(From Russkaya Armiya 1917-1920; Obmundirovanie, Znaki Razlichiya, Nagrady i Nagrudnye Znaki, by O. V. Kharitonov and V. V. Gorshkov.)
THE RUSSIAN ARMY
"KARAVELLA" PUBLISHING HOUSE
28 June 1917 (1)
Regarding the decorating of officers with soldiers' St.-George Crosses and the possibility of awarding soldiers the Order of St. George with a concurrent promotion to sublieutenant. In both cases there is a laurel wreath in the color of the order (silver or gold).
8 July 1917 (2)
A. In a change to Order No. 547 of 27-06-1917, the distinctions of shock units are as follows: on the service hat – a head of Adam [i.e. a skull – M.C.] with a laurel wreath with crossed bones. Red-black chevron, point down at the bend of the elbow; shock units—being death units—are the storm units of their regiments.
B. The revolutionary battalions, formed from volunteers from replacement units in the rear (and sometimes called death units), have black skulls and bones on drab shoulder straps.
12 July 1917 (3)
Concerning procedures for forming "death units" in troop formations.
12 July 1917 (4)
St.-George replacement infantry regiments are to be formed in Pskov, Minsk, Kiev, and Odessa for preparing storm units at the disposal of front army commanders.
All officers and soldier are knights of St.-George [kavalery=chevaliers/knights – M.C.]. Officers' shoulder straps – gold with an orange highlight and piping. The cipher "C.G ." [Cyrillic S.G. – M.C.] (Saint George); under it, the number of the unit. Along the shirt opening on the chest – St.-George lace, 1/4 [i.e. 1/4 arshins=1/2 inches wide? – M.C.]. On the cuffs and sharovary pants – orange piping. Officers have gold hussar lace, 1, [1-3/4 inches wide? – M.C.] on their sharovary pants.
Service hat – as for the 13th Military Order Dragoon Regiment. Soldiers' shoulder straps – white, trimmed with St.-George tape, with the monogram "C.G ." and the unit's number. Along the shirt's chest opening is St.-George tape. The collar tabs on the greatcoat are St.-George tape.
(1) Supreme High Command Order No. 543 of 28 June 1917.
(2) Military Department Order No. 578 of 8 July 1917.
(3) Supreme High Command Order No. 611 of 12 July 1917.
(4) Supreme High Command Order No. 800 of 12 July 1917.
UNIFORMS, ORDERS, AND INSIGNIA OF THE WHITE GUARDS ARMIES
White Guards armies used the uniforms of soldiers of the old army and also uniforms from foreign armies, delivered to the White Guards by the countries of the Entente, on which were sewn the rank insignia of the old Russian army. Clothing of non-regulation patterns was also used. White cossacks wore their traditional style of dress. In some White Guards formations (for example, in some of the units in Kolchak's army: in the forces of Ataman B.V. Annenkov and others) soldiers had distinctive uniforms. In the Volunteer Army colored service hats were introduces for so-called named regiments: black-red (crown and band) in the Kornilov Regiment, black-white – in the Markov Regiment, cherry-white – in the Drozdovskii Regiment, white-sky blue – in the Alekseev Regiment; the edging on the crown was white, on the band – white or black (on white bands).
Medal of the 1st Kuban (Ledyanyi) Campaign
Instituted in 1918. The right of wearing it was given to all officers and volunteers who took part in the Volunteer Army's march from Rostov from 19 February, 1918, to May of that year, when after a series of battles and movements through the towns of the Don and Kuban regions the army returned to the Don District, to the town of Yegorlykoskaya. Those who qualified for the medal were called first-campaigners [pervopokhodniki]. The medal is in the form of a wreath of thorns of oxidized silver. Thirty millimeters in diameter, crossed from below to the left and from above to the right with a gilded silver sword, with the handle downwards, 50 mm in length—the symbol of suffering and victory. The reverse side is smooth with the number of the medal.
The ribbon – St. George (three black and two orange stripes). In the center of the ribbon is a rosette in the national colors (white, dark blue, red). Participants in the campaign who were not in the ranks received the medal on a Vladimir ribbon (red with two black stripes). Order of the Volunteer Army No. 499 – 1918.
Jeton of the Kornilov Shock Regiment
A silver jeton, stamped, apparently a copy of the sewn-on sleeve insignia—emblems worn on the left sleeve at the shoulder. The jeton is in the form of an heraldic shield, in the center of which is depicted a death's head over two crossed bones. In its upper part – an arc with the inscription "Konilovtsy", and in the lower part – a flaming grenade and the dates 1917-1918 below. The reverse side is smooth; it is worn on a small chain. Dimensions 2.5 X 3.5 cm.
Badge of the Kornilov Shock Regiment
In the form of a silver equal-armed cross, covered with black enamel with white edging along the sides. The cross is laid on a wreath of thorns of oxidized silver, pierced from below on the left and from above on the right with a silver sword with a gilt handle, this being downwards. In the center of the cross is a sky-blue heraldic shield with the same images as on the jeton, but the swords are downwards, without the date. The entire image is gilded.
Badge of the 1st General Markov's Officers' Regiment
Appears in the form of a silver Maltese cross of covered with black enamel with a narrow white edging along the sides. In the center of the cross – a black square surrounded by a silver wreath of thorns. On the ends of the cross are dates in silver: on the top "12", on the bottom – "Feb." and on the sides – "19", "18", i.e. 12 February 1918.
Badge of the Markov Artillery Battalion
Appears in the form of a gilded Maltese cross of black enamel, with narrow red edging along the sides. The cross is laid over a wreath of thorns of oxidized silver. The horizontal arms of the cross go over the wreath while the vertical ones go under it. In the center of the cross is a gold letter "M", the initial letter of the honorary commander's name.
Badge of the Alekseev Infantry Regiment
Appears as a white metal cross with elongated vertical arms, divided horizontally into two parts: the top – of white enamel, and the bottom – of sky-blue. In the center of the cross – a gilt letter "A" in Slavonic script, the initial letter of the honorary commander's name. On the bottom end of the cross is the date "1917." Dimensions 4 x 6 cm.
Badge of the Alekseev Artillery Battalion
Appears as two gilt crossed cannons, laid over a wreath of thorns of oxidized silver. On the crossed cannons is a gilt letter "A" in Slavonic script, the initial letter of the honorary commander's name.
Badge of the 1st General Alekseev Cavalry Regiment
Appears as a silver equal-armed cross, covered with black enamel with a wide white edging on the sides of the arms. Laid over the cross from below from left to right is a silver sword with a gilded handle, this being downwards. In the center of the cross is a gold letter "A" in Slavonic script, the initial letter of the honorary commander's name. Over the cross is laid a wreath of thorns of oxidized silver, along with which the upper vertical arm of the cross is over the wreath and on it is the date "1917" in white enamel.
Medal for Drozdovskii's men [drozdovtsy]
Instituted in 1918. The right to wear the medal was given to officers and volunteers of Colonel M.G. Drozdovskii's column. Under him was formed a detachment with the title "Brigade of Russian Volunteers," from a number of officers and soldiers of units of the old army who were on the Rumanian front. The force moved from Jassy to the Don to join with the Volunteer Army. Upon their arrival on the Don the volunteers took part in the taking of Novocherkassk together with Don cossacks (April 1918).
It appears in the form of an oval, matte silver medal. On it are placed two crossed swords. Around the edges of the medal are leafy branches – oak (the symbol of decision) and laurel (the symbol of victory). On the field of the medal is the raised image: Russia in the form of a woman in traditional Russian dress, standing with a sword in her right hand. Up a cliff Russian officers and soldiers climb towards the feet of the woman Russia. The image personifies the the struggle to reconstitute Russia. Behind – a rising sun. On the reverse is the inscription: "The march of the Drozdovtsy. Jassy–Don. 1200 versts. 12 February–25 April 1918," then the last name and initials of the holder.
The ribbon is in national colors (white-dark blue-red with a bow).
Badge of the 2nd General Drozdovskii Officers' Rifle Regiment
Appears as a gilded, equal-armed cross, divided diagonally. The top part – of raspberry enamel, and the lower – of white. the upper and lower parts of the cross are slightly elongated. Above it is the inscription in gold letters: "Jassy," and below – "1917." On the cross is laid a gold leter "D " in Slavonic script – the initial letter of the honorary commander's name. Dimensions 2 x 3 cm.
Badge of the 2nd General Drozdovskii Officers' Cavalry Regiment
Appears as a silver heraldic cross, covered with black enamel with the silver figures "2", "OD K", and "P " below. [The o and K stands for Officers' and Cavalry (Konnyi); the pi symbol stands for Regiment (Russian Polk) – M.C.] The badge served as a prototype for the sewn-on sleeve insignia of the regiment, worn on the left sleeve at the shoulder.
Cross of Partisan-Chernetsovtsy
Established by an order of the Don Ataman in 1918 for all participants in Colonel Chernetsov's column, operating on the Don from the end of 1917 through February of 1918. It appears as a stamped cross of oxidized silver with arms of equal length, divided diagonally, from one side with a cossack shashka sword and from the other with an oak-leave branch. On the upper and lower arms of the cross are the dates "1917" and "1918", and on the cross arms – the inscription "Chernovtsy" in Slavonic letters. The reverse side is smooth with a number. It was worn on a rosette of St.-George ribbon (three black and two orange stripes), held by a screw. Dimensions 39 x 39 mm.
Cross "For the Steppe Campaign" ["Za stepnoi pokhod"]
Instituted on 26 April, 1918, by Order No. 696 of the Don Ataman for all members who had taken part in the steppe campaign from Novocherkassk to the Salskie Steppes and back from 12 February to 5 May, 1918.
It appears as an iron cross with a semicircular profile. On the reverse is an inscription: on the upper arm the number with "For" below; on the cross arms – "steppe campaign"; on the lower arm "1918" with 12/2, 5/5 below. Dimensions: the upper and side arms 11mm, the lower 13 mm, height 37 mm, width 34 mm.
Cross "Saving of the Kuban"
Instituted 8 December, 1918, by a Decree of the Extraordinary Congress of the Kuban District. The "Saving of the Kuban" Cross was established in two classes. The cross in class I is in the form of an iron cross with the coat of arms of the Kuban Cossack Host and the inscription "For the Liberation of the Kuban 1918" ["Za osvobozhdenie Kubani 1918"] on the face side; on the reverse – the serial number and the class. The cross in class I is worn on a combined ribbon – St.-George (three black and two orange stripes) and Kuban national (narrow dark blue – for the native people; double wide raspberry stripe – for the Kuban cossacks; and a narrow green stripe – for the mountains).
The cross in class II is the same as class I but is worn on a combined ribbon of Vladimir (black/red/black) and the Kuban national.
Medal "For the Liberation of the Kuban."
Appears as a medal of bright bronze, established in two classes, on the obverse – the coat of arms of the Kuban Cossack Host, on the reverse – the inscription "For the Liberation of the Kuban" and the class. The class I medal is worn on a combined ribbon – St. George (three black and two orange stripes) and Kuban national (narrow dark blue, double wide raspberry, and narrow green).
The class II medal is the same as the class I but is worn on a combined ribbon of Vladimir (black/red/black) and the Kuban national colors.
Cross of the Yekaterinoslav Campaign
Established on 6 June, 1920, by Order No. 3303 of the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Wrangel, for participants in the march of General Vasilchenko's column who completed the move from the city of Yekaterinoslav to the Crimea from 27 November to 2 January, 1919. It appears as a silver cross in the St.-George style, of black enamel with a white edging along the sides of the arms.The cross lies over a wreath of thorns of oxidized silver. In the middle is a shield with the coat of arms of the city of Yekaterinoslav – the gold monogram of Empress Catherine II on a sky-blue field. Around the monogram – nine gold stars under a gold imperial crown. On the reverse side of the cross is the number of the person decorated. The cross was worn on a national ribbon (white-dark blue-red).
Cross of General Bredov's Campaign.
Instituted 25 February, 1922, by Order No. 206 of the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Wrangel, for participants in the march of General Bredov from Tiraspol to Poland from 30 January to 12 February, 1920.
It appears as an equal-armed cross of white enamel with a silver edge. Lengthways of the cross is an unsheathed sword. Along the arms of the cross is the date "19" and "20" (1920), and on the back of the cross is the inscription "True to Duty" ["Vernye dolgu"]. The cross was worn on a ribbon in national colors (white/dark blue/red). Dimensions: upper arms 10 mm, lower arm 15 mm.
The Order of Saint Nicholas the Miracle Worker" (illus
Instituted 30 April, 1920, by the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Wrangel. This was used as a decoration for the most distinguished military valor, courage, and self-sacrifice.
It appears as an iron cross, in the center of the cross is a circle, where on dark-blue enamel is placed an image of Saint Nicholas the Miracle Worker. Around this image is a laurel wreath, the symbol of glory. Around the wreath is an inscription which appears as the motto of this order: "Russia Saved Through Faith" ["Veroyu spasetsya Rossiya"]. On the reverse side of the cross is a circle half of dark-blue enamel and half of white, with the date "1920." The order is worn on a ribbon of the national colors (white-dark blue- red).
A miniature (lapel pin) of this order is known, with the addition of gilt griffins (from the coat of arms of the House of Romanov) in the four corners of the cross, on a ribbon in the sovereign colors (white-black-yellow).
WEST AND NORTHWEST RUSSIA
Cross of General Keller
Instituted by Graf Keller for those serving in the Northern Army, to be worn on the breast. It appears as a silver Maltese cross, covered in white enamel, without any inscription or date. Dimension 54 mm.
Badge for members of the Army of General Bermont-Avalov.
Instituted on 4 March, 1919, by Order No. 24 of Colonel Bermont-Avalov to distinguish service members in his unit. It appears as a white metal Maltese cross, covered with matte lacquer or black enamel, without inscription or date. Dimension 51 mm.
Commemorative medal for taking part in the battles in Courland
Instituted in 1919 by General Bermont-Avalov. It appears as a gilt bronze medal with the image on the front of St. George the Bringer of Victory, mounted on a horse and slaying a dragon with his lance. On the reverse side of the medal – an orthodox eight-armed cross, along the sides of which are the dates "19", "19" (1919). Diameter 32 mm; ribbon of two equal vertical stripes – black and orange with a narrow edge along the sides in the complementary color. Width of the ribbon – 25 mm.
1st and 2nd Class Cross of General Bermont-Avalov.
Instituted by General Bermont-Avalov. The order in the shape of a cross has two classes. It was used to decorate both military (crosses with swords) as well as civilians (crosses without swords). The cross in class I appears as a white metal Maltese cross, covered in black lacquer or black enamel, having over the top of the cross a silver death's head over two crossed silver bones (there also exist crosses without the head), and diagonally over the cross are two crossed silver swords with gold handles, raised upward (on crosses for civilians the swords are absent). The reverse side is smooth. The dimension of the cross is 55 mm, the height of the death's head – 19 mm. The ribbon is black with an edge on one side in the Russian national colors (white-dark blue-red) and in the German colors on the other (black-white-red).
The class II cross is similar to the class I, but of smaller size (41 mm). It was worn on the breast on a ribbon with bow.
13 May 1919 Cross of the Northwest Army.
This appears as a bronze cross, divided vertically. In the left center part is the date "13" and the letter "C," and in the right part the letter "3" and the word "Maya" [the letters are Cyrillic S and Z standing for Severo-Zapadnaya (Northwest) – M.C.]. In the lower part is the date "19," "19" (1919). The back side is smooth. It is worn on a ribbon in the national colors (white-dark blue-red). Dimensions 25 x 25 mm.
Order of St. George the Bringer of Victory of the Northwest Army.
Appears as a cross in the St.-George style with pointed edges under an obtuse angle, covered with green enamel with narrow white edging along the sides. In the center is a gilt image of St. George the Bringer of Victory on a horse, slaying a dragon with his lance (the image to the right). Worn using a screw. Dimensions 40 x 40 mm.
Ataman Bulak-Bulakhovich's "Order of the Brave" Star
Appears as a gilt eight-pointed star, on which is laid a white metal cross in the St.-George style, covered with white enamel, and measuring 64 x 64 mm with crossed swords with handles downward. In the center of the cross is a round, stamped medallion which is covered in black enamel, above which are depicted: above a crossed sword and torch – a death's head. The medallion is surrounded by a laurel wreath, intertwined below with a ribbon with the motto "For Our and Your Freedom" ["Za nashu i vashu svobodu"]. The reverse side has a screw for wearing it. The ribbon is black with two gold edges along the sides of the ribbon.
Ataman Bulak-Bulakhovich's Cross of the Brave.
Appears as a white metal cross in the St.-George style, covered with white or black enamel (also encountered without enamel). Dimensions 35 x 35 mm. In the middle of the cross is a stamped, round medallion of oxidized silver, on which are depicted: above a crossed sword and torch – a death's head. The medallion is surrounded by a laurel wreath, intertwined below with a ribbon. The reverse is smooth. It was worn on a black 38mm ribbon with two green edges along the sides of the ribbon, each being 55 mm.
Badge of the Lithuanian Belorussian Division.
Appears as a cross (for officers – covered in red enamel) with the Lithuanian [Litovskii] coat of arms superimposed; along the edges of the cross is the motto "For Your Freedom and Ours" ["Za vashu svobodu i nashu"] and the date "1919." It was worn using a screw.
Cross of the Baltic Landwehr
Intended to distinguish members of the German Legion formed from volunteers born in the Baltic region. It appears as a straight-sided iron cross, on which is superimposed a smaller-sized gilt cross with gilt lilies on the four ends. The reverse side is smooth with a screw for wearing. Dimensions 45 x 45 mm.
Badge of the Landwehr
Intended to distinguish members of the Landwehr. It appears as a straight-sided, white metal cross, covered with white enamel with a narrow sky-blue edging along the sides of the cross. On the cross is laid sword with its handle upwards, over which is a shield with a cross of black enamel. The reverse side is smooth with a pin for wearing. Dimensions
Medal for veterans of the Iron Division.
A medal of dark bronze with an image on its face of a mounted horseman with lance in hand and an inscription in the old Ingrian language and the dates 1184-1919. On the reverse side is a stylized cross with an heraldic shield with the image of an eagle and lettering. Diameter 32 mm. White-black ribbon.
"13 May 1919" Cross.
Institued on 10 July, 1919, by Order No. 156 of General Rodzyanko, for participation in the advance of 13 May, 1919. It appears as a gilded, white enamel cross with similar sides; transversely along the sides is the gold inscription in Slavonic script "13 May 1919." The cross is worn on a round rosette of the national colors (white-dark blue-red).
Badge of the Union of Northwesterners [Obedinenie Severo-zapadnikov].
Instituted on 31 August by Order No. 45 of the Chairman of the General Soldiers' Union [Obshchevoinskii Soyuz], General Miller. It appears as a gilt, three-cornered shield or chevron in the national colors, in the red field of which is a white cross. Along the sides of the cross are the gold letters "C" and "3," and above is the date "1919". Dimensions of the badge 2 x 2.3 mm. [sic – M.C.]
Badge of Liven's men
Established for participants in the "Libau Rifles" column or Liven's men [Liventsy] by their commander, Prince Liven. It appears as a gold cross with white enamel, with two swords lying crossed over each other, handles downward. In the middle is an heraldic shield in the national colors (white-dark blue-red), on which is a gold Cyrillic "L" and the date 1919. The shield is topped with a gold crown. Dimensions 2 x 2 cm.
NORTH AND EAST RUSSIA
Medal "In Memory of the Liberation of the Northern District"
Instituted 18 June, 1919, by the provisional government of the Northern District. It appears as a white metal medal 30 mm in diameter. On the obverse side is an image of Victory in the form of a winged woman, with a raised sword in the right hand and a shield in the left. Around her in military posture are soldiers of the young Russian army and the supporting Allied armies. On the reverse side on top is a double-headed eagle without a crown. Its wings are spread, in its claws are a wreath and sword, and on its breast a shield with St. George the Bringer of Victory. In the center of the medal, underneath the eagle, is the inscription: Medal – In Memory of the Libertation of the Northern District..., below the inscription – figures of the soldiers depicted on the face side. On the right: an Englishman and an American, and on the left – French, Italian, Serb. The ribbon is of two equal vertical stripes – white and sky blue.
"Archangel Michael" Cross of the Ural Cossack Host
Instituted in 1918 by the Ural Host Region. It appears as a dark bronze cross with four equal arms. In the center of the cross on a round medallion is an image of the Archangel Michael mounted on a horse, slaying a dragon with his lance. On the arms of the cross are inscribed: on the upper arm "For Faith" ["Za veru"], on the cross arms "Fatherland" ["Otechestvo"] and "Yaik" [the old name for the Ural Host – M.C.], and on the lower arm "For Freedom" ["Za svobodu"]. The reverse side is smooth and has the serial number. It was worn on a raspberry ribbon (the color of the Ural Cossack Host).
"Liberation of Siberia" Order.
Instituted by the Soviet of Ministers of the All-Russian Provisional Government in four classes. It appears as: First Class – gold cross, large, on the obverse of which is impressed a malachite cross of a slightly smaller size so that along its edges the gold mounting is visible. The thickness of the malachite cross gradually becomes less toward the edges. The width of the crosses, both the gold and malachite, gradually becomes more narrow toward the ends. in the center of the obverse side of the malachite cross is affixed the date in gold "1918." It is worn over the right shoulder on a ribbon four inches wide with two stripes, one white and the other green, with a star on the left side of the chest. The star is eight pointed of stamped metal; the middle vertical and horizontal rays are longer than the rest. The vertical and horizontal rays are bright and decorated with five chrysolites. The rest of the rays are matte. In the middle of the star is a flat field in which is placed a malachite cross in a gold mount, the cross reaching to the edges of the field. In the center of the cross is affixed in gold the date "1918."
"Liberation of Siberia" Order, Second Class
Appears as a cross similar to class I, but of smaller size; worn around the neck on a ribbon two inches wide.
"Liberation of Siberia" Order, Third Class
Appears as a cross similar to those of classes I and II, but still smaller in size, and worn in a buttonhole on a ribbon 1 1/4 inches wide.
"Liberation of Siberia" Order, Fourth Class
Appears as a black oxidized cross, of the same size as class III, covered on the face side with green enamel. In the center of the face side of the cross is the date "1918." It is worn in a buttonhole on a ribbon one inch wide.
If the "Liberation of Siberia" Order was awarded for military actions against the enemy, then swords were added to the insignia in the form of two crossed, old-style cossack shashkas. On the star the stars were silver.
Order "For the Great Siberian Campaign"
Instituted in 1920 by the Supreme Director, Admiral Kolchak, for all participants in the march from the Volga to the Transbaikal. It appears as a copy of the badge for the 1st Kuban Campaign, differing only in the metal of the sword. The crown of thorns is oxidized silver and 30 mm in diameter, crossed from above on the left down to the right by a gold sword 50 mm long. Above the crown is a small ring for wearing it; the reverse side is smooth with a stamped serial number. The badge is in two classes: class I on a St.-George ribbon (without the rosette in national colors) for all battlefield participants, and class II for those who completed the march but did not take part in any fighting, on a Vladimir ribbon (red with two black stripes) also without a rosette.
Cross of the Achinskii Mounted Partisan Column.
Instituted on 10 September, 1918, by Order No. 108 of General Ivanov-Rakov. It appears as a Maltese cross of white enamel, laid on a silver crown of thorns. In the middle of the cross is a raised silver sword with a gold handle. On the crossarms of the cross is the dates "3, III" and "1918." The cross was worn on a rosette of ribbon in the national colors (white-dark blue- red).
Cross "For Courage" of the Special Manchurian Column of Ataman Semenov
Appears as a white metal cross in the St.-George style. In the center is a medallion with the image of St. George slaying a dragon with his lance. On the reverse are the initials of his name. On the face of the cross, on its upper side, is depicted a shining sun; on the left side – the letter "O," on the lower side – "M," and on the right – "O," meaning "Special Manchurian Column" ["Osobyi Manchzhurskii otryad"]. On the reverse side of the cross is the class and serial number. Worn on a St.-George ribbon. Dimensions 35 x 35 mm.
Badge for members of the Special Manchurian Column
Appears as a silvered brass two-headed eagle without a crown, grasping a snake in its talons. On the breast of the eagle – a gilt shield with the letters "AC" [Cyrillic "AS" - M.C.] in the style of a monogram, signifying Ataman Semenov, and above the eagle's heads – the gold rays of a rising sun, on which is the inscription: "O.M.O" (Special Manchurian Column). Dimensions 5 x 6 cm.
Medal of the Amur District Council.
Appears as a bronze medal. On the face side is depicted St. George slaying a dragon with his lance. On the back within an oakleaf wreath is the date: 23 (10 July, 10 Aug.) 22 July 1922 and the inscription: Amur District Council [Priamurskii Zemskii sobor]. Diameter 28 mm. It is worn on a ribbon in the national colors (white-dark blue-red).
Badges commemorating the Russian Army's stay in military camps outside the country.
The badge "Gallipoli" with the dates "1920,1921" was instituted on 15 November, 1921, by Commanding General Wrangel in Order No. 369, by which the right to wear it was extended to other Russian army camps with the corresponding inscriptions: "Kabakdzha-Gallipoli," "Bizerte," "Lemnos," "Chataldzha," "Chilingir," "Sandzhak-Tepeke."
For members of the Russian army on active service but not in one of the military camps, there was established a special cross, without the inscription of a camp's name, but rather only with the commerative dates "1920-1921" on the horizontal arms of the cross. For crew members of the yacht Lukull there was established on 3 January, 1922, the inscription on the cross "Lukull" and the dates "1920" and "1921" on the vertical arms of the cross. For those who fought on other fronts during the 1917-1922 Civil War, on 28 April, 1918, the Russian General Soldiers' Soviet issued Order No. 24 establishing a black cross with white edging along the sides, without an inscription or date. All these badges appeared as a straight-sided, even-ended, flat black cross with the inscription along the horizontal and the dates along the vertical. The reverse side of all crosses was smooth with a soldered-on screw and nut for wearing.
End of translation. Mark Conrad, 1993.