel-hair cloth hoods [bashlyki] are introduced.


1862 9 November – Officer who have completed the Higher Officer Class at the Naval Cadet Corps are permitted to wear aiguilettes.


1863 2 December – Shoulder straps are established for naval civilian officials.


1864 25 May – Officers’ greatcoats began to be made with collars folding down.


1865 20 November – A black leather holster is established.


1866 15 February – An order was issued to wear revolvers in holster on the thigh at the side rather than at the back. Revovler holsters are introduced for sergeants of the Naval Cadet Corps.


1866 21 June – Graduates of the Higher Officer Course are given a special breast badge in place of aiguilettes.


1867 13 May – Standard naval shoulder straps, but with white backing, are introduced for personnel at the Naval Cadet Corps. Lower ranks began to wear naval uniform, but with white shoulder straps.


1867 25 December – The embroidered eagles on the shoulder straps and epaulettes of naval generals are withdrawn and replaced by stars.


1869 31 May – Shoulder straps are removed from the cloaks and greatcoats of navy doctors and civilian officials.


1869 14 October – A lacquered black hat is introduced for lower ranks.


1870 13 October – A frock coat with a fold-down collar (civilian pattern) is confirmed.


1872 12 January – Single-breasted dress coats are introduced, closed with eight buttons.


1872 15 January – The St.-Andrew cross on the eagles on shoulder straps and epaulettes began to be embroidered in sky-blue thread.


1872 8 March – For navy lower ranks a dark-green forage cap without a visor is introduced, with a black ribbon around the band and a cockade on the crown.


1872 14 July – Lower rank’s lacquered black hats are withdrawn. Fitted shirts with horizontal white and dark-blue stripes are introduced.


1872 8 November – Inscriptsions are confirmed for the ribbons on lower ranks’ headdresses.


1873 3 February – Plumes and St.-Andrew stars on the headdress badges are given to the Guards Équipage.


1874 12 March – The shoulder straps of navy junkers (yunkera, or volunteers) began to be edged with white-orange-black cord.


1874 20 August – Naval personnel are allowed to wear beards (except in the Guards Équipage and tsar’s suite).


1875 1 January – A regulation is issued concering the supplying of uniform items and accouterments to navy units.


1876 14 March – Shoulder braid made from silver headdress cord is prescribed for civilian officials in place of shoulder straps.


1876 27 November -An officer’s overcoat is introduced, black with a fold-down collar and shoulder straps.


1877 18 June – For navy civilian officials, shoulder straps are introduced in place of shoulder cords.


1878 8 July – For their participation in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, lower ranks of the Guards Équipage were awarded St.-George ribbons for their peakless caps.


1879 13 January – Queen Olga Konstantinovna of Greece is named Honorary Colonel of the 2nd Naval Équipage. Her monogram was put on the shoulder straps and epaulettes of officers, and lower ranks’ shoulder straps had the letter O painted in yellow, instead of the numeral 2.


1879 14 July – For lower ranks of the internal firewatch [vnutrennii brandvakht] an oval badge was introduced for wear on the left side of the chest.


1881 21 February – Dark-blue flannel shirts, white shirts, and work clothing was established for lower ranks in the Guards Équipage. The dark-blue cuffs and collar on the white shirts had three narrow white stripes.


1882 1 January – The same shirts and work clothing as for the Guards Équipage were introduced for all navy lower ranks.


1885 18 May – Except for medical officials, shoulder straps, epaulettes, and embroidery were abolished for navy civilian officials. Rank began to be distinguished through embroidered stars on coat collars.


1885 18 October – Retired admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers were allowed to wear shoulder straps and epaulettes.


1887 26 December – In memory of the defense of Sevastopol, St.-George ribbons for the peakless cap were awarded to lower ranks of Black Sea and Caspian équipages.


1891 3 March – Sewn-on sleeve insignia to designate naval specialites were introduced for lower ranks.


1892 31 March – Shoulder straps were established for the navy’s ship engineers and engineer-mechanics.


1893 12 June – A special uniform is introduced for retired admirals, generals, and officers.


1894 22 February – A table of uniform clothing is confirmed for students at the Naval Cadet Corps: dark-green forage cap with white piping, cockade, silk ribbon with the Cyrillic inscription MORSKOI KADETSKII KORPUS (with a visor for sergeants); white cover; camel-hair cloth hood; dark-gray greatcoat with dark-green collar tabs and white shoulder straps; dark-green dress coat with pants of the pattern for the Guards Équipage.


1894 7 June – For convenience, the orders of dress for lower ranks are assigned numbers (№ 1, № 2, and № 3).


1895 28 December – Metal insignia are introduced for the collars of conductors’ dress coats and overcoats, showing their naval specialities.


1900 21 December – Bayonets with scabbards are confirmed for lower ranks in place of boarding cutlasses (these were retained only by students at the Naval Cadet Corps and Emperor Nicholas I Naval Engineering School).


1901 9 December – Capes [plashch-nakidki] were introduced for navy officers, black with a hood and no shoulder straps.


1902-1910 – Sailors are allowed to go about with their dark-blue collars over the pea coat.


1904 27 September – To mark the birth of the tsarevich Alexei, all naval personnel are given the right to wear buttons with the image of a two-headed eagle.


1906 18 February – Conductors in the navy who had been prescribed daggers were ordered to have officers’ sabers without a swordknot.


1907 26 April – A sash with buckle is introduced for admirals and officers.


1907 5 May – Conductors in the navy are ordered to wear an officer’s cockade on the band of the forage cap.


1908 26 January – A waistbelt with buckle is introduced of navy lower ranks.


1909 25 January – The officers’ sash is prescribed for navy doctors.


1910 25 January – The dark-blue smock is confirmed.


1911 30 May – A dark-gray cloth overcoat is introduced (the grayish black color called marengo).


1911 3 August - For convenience, the orders of dress for officers are assigned numbers (№ 1 - № 13).


1912 2 August – The breast pockets of lower ranks’ work cloths began to have their section numbers stenciled onto them, as determined by ships’ rosters.


1913 28 March – Naval engineer-mechanics are prescribed a dress coat and frock coat with red edging on the cuffs, epaulettes with a black lining, shoulder straps (gold) with a black lining and red piping.


1913 3 June – Uniforms are introduced for the Finland Pilots and Lighthouses Administration.


1913 18 June – Sports uniforms are confirmed for naval personnel.


1913 1 August – For conductors in the navy metal insignia is introduced for the shoulder straps (instead of on the collars of the dress coat and overcoat). For re-enlisted personnel chevrons are introduced, to be worn on the left sleeve of the dress coat, overcoat, greatcoat, and dark-blue flannel shirt.


1914 28 February – It is ordered to have the monogram of the monarch in whose reign an officer was first commissioned on the hilts and blades of sabers, daggers, and swords.


1914 16 August – Gardes-marine of the Separate Garde-Marine Classes are prescribed the uniforms of the Naval Corps, but with black shoulder straps and the Cyrillic inscription on the ribbon GARDEMARINSKIE KLASSY.


1914 30 October – Black shoulder straps with an anchor are introduced for navy gardes-marine, trimmed around with white-orange-black cord.


1914 20 November – Personnel of the Naval Corps are granted the monogram of the heir and tsesarevich Alexei for epaulettes and shoulder straps, and on the ribbons of the visorless cap there is the Cyrillic inscription MORSKOI E.I.V. NASL. TSESAR. KORP.


1915 7 February – For the shoulder straps of aviation conductors [officer candidates] there is introduced metal insiginia in the form of an anchor and wings.


1917 16 April – Uniform changes are confirmed: shoulder straps and the sash are discontinued; monograms on weapons are abolished; the cockade on headgear is altered; sleeve stripes are introduced.


1917 30 May – Ribbon bars for orders are introduced.

 

 

Illustrations for the chronological table of the evolution of Russian naval uniforms:


Page 186. Sailor, 1711. This sailor is dressed in a bostrog jacket and pants made from grey cloth, black shoes with brass buckles, stockings, and a hat. Such a uniform, adopted from Dutch sailors’ dress, was given to naval lower ranks on 1 April 1711. From old drawings and engravings depicting naval scenes, it can be seen that the uniforms of naval personnel in the Petrine navy were distinguished by their great variety. Very often the color of the uniform was determined by what color material was available in the cloth warehouses. Thus, in 1719 jackets were sewn from cornflower blue, sky blue, or black cloth, while breeches were gray. Clothing could differ in cut, the number of buttons, the configuration and dimensions of the cuffs, flaps, etc. In the same year of 1719 sailors wore dark-blue stockings.

Page 188. Senior cadet [gardemarin], 1723. From 1716 to 1752 and from 1860 to 1882, the title of gardemarin existed as a combatant rank, and during the remaining periods it was used for students of the senior classes in naval educational institutions. In 1723 Peter I established for gardemariny uniform clothing identical to that of soldiers in the Life-Guards Preobrazhenskii Regiment, except for the color of the stockings and neck cloth. Thepersonal weapons of a gardemarin consisted of a musket and sword.

Page 190. Officer of marine artillery, 1732. This was the first uniform for officers in the navy. Artillery officers wore a red coat with dark-blue cuffs, trimmed down the front opening, cuffs, and cuff flaps with straight gold galloon. Fleet officers had the same uniform but in cornflower blue (dark blue). However, only the more well-to-do officers of the Baltic Fleet could have made for themselves the first officially confirmed uniform.

Page 192. Navy mid-grade officer, 1735. In this year mid-grade officers of the fleet were given a green coat with red cuffs, collar, and lining, and red breeches and waistcoat. The coat was trimmed with gold galloon. Junior officers wore the same coat except without galloon. All officers were prescribed black leather gaiters, but in parade dress—red stockings and shoes with brass buckles.

Page 194. Navy mid-grade officer, 1745. Under Elizabeth Petrovna naval officers’ uniforms underwent a thorough change: from 12 June 1745 there were introduced white coats and pants, while the waistcoat was made from green cloth. The coat’s collar and cuffs were green. Mid-grade officers were prescribed one row of gold galloon sewn along the front openings of both the coat and waistcoat, collar, cuffs, and pocket flaps. The front opening of the coat of a flag officer, i.e. admiral, was trimmed with two rows of rich gold galloon, and along the pocket flaps and seams—with one row. Junior officers’ coats had no galloon. For junior officers the black hat was trimmed around the edges with gold galloon and had a cockade of white tape. For mid-grade and flag officers it was additionally adorned with white plumage.

Page 196. Garde-marine, 1752. The Naval Noble Cadet Corps was established by a Highest ukase of 15 December 1752 as the successor to the Moscow School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences and the St.-Petersburg Naval Guards Academy. gardes-marine were included in the authorized strength of the corps. Their uniform consisted of a green coat, green pants, and white waistcoat. The lining, collar, and cuffs of the coat were of white cloth. The collar was decorated with gold galloon. For everyday wear gardes-marine were given frock coats of green soldier cloth with a white collar and white cuffs. When in formation the cadets had muskets with accouterments and a shortened saber.

Page 198. Sailor, 1764. Under Catherine II naval clothing kept some of the characteristics of the uniforms of the Petrine era. One of the variations in naval lower ranks’ clothing consisted of a striped jacket with standing collar that had been in use since Peter I’s time, a black thick felt hat, white pants, and black boots. At this same time sailors wore a white waistcoat with green cuffs and lapels. The cut of the waistcoat was similar to that of the jacket. A sailor’s working dress consisted of a loose shirt worn over the jacket. In cold weather sailors wore a cloak.

Page 200. Navy mid-grade officer, 1764. Officers’ white and green uniforms were continued under Catherine II. The white coat began to be made with green lapels and somewhat shorter green cuffs. The waistcoat and pants were of green cloth. Gold galloon was sewn down the front opening of mid-grade officers’ waistcoats and on the pocket flaps: for 1st-rank captains – wide and narrow; for 2nd-rank captains – one wide row down the front, wide and narrow on the pocket flaps; for captain-lieutenants – one narrow row down the front. A captain with rank equivalent to major general had a waistcoat trimmed with galloon as for a 1st-rank captain with the addition of one admiral’s button sewn onto each cuff. For ships’ officers a early type of shoulder strap was introduced for wear on the left shoulder. It was a strap made from twisted cord with a small gold or silver tassel. The white plumage disappeared from the hats of mid-grade officers, but the gold galloon and cockade of white cloth were retained.

Page 202. Vice-admiral, 1764. Admirals’ coats and waistcoats were trimmed down the front opening and on the cuffs and pocket flaps with gold embroidery in the form of stylized oak leaves. This same tracery style of embroidery, but in smaller size, went around the hat, which was further adorned with white plumage and a cockade of white silk ribbon. A rear-admiral’s coat was trimmed with a double row of oak leaves, and one large (admiral’s) button was sewn onto each cuff. A vice-admiral’s coat initially was trimmed with one row of oak leaves and later with two rows with a small space between them. Two buttons were sewn onto each cuff of a vice-admiral’s coat. The coat of a full admiral at first was trimmed with one row of oak leaves and later with two double rows with small spaces between them. The cuffs of this coat had three buttons.

Page 204. Navy petty officer, 1796. After Paul I’s ascension to the throne naval petty officers received a uniform of a new pattern: dark-green coat with small standing collar, white waistcoat and pants. The coat had dark-green cuffs with cuff flaps of the same color, to which were sewn a kind of insignia. Officers of the 1st Division had white sewn-on stripes, of the 2nd—dark blue or sky blue, and of the 3rd—red. The squadron was indicated by the presence or absence of small tassels on the cuff flaps: in the 1st Squadron they wore loosely hanging tassels, in the 2nd—closely sewn tassels, and in the 3rd—no tassels. Petty officers wore a black hat, white deerskin gloves, black shoes, and carried a shortened saber and a cane. Besides these, they were authorized a working dress: waistcoat of ticking and a holland shirt. Sailors continued to wear the 1764-pattern uniform but with sewn-on stripes as for petty officers.

Page 206. Navy officer, 1796. A Highest Ukase of Paul I prescribed a single uniform for all naval officers, with insignia to show attachment to divisions and squadrons. The uniform consisted of a dark-green coat with a white fold-down collar, white waistcoat, and white pants. The black hat was trimmed with gold galloon and had a cockade of ribbon that was black with an orange edge. All officers carried a sword with a silver sword knot. In the 1st Division the stripes sewn onto the cuff flaps were gold, in the 2nd—silver, and in the 3rd—silver-gold. Officers of the 1st Squadron attached small loosely hanging tassels to the cuff flaps, in the 2nd Squadron—closely sewn tassels, and in the 3rd—officers did not sewn on any tassels. Personnel in the galley fleet did not have sewn-on stripes.

Page 208. Navy junior officer, 1801. After Alexander I’s ascension to the throne the naval officer’s external appearance noticeably changed. A tailcoat [frachnyi mundir] of dark-green cloth had a high white standing open collar, and small cuffs with flaps on which were embroidered two gold anchors (in the galley fleet the anchors were embroidered in silver thread). White piping appeared on the cuffs, flaps, and skirt turnbacks. The waistcoat and long pants were of white cloth. An admiral’s coat had embroidery on the collar: for a rear-admiral—one anchor, for a vice-admiral—two, and for full admirals—three. On the black hat, called a bicorne [dvuugolka], there was a gold buttonhole loop and a cockade of black-orange ribbon. Mid-grade officers and admirals also affixed a plume of ostrich feathers while junior officers had a plain plume [prostoi sultan].

Page 210. Captain-commodore, 1803. In 1803 the cut and color of the coat was kept but the white color of the collar and the white piping were taken away. On a dark-green standing collar appeared gold embroidery in the form of an anchor fouled with rope. Three anchors were embroidered in gold thread on dark-green cuff flaps. Along the edge of the collar and on the cuffs admirals’ coats had embroidery in the form of one straight and three intertwined ropes. For officers and flag officers shoulder straps were introduced, with rounded corners and trimmed with a gold fringe. Three black eagles were embroidered on the gold epaulettes of admirals, two on vice-admirals’, and one on rear-admirals’. Captain-commodores, with admirals’ embroidery on the collar and cuffs, had gold shoulder straps without eagles. 1st and 2nd-rank captains had these same shoulder straps, but captain-lieutenants had them only on the left shoulder. Lieutenants wore dark-green cloth shoulder straps framed around with gold lace, and midshipmen did not have shoulder straps. The long pants again began to be made from dark-green cloth. The white plume disappeared from the hat.

Page 212. Navy junior officer, 1812. From this year the gold epaulettes introduced in 1807 began to have colored fields: in the Guards Équipage – red, in fleet équipages – dark green, in galley équipages – light green, in barge équipages – white, and in the artillery – black. The headdress was simplified as the cockade became round and the buttonhole was made of plain galloon. Since February of 1811 naval officers began to replace their épees with sabers with a guard of three arches and a silver sword knot. The saber was carried on a black leather sword belt worn over the right shoulder.

Page 214. Petty officer of a barge équipage [lastovyi ekipazh], 1812. In the reign of Alexander I the uniforms for lower ranks underwent thorough changes. From May of 1802 sailors began to be issued a dark-green coat with an open standing collar and similarly colored pants. Flaps with three buttons were sewn onto the cuffs. A black headdress of half-felt had a cylindrical shape. In 1811 there was introduced a forage cap with white piping and no visor. Personnel in barge équipages had white shoulder straps and white metal appointments, with petty officers’ coats having galloon sewn along the edge of the collar and around the cuffs. In 1812 the height of the standing collar was reduced a little and it became closed.

Page 216. Navy senior-grade officer, 1844. Since 1825 the officer’s coat was single-breasted with nine buttons. The closed standing collar had gole embroidery in the form of ropes curled around an anchor. During the years of Nicholas I’s reign the embroidery design for the collar became more dense, and the epaulettes became larger and heavier. Since 1830 small stars to distinguish the ranks of naval personnel were introduced for the epaulettes, but admirals kept their eagle embroidered in black thread. In 1826 a shako was introduced for navy officers which after a series of alterations by 1844 was made of lacquered black leather and had the form of upwards tapering cylinder. From 16 January 1830 the buttons had national and naval symbols.

Page 218 – Sailor in port companies, 1851. In these years the lower ranks’ uniform was a dark-green jacket without tails, with a standing collar and shoulder straps, dark-green pants, forage cap without a visor, and black shoes. Sailors in port companies had white shoulder straps with a black number indicating the company.

Page 220 – Junior-grade officer, barge équipage, 1852. The uniform for barge équipage officers differed from that for naval équipage officers in not having embroidery on the collar and cuff flaps, and having white metal appointments. For barge équipage officers the field of the epaulette was white, with rank indicated by the number of small stars; one small star denoted the rank of ensign [praporshchik]. From 15 February 1852 the epaulette’s white field was changed to black cloth.

Page 222 – Navy junior-grade officer, 1858. After the ascension of Alexander II to the throne and the end of the Crimean War, the officer’s tailcoat was withdrawn and dark-green double-breasted half-tunics introduced, closed with six buttons. The new coat had a low standing collar with embroidery in the form of a fouled anchor. For fleet officers the embroidery thread was gold but for engineers and navigators—silver. In 1858 navy officers were given a white linen coat [polotnyanik] of the same pattern as the half-tunic, for wear during the warm part of the year. Since 1843 the forage cap had been worn with a white cover in summer. Officers’ pants remained dark-green and of the previous pattern.

Page 224 – Cadet, Naval Corps, 1860. Class uniform for cadets at the Naval Corps consisted of a single-breasted jacket closed with nine buttons, dark-green pants, and a dark-green forage cap with white piping. Distinguishing elements were the white shoulder straps and the company designated on the cap band.

Page 226 – Cadet, Naval Corps, 1860. Summer uniform for cadets at the Naval Corps consisted of a white linen smock without shoulder straps and white pants. The forage cap was worn with a white cover.

Page 228 – Navy junior-grade officer, 1870. In this year a dark-green frock coat of a so-called civilian pattern was introduced for navy officers. The frock coat was made with a fold-down collar and open lapels, and during its years of use the size of the lapels, their angle and width, the location of the waistline, and other details varied. The frock coat was worn with either shoulder straps or epaulettes. Under the frock coat was worn a dark-green double-breasted or white single-breasted vest, which in turn was worn over a white shirt. This drawing shows a fleet midshipman in the frock coat at the beginning of the 20th century. At this time it was traditional to tailor the coat from black cloth in a narrower and longer pattern, with a reduced size collar and small lapels.

Page 230 – Sailor, 1872. A sailor’s shipboard uniform consisted of a white (dark-blue) shirt with dark-blue collar and dark-blue cuffs, dark-green pants, black hat, and black shoes. On the cuffs was sewn one whide stripe of white tape, and on the collar—one wide and one narrow stripe. The round black oilskin hat with wide brim began to be worn by lower ranks from 19 July 1857, and from 1870 there was a black silk ribbon on lower ranks’ hats.

Page 232 – Sailor, 1882. From January 1882 sailors of naval équipages began to be issued a dark-blue (white) flannel shirt with a dark-blue collar with three white stripes along its edge. The white shirt with the same collar had dark-blue cuffs with three white stripes. From 1872 there were peakless caps with three white lines of piping and a black silk ribbon on the cap band with the name of the ship (unit). In that same year there appeared the so-called body-shirt [tel’nyashka]—a white form-fitting shirt with horizontal dark-blue stripes. At first the white bands were noticeably wider than the dark-blue stripes.

Page 234 – Sailor, 1890. This is how a sailor appeared when on guard duty and landing expeditions. The single-breasted shortenend overcoat which appeared in 1874 had a fold-down collar, was closed with six buttons, and was worn in cold weather. Later this overcoat [pal’to] received the name of pea coat [bushlat]. In what was called guard or landing dress the black sailor pants were tucked into the boots. From 1908 sailors began to wear a waistbelt with plate buckle, put on over the pea coat.

Page 236 – Vice-admiral, 1899. From 1855 admirals’ dress coats were double-breasted with a standing collar and closed with either six or eight buttons. On coats with eight buttons, the collar had a diagonal opening and embroidery in the form of oak leaves under which was sewn an anchor entwined with cables. The coat with six buttons had a collar with rounded corners and embroidery in the form of an anchor thickly entwined wth cables. Headdress was the so-called tricorn with a round cockade and a buttonhole loop of thick braid.

Page 238 – Non-commissioned officer, Guards Équipage, 1911. The uniform for Guards Équipage lower ranks was distinguished from that for lower ranks in the fleet by white piping on the coat’s collar and cuffs, yellow tape buttonhole loops on the collar and cuffs, St.-George ribbon on the peakless cap, and—introduced in 1911 for the 100th year jubilee of the Guards Équipage—a badge in the form of a Kulm cross [Prussian Iron Cross – M.C.] with the emperor’s monogram. The non-commissioned officer’s coat had gold galloon on the cuffs and cross-stripes on the red cloth shoulder straps.

Page 240 – Sailor, 1912. From 1882 sailors began to be issued word clothing (rabochee pla’te, shortened to roba) of thin white canvas. The dark-blue collar with three white stripes was let out over the shirt, and from 1912 the breast pocket began to bear a stenciled number corresponding to ranking on the ship’s roster. By the beginning of the First World War the undershirt’s dark-blue and white stripes were the same width.

Page 241 – 1st rank captain, 1917. An order by the Provisional Government brought substantial changes to the uniforms of navy officers: shoulder straps and buttons were abolished and the pattern for the forage cap was changed. Forage caps began to be made without white piping and with straight flat visors. Instead of a lacquered black leather chinstrap there was a gols cord, and the previous cockade was replaced by a shield or metal cockade in the form of a circle with an anchor surrounded by leaves and topped with a five-pointed star. Rank was distinguished by the number and width of stripes sewn onto the sleeve. The stripes could be gold, silver, or even of black lace. The front opening, pockets, and collar of the smock were trimmed with black lace, and on the left sleeve a fouled anchor was embroidered in red thread. The smock was closed by small hooks instead of buttons.

Page 242 – Sailor, 1917. The Provisional Government did not manage to issue orders changing the uniforms of lower ranks. Shoulder straps were torn off the old uniforms, the center of the cockade was painted over in red, and on the left sleeve was a fouled anchor embroidered in red thread.

 

 

 

Appendix 4

Short glossary

 

Aksel’bant - Аксельбант (Aiguilette) - Plaited from round matte gold or silver twisted cord, worn as a decoration on the rifht shoulder in the form of two loops and two ends with pointed metal tips. The color of the tips corresponded to the color of the aiguilette. The ends had a two-headed eagle and a laurel wreath, and suite aiguilettes had the emperor’s monogram in place of the wreath.

 

Bason – Басон (Passement) – Wool or cotton lace-like braid, used as sewn-on trim or stripes to indicate  rank among enlisted personnel.

 

Bashlyk – Башлык (Hood) – A capuchon of camel-hair cloth with two long ends. The bashlyk is trimmed along the seams of the cowl with gold or silver soutache, according to the color of the uniform’s appointments, and along the edges with worsted lace the same color as the bashlyk itself. When the bashlyk is worn hanging at the back, its ends are pushed through under the overcoat’s shoulder straps and laid crosswise, the left end over the right, and passed under the waistbelt.

 

Beskozyrka – Бескозырка (Visorless cap) – A headdress for naval lower ranks that came into wide use in the early 19th century. From 1872 there was a ribbon around its band with the name of the ship, educational institution, équipage, or unit.

 

Bushlat – Бушлат (Pea coat) – A shortened overcoat that appeared in the Russian navy in 1854 as a sailor’s coat.

 

Vits-mundir - Виц-мундир (Undress coat) – Differed from the dress coat in its lack of embroidery on the collar and cuffs. By the beginning of the 20th century the undress coat, also called the civilian pattern frock coat, was tailored with a fold-down collar and closed with four buttons. Along with the undress coat was worn a narrow cravatte of flat black silk material.

 

Vypushka – Выпушка (Piping) – Colored trim along the edges of the shoulder straps, collar, coat’s front opening, forage cap, used as a distinguishing feature in its own right.

 

Galloon – Галун (Galloon lace) – Braid or lace made from threads of gold, silver, brass, or metal alloy on a wool or silk foundation. From 1745 it was sewn onto uniforms to distinguish naval ranks. Until this time it was used to decorate uniforms. Galloon sewn onto a sleeve with a pointed angle denotes extended-service personnel and called a chevron.

 

Garda – Гарда (Guard) – The part of the handle of a sword or other bladed weapon that serves to protect the hand.

 

Garus – Гарус (Wool cord) – Worsted cord. Aiguilettes and lower ranks’ swordknots are made from this material.

 

Yepancha – Епанча (Cloak) – Sleeveless cloak used as a winter clothing item before the appearance of the overcoat (pea coat) and greatcoat.

 

Zhilet – Жилет (Gilet, vest) – Worn under the dress coat or undress coat. Sewn from dark-green cloth and white linen or wool with two rows of buttons, fold-down collar and lapels, or with one row of buttons without collar or lapels.

Kamzol – Камзол (Camisole, waistcoat) – Lengthened jacket worn in the 18th century under the coat.

 

Kanitel’ - Канитель (Braid) - Thin gold or silver thread. Found in galloon lace, coat collar embroidery, buttonhole loops, cuffs, cuff flaps, and Litzen.

 

Kaftan – Кафтан (Caftan, coat) – Outer garment worn in the 18th century as a uniform coat.

 

Kiver – Кивер (Shako) – Headdress made from hardened leather and cloth, decorated in front with cockade, St.-Andrew star, or national coat-of-arms, as well as with a plume or pompon. It had a chinstrap covered with brass scales and a black lacquered visor. Used in the navy from 1826 to 1855.

 

Kirasa – Кираса (Cuirass) – Metal armor protecting the chest and back against being struck by a cold steel weapon as well as being wounded by firearms.

 

Kitel’ - Китель (Smock) – Single-breasted short military clothing item for everyday wear with two breast and two side pockets, with a standing collar. Made from white (and called a polotnyanik), dark-blue, and khaki cloth. Closed with five buttons.

 

Klapan, Klapanets – Клапан, Клапанец (Cuff flap, collar tab) – Strip of facing cloth sewn onto the collar and cuffs of coats and greatcoats as a distinguishing element in its own right. The collar tab was also called a buttonhole loop [petlitsa, петлица].

 

Kobura - Кобура (Holster) – Leather case for the revolver, also called a chushka/чушка. The holster was worn on the right side of the waistbelt that also carried the sword.

 

Kokarda – Кокарда (Cockade) – Badge of metal, cloth, or other material, affixed to a headdress.

 

Kolodka ordenskaya – Колодка орденская (Ribbon bar for orders) – Small metal pentagonal plate wrapped with order ribbon, to the lower edge of which is affixed the order.

 

Kontr-pogonchiki – Контр-погончики (Counter-epaulette, cross-strap) – Narrow strips of gold or silver for admirals and generals and of galloon for officers, for securing epaulettes. Sewn at the tip of the shoulder on coats and frocks.

 

Kortik – Кортик (Dagger) – Steel bladed weapon of naval officers and civilian officials under the Ministry of the Navy. Consisted of a hilt (grip and crossguard), blade, and scabbard. In 1913 a dagger with a flat blade was confirmed for officers of aeronautical units.

 

Lampas – Лампас (Pants stripe) – Two wide colored, gold, or silver stripes sewn along the outside seams of pants.

 

Latskan – Латцкан (Lapel) – The turned-back front opening of an outer garment.

 

Lenta ordenskaya – Лента орденская (Order ribbon) – Moiré ribbon, colored and with a wavelike appearance, prescribed for one or another knightly order. Ribbons were of two sizes: 14 cm for wearing order insignia over the shoulder, and 2.8 cm for carrying orders at the neck or on the chest.

 

Lychka – Лычка (Rank stripes) – Galloon, tape, or lace which since 1843 served as rank insignia. It was sewn crosswise over the field of the shoulder strap.

 

Mundir – Мундир (Dress coat) – Outer garment with which is was prescribed to wear orders, arms, and parade headdress. The term also had a collective sense of the entire military uniform for officers and lower ranks.

 

Palash – Палаш (Broadsword, cutlass) – Cold steel weapon with a long straight blade. It was a weapon of lower ranks and students at naval educational institutions.

 

Pasiki – Пасики (Scabbard slings) – Two short straps fastened at one end to the swordbelt and at the other to the scabbard of a saber, broadsword, or dagger.

 

Patronnaya suma – Патронная сума (Cartridge pouch) – Leather pouch with a flap cover for protecting bullets and spare powder.

 

Patrontash – Патронташ (Cartridge carrier) – Small leather pouch for protecting ammunition.

 

Petlitsa – Петлица (Buttonhole loop) – Galloon or tape sewn over a cloth tab sewn onto the collar of a coat, overcoat, or greatcoat.

 

Pal’to, plashch-pal’to, plashch – Пальто, плащ-пальто, плащ (Paletot, overcoat, cloak-overcoat, cloak) – Wintertime overgarment with a fold-down collar. The dark-green double-breasted cloak appeared in 1855 and in 1874 a dark-gray overcoat was introduced on a trial basis, but in 1876 a black overcoat became regulation.

 

Plashch-nakidka – Плащ-накидка (Rain cape) – Outer garment of impermeable black cloth for wear in inclement weather.

 

Plyumazh – Плюмаж (Plumage) – Decoration on the hats of generals, admirals, and senior-grade officers in the 18th-19th centuries. Made from wool or feathers.

 

Pogon – Погон (Shoulder strap) – Used as a sign on the shoulder to identify arm of service and rank.

 

Pozument – Позумент (Passement) – Low quality galloon used to decorate uniforms. From 1748 it was used for rank distinctions.

 

Portupeya – Портупея (Porte-épée, swordbelt) – Accouterment for carrying a saber or dagger. It consisted of a waistbelt, buckle or plate, and two slings with carbine hooks.

 

Sablya – Сабля (Saber) – Officer’s cold steel weapon with a long and slightly curved blade.

 

Tel’nyashka – Тельняшка (Fitted shirt) – Knitted form-fitting shirt with white and dark-blue horizontal stripes. Appeared in 1872.

 

Temlyak – Темляк (Swordknot) – Leather or tape loop with a tassel, on the hilts of sabers and broadswords. There were also St.-Anne and St.-George swordknots, fastened to award swords.

 

Trost’ - Трость (Cane) – Bamboo or cane stick with a bone knob. Introduced by Paul I in 1797 and abolished in the early 19th century.


Furazhka, furazhnaya shapka – Фуражка, фуражная шапка (Forage cap) – Hat with a cockade, lacquered black leather visor or peak, and black leather chinstrap. Introduced in 1855. The colors of the band and piping are their own kind of distinctive insignia.

 

Sharovary – Шаровары (Pants) – The official name for pants [bryuki – брюки].

 

Shevron – Шеврон (Chevron, stripe) – The name for the variety of galloon and lace sewn onto the sleeves of long-service men.

 

Shinel’ - Шинель (Greatcoat) – A type of winter outer garment, gray in color with a fold-down collar and closed with six buttons. Also worn with a large unlined falling collar—really a small cape—or with a black fur collar.

 

Shtat – Штат (Trade badges) – Insignia for naval specialists in the lower ranks, sewn on the left sleeve since 1891. From 1895 senior boatswains and conductors wore this kind of insignia in metal, on the coat collar.

 

Epolety – Эполеты (Epaulettes) – Distinctive shoulder elements on the parade uniforms of generals, admirals, and officers since 1807.

 

Yamurluk – Ямурлук (Rain cloak) – Winter outer garment for lower ranks.

 

 

Bibliography.

 

  1. 1.Complete collection of laws of the Russian empire.2nd Collection, Vols. 1-55, SPb, 1833-1884. 


  2. 2.Historical account of Russian orders and compilation of order statutes. 2nd ed. SPb, 1892. 


  3. 3.Kvardri, V.V., Konarzhevskii, K.G. Russian imperial and tsarist orders: A short historical account, extracts from order statutes, and rules for wearing orders. SPb, 1901. 


  4. 4.The Russian navy. An illustrated history from the time of Peter the Great to the present, 1689-1905. From the original in the collection of N.N. Apostol. SPb, 1904. 


  5. 5.Compilation of naval regulations. Spb, 1887-1915. 


  6. 6.Dress regulations for admirals, generals, and senior and junior-grade officers of the navy. SPb, 1856. 


  7. 7.Dress regulations for military officers, medical officials, gardes-marine, conductors, and civilian officials of the navy. SPb, 1871. 


  8. 8.Dress regulations for military officers, gardes-marine, conductors, and also medical and civilian officials of the navy. SPb, 1878. 


  9. 9.Dress regulations for admirals, generals, senior and junior-grade officers, and also civilian officials of the navy, and rule for wearing orders, medals, and badges. SPb, 1884. 


  10. 10.Dress regulations for admirals, generals, senior and junior-grade officers, medical officials, and civilian officials of the navy, and also for ship engineers, fleet engineer-mechanics, engineers and technicians of the construction branch, and rules for wearing orders, medals, and badges.SPb, 1899. 


  11. 11.Illustrated description of uniforms for all naval officer ranks. Part 1. SPb, 1899. 


  12. 12.Dress regulations for officers and civilian officials of the navy: To replace the dress regulations announced in naval orders in 1899, and also the supplements and changes to these regulations. SPb, 1904. 


  13. 13.Dress regulations for officers and civilian officials of the navy: To replace sections I, II, and III of the 1909 edition of dress regulations. SPb, 1913. 


  14. 14.Ogorodnikov, S.F. Historical survey of the development and activities of the Ministry of the Navy in the 100 years of its existence (1802-1902).SPb, 1902. 


  15. 15.Veselago, F.F. Historical account of the Naval Cadet Corps with an appended list of students over 100 years.SPb, 1852. 


  16. 16.Diagrams and drawings to the Navy regulation on uniforms and accouterments.SPb, 1874. 


  17. 17.Description of the uniform clothing for personnel of the Russian navy since 1706. TsVMB. 


  18. 18.Military encyclopedia, Vols. 1-18. SPb, 1911-1915. 


  19. 19.Glinka, V.M. Russian military costume XVIII-early XIX centuries. Leningrad, “Khudozhnik RSFSR,” 1988.